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Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

Master of Business Administration -Semester 3 MB 0050:Research Methodology ASSIGNMENT-Set 1

Question 1: How is the research problem formulated?


SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

Answer
Research really begins when the researcher experiences some difficulty, i.e., a problem demanding a solution within the subject-are of his discipline. This general area of interest, however, defines only the range of subject-matter within which the researcher would see and pose a specific problem for research. Personal values play an important role in the selection of a topic for research. Social conditions do often shape the preference of investigators in a subtle and imperceptible way. The formulation of the topic into a research problem is, really speaking the first step in a scientific enquiry. A problem in simple words is some difficulty experienced by the researcher in a theoretical or practical situation. Solving this difficulty is the task of research. Formulating the Problem The selection of one appropriate researchable problem out of the identified problems requires evaluation of those alternatives against certain criteria, which may be grouped into: Internal Criteria Internal Criteria consists of: 1) Researchers interest: The problem should interest the researcher and be a challenge to him. Without interest and curiosity, he may not develop sustained perseverance. Even a small difficulty may become annex cues for discontinuing the study. Interest in a problem depends upon the researchers educational background, experience, outlook and sensitivity. 2) Researchers competence: A mere interest in a problem will not do. The researcher must be competent to plan and carry out a study of the problem. He must have the ability to grasp and deal with int. he must possess adequate knowledge of the subject-matter, relevant methodology and statistical procedures. 3) Researchers own resource: In the case of a research to be done by a researcher on his won, consideration of his own financial resource is pertinent. If it is beyond his means, he will not be able to complete the work, unless he gets some external financial support. Time resource is more important than finance. Research is a time-consuming process; hence it should be properly utilized. External Criteria

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

1) Research-ability of the problem: The problem should be researchable, i.e., amendable for finding answers to the questions involved in it through scientific method. To be researchable a question must be one for which observation or other data collection in the real world can provide the answer. 2) Importance and urgency: Problems requiring investigation are unlimited, but available research efforts are very much limited. Therefore, in selecting problems for research, their relative importance and significance should be considered. An important and urgent problem should be given priority over an unimportant one. 3) Novelty of the problem: The problem must have novelty. There is no use of wasting ones time and energy on a problem already studied thoroughly by others. This does not mean that replication is always needless. In social sciences in some cases, it is appropriate to replicate (repeat) a study in order to verify the validity of its findings to a different situation. 4) Feasibility: A problem may be a new one and also important, but if research on it is not feasible, it cannot be selected. Hence feasibility is a very important consideration. 5) Facilities: Research requires certain facilities such as well-equipped library facility, suitable and competent guidance, data analysis facility, etc. Hence the availability of the facilities relevant to the problem must be considered. 6) Usefulness and social relevance: Above all, the study of the problem should make significant contribution to the concerned body of knowledge or to the solution of some significant practical problem. It should be socially relevant. This consideration is particularly important in the case of higher level academic research and sponsored research. 7) Research personnel: Research undertaken by professors and by research organizations require the services of investigators and research officers. But in India and other developing countries, research has not yet become a prospective profession. Hence talent persons are not attracted to research projects. Each identified problem must be evaluated in terms of the above internal and external criteria and the most appropriate one may be selected by a research scholar. SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

The sources from which one may be able to identify research problems or develop problems awareness are: Review of literature Academic experience Daily experience Exposure to field situations Consultations Brain storming Research Intuition

Question 2: How are the characteristics of good research design? Answer:

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

Design research investigates the process of designing in all its many fields. It is thus related to Design methods in general or for particular disciplines. A primary interpretation of design research is that it is concerned with undertaking research into the design process. Secondary interpretations would refer to undertaking research within the process of design. The overall intention is to better understand and to improve the design process. Throughout the design construction task, it is important to have in mind some endpoint, some criteria which we should try to achieve before finally accepting a design strategy. The criteria discussed below are only meant to be suggestive of the characteristics found in good research design. It is worth noting that all of these criteria point to the need to individually tailor research designs rather than accepting standard textbook strategies as is Theory-Grounded. Good research strategies reflect the theories which are being investigated. Where specific theoretical expectations can be hypothesized these are incorporated into the design. For example, where theory predicts a specific treatment effect on one measure but not on another, the inclusion of both in the design improves discriminate validity and demonstrates the predictive power of the theory. Situational. Good research designs reflect the settings of the investigation. This was illustrated above where a particular need of teachers and administrators was explicitly addressed in the design strategy. Similarly, intergroup rivalry, demoralization, and competition might be accessed through the use of additional comparison groups who are not in direct contact with the original group. Feasible. Good designs can be implemented. The sequence and timing of events are carefully thought out. Potential problems in measurement, adherence to assignment, database construction and the like, are anticipated .Where needed, additional groups or measurements are included in the design to explicitly correct for such problems. Redundant. Good research designs have some flexibility built into them. Often, this flexibility results from duplication of essential design features. For example, multiple replications of a treatment help to insure that failure to implement the treatment in one setting will not invalidate the entire study. Efficient. Good designs strike a balance between redundancy and the tendency to overdesign. Where it is reasonable, other, less costly, strategies for ruling out potential threats to validity are utilized. This is by no means an exhaustive list of the criteria by which we can judge good research design. Nevertheless, goals of this sort help to guide the researcher toward a final design choice and emphasize important components which should be included. The development of a theory of research methodology for the social sciences has largely occurred over the past half century and most intensively within the past two decades. It is not surprising, in such a relatively recent effort, that an emphasis on a few standard research designs has occurred. Nevertheless, by moving away from the notion of "design selection" and towards an emphasis on design construction, there is much to be gained in our understanding of design principles and in the quality of our research. Exploratory research provides insights into and comprehension of an issue or situation. It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. Exploratory research is a type of research conducted because a problem has not been clearly defined. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects. Given its SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

fundamental nature, exploratory research often concludes that a perceived problem does not actually exist. Exploratory research often relies on secondary research such as reviewing available literature and/or data, or qualitative approaches such as informal discussions with consumers, employees, management or competitors, and more formal approaches through in-depth interviews, focus groups, projective methods, case studies or pilot studies. The Internet allows for research methods that are more interactive in nature: E.g., RSS feeds efficiently supply researchers with up-to-date information; major search engine search results may be sent by email to researchers by services such as Google Alerts; comprehensive search results are tracked over lengthy periods of time by services such as Google Trends; and Web sites may be created to attract worldwide feedback on any subject. The results of exploratory research are not usually useful for decision-making by themselves, but they can provide significant insight into a given situation. Although the results of qualitative research can give some indication as to the "why", "how" and "when" something occurs, it cannot tell us "how often" or "how many." Exploratory research is not typically generalizable to the population at large. Applied research in administration is often exploratory because there is need for flexibility in approaching the problem. In addition there are often data limitations and a need to make a decision within a short time period. Qualitative research methods such as case study or field research are often used in Exploratory research.. There are three types of objective in a marketing research project. Exploratory Research or Formulative Research Descriptive research Causal research Exploratory Research or Formulative Research 'The objective of exploratory research is to gather preliminary information that will help define problems and suggest hypotheses.' Descriptive Research 'The objective of descriptive research is to describe things, such as the market potential for a product or the demographics and attitudes of consumers who buy the product.

Question-3 How case study method is useful to Business Research? Answer

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

While case study writing may seem easy at first glance, developing an effective case study (also called a success story) is an art. Like other marketing communication skills, learning how to write a case study takes time. Whats more, writing case studies without careful planning usually results in sub optimal results? Savvy case study writers increase their chances of success by following these ten proven techniques for writing an effective case study: Involve the customer throughout the process. Involving the customer throughout the case study development process helps ensure customer cooperation and approval, and results in an improved case study. Obtain customer permission before writing the document, solicit input during the development, and secure approval after drafting the document. Write all customer quotes for their review. Rather than asking the customer to draft their quotes, writing them for their review usually results in more compelling material. Case Study Writing Ideas Establish a document template. A template serves as a roadmap for the case study process, and ensures that the document looks, feels, and reads consistently. Visually, the template helps build the brand; procedurally, it simplifies the actual writing. Before beginning work, define 3-5 specific elements to include in every case study, formalize those elements, and stick to them. Start with a bang. Use action verbs and emphasize benefits in the case study title and subtitle. Include a short (less than 20-word) customer quote in larger text. Then, summarize the key points of the case study in 2-3 succinct bullet points. The goal should be to tease the reader into wanting to read more. Organize according to problem, solution, and benefits. Regardless of length, the time-tested, most effective organization for a case study follows the problem-solutionbenefits flow. First, describe the business and/or technical problem or issue; next, describe the solution to this problem or resolution of this issue; finally, describe how the customer benefited from the particular solution (more on this below). This natural storytelling sequence resonates with readers. Use the general-to-specific-to-general approach. In the problem section, begin with a general discussion of the issue that faces the relevant industry. Then, describe the specific problem or issue that the customer faced. In the solution section, use the opposite sequence. First, describe how the solution solved this specific problem; then indicate how it can also help resolve this issue more broadly within the industry. Beginning more generally draws the reader into the story; offering a specific example demonstrates, in a concrete way, how the solution resolves a commonly faced issue; and concluding more generally allows the reader to understand how the solution can also address their problem. Quantify benefits when possible. No single element in a case study is more compelling than the ability to tie quantitative benefits to the solution. For example, Using Solution X saved Customer Y over $ZZZ, ZZZ after just 6 months of implementation; or, Thanks to Solution X, employees at Customer Y have realized a ZZ% increase in productivity as measured by standard performance indicators. Quantifying benefits can be challenging, but not impossible. The key is to present imaginative ideas to the customer for ways to quantify the benefits, and remain flexible SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

during this discussion. If benefits cannot be quantified, attempt to develop a range of qualitative benefits; the latter can be quite compelling to readers as well. Use photos. Ask the customer if they can provide shots of personnel, ideally using the solution. The shots need not be professionally done; in fact, home grown digital photos sometimes lead to surprisingly good results and often appear more genuine. Photos further personalize the story and help form a connection to readers. Reward the customer. After receiving final customer approval and finalizing the case study, provide a pdf, as well as printed copies, to the customer. Another idea is to frame a copy of the completed case study and present it to the customer in appreciation for their efforts and cooperation. Writing a case study is not easy. Even with the best plan, a case study is doomed to failure if the writer lacks the exceptional writing skills, technical savvy, and marketing experience that these documents require. In many cases, a talented writer can mean the difference between an ineffective case study and one that provides the greatest benefit. If a qualified internal writer is unavailable, consider outsourcing the task to professionals who specialize in case study writing.

Question-4 Distinguish between Schedules and questionnaires. Answer


A search for knowledge by analyzing numerical data is known as Statistical Survey or Statistical Investigation. A Statistical survey is a scientific process of collection and analysis of numerical data. Statistical surveys are used to collect numerical information about units in a population. Surveys involve asking questions to individuals Surveys of human populations are common in government, SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

health, social science and marketing sectors. Statistical surveys are categorized into two stages planning and execution. The figure 2.1 shows the two broad stages of Statistical survey Planning a Statistical Survey: The relevance and accuracy of data obtained in a survey depends upon the care exercised in planning. A properly planned investigation can lead to best results with least cost and time. Execution of Statistical survey: Control methods should be adopted at every stage of carrying out the investigation to check the accuracy, coverage, methods of measurements, analysis and interpretation. The collected data should be edited, classified, tabulated and presented in diagrams and graphs. The data should be carefully and systematically analyzed and interpreted. Difference between a schedule and a questionnaire there is a difference between a schedule and a questionnaire. A schedule is a form that the investigator fills himself through surveying the units or individuals. A questionnaire is a form sent (usually mailed) by an investigator to respondents. The respondent has to fill it and then send it back to the investigator. Questionnaires Often, information is collected through questionnaires. The questionnaires are filled with questions pertaining to the investigation. They are sent to the respondents with a covering letter soliciting cooperation from the respondents (respondents are the people who respond to questions in the questionnaire). The respondents are asked to give correct information and to mail the questionnaire back. The objectives of investigation are explained in the covering letter together with assurance for keeping information provided by the respondents as confidential. Good questionnaire construction is an important contributing factor to the success of a survey. When questionnaires are properly framed and constructed, they become important tools by which statements can be made about specific people or entire populations. This method is generally adopted by research workers and other official and non-official agencies. This method is used to cover large areas of investigation. It is more economical and free from investigators bias. However, it results in many non-response situations. The respondent may be illiterate. The respondent may also provide wrong information due to wrong interpretation of questions. Schedule Filled By Investigators Information can be collected through schedules filled by investigators through personal contact. In order to get reliable information, the investigator should be well trained, tactful, unbiased and hard working. A schedule is suitable for an extensive area of investigation through investigators personal contact. The problem of non-response is minimized. SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

There is a difference between a schedule and a questionnaire. A schedule is a form that the investigator fills himself through surveying the units or individuals. A questionnaire is a form sent (usually mailed) by an investigator to respondents. The respondent has to fill it and then send it back to the investigator.

Question 5: What are the contents of research report? Answer


Popular Reports would be most appropriate for this study. In popular report the reader is less interested in the methodological details, but more interested in the findings of the study. Complicated statistics are avoided and pictorial devices are used. After a brief introduction to the problem and the objectives of the study, and abstract of the findings of the study, conclusion and recommendations are presented. More headline, underlining pictures and graphs may be used. Sentences and paragraphs should be short. Title of the study: A study of Readers Choice of Topics on the front page and depth of coverage of various categories of news. Objectives of the study/ Questions to be answered by the study: To understand what the readers wish to see on the front page of the newspaper.

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

To understand how much depth of the news is to be covered. To understand the kind of images the readers like. To understand what proportion of politics, sports, cinema and health etc is to be covered in the newspaper. What readers want to read in the newspaper other that the current topics.

And outline of a research report is given below: Prefatory items Title page Declaration Preface/acknowledgement Table of contents List of tables List of graphs/figures/ charts Abstract of synopsis Body of the report Introduction Theoretical background of the topic Statement of the problem Review of literature The scope of the study The objectives of the study Hypothesis to be tested Definition of the concepts Models if any Design of the study Methodology Method of data collection Sources of data Sampling plan Data collection instruments Field work Data processing and analysis plan Overview of the report Limitation of the study

Results: findings and discussions Summary, conclusions and recommendations SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

Question 6: Write short notes on the following: a. Median b. Standard Deviation Answer:
These are the most familiar measurements of dispersion. Variance is the arithmetic mean (average) of the square of the difference between the value of an observation and the arithmetic mean of the value of all observations. It is also referred to as the second moment about the mean. The formal definition of variance being: For computation purposes, the formula can be used in the form shown below which allows the variance to be derived without first calculating the mean: Standard Deviation Standard deviation is the square root of the variance: Normalized Standard Deviation It is often useful to express the difference between the mean and a given value in units of standard deviation. SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

The normalized standard deviation is often referred to as z. Probability tables for the normal distribution are usually based on z. Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) A weakness of standard deviation as a measure of dispersion is its sensitivity to anomalous values which are a feature of real life data. This is a result of the square of the difference between a value and the mean, this conveniently gets rid of negative values, but at the expense of increasing the significance of extreme ones. An alternative is based the absolute value of the difference between a given value and the mean: The downside is that the use of absolute values makes the analytical treatment of functions difficult, but this is a small price to pay for such an acronym. In situations where the median is a more stable measure of central tendency, it is used in place of the mean. The example below compares the standard deviation and the MAD for a small sample which contains an anomalous extreme value. The measures of central tendency for the sample are: Mean Median 1.7 1.5

1.2 1.4 1.5 1.6 2.8 Totals

0.5 0.3 0.2 0.1 1.1 2.2

0.3 0.1 0.0 0.1 1.3 1.8 0.44 0.36 0.57

0.25 0.09 0.04 0.01 1.21 1.60

Mean Absolute Deviation Median Absolute Deviation Standard Deviation

The MAD statistics are less sensitive to extreme anomalous values, however, it is important to use the statistic which is best suited for a given analysis. Easily telling people about your data Collecting data can be easy and fun. But sometimes it can be hard to tell other people about what you have found. Thats why we use statistics. Two kinds of statistics are frequently used to describe data. They are measures of central tendency and dispersion. These are often called descriptive statistics because they can help you describe your data. SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

Mean, median and mode These are all measures of central tendency. They help summarize a bunch of scores with a single number. Suppose you want to describe a bunch of data that you collected to a friend for a particular variable like height of students in your class. One way would be to read each height you recorded to your friend. Your friend would listen to all of the heights and then come to a conclusion about how tall students generally are in your class But this would take too much time. Especially if you are in a class of 200 or 300 students! Another way to communicate with your friend would be to use measures of central tendency like the mean, median and mode. They help you summarize bunches of numbers with one or just a few numbers. They make telling people about your data easy. Range, variance and standard deviation These are all measures of dispersion. These help you to know the spread of scores within a bunch of scores. Are the scores really close together or are they really far apart? For example, if you were describing the heights of students in your class to a friend, they might want to know how much the heights vary. Are all the men about 5 feet 11 inches within a few centimetres or so? Or is there a lot of variation where some men are 5 feet and others are 6 foot 5 inches? Measures of dispersion like the range, variance and standard deviation tell you about the spread of scores in a data set. Like central tendency, they help you summarize a bunch of numbers with one or just a few numbers. The graphical representation of data is categorized as basic five types: 1) Bar graph 2) Pie graph 3) Line graph 4) Scatter plot 5) Histogram 1) Bar chart: A Bar chart (or diagram) is a graphical representation of data using bars (rectangles of same width). It is one dimensional in which case only the height of the rectangle matters. year 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 populatio 6000 7600 8900 12000 13500 n of a place Solution: scale: Y axis 1 cm = 1000 years 1981 18000

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

2)

Graphical Representation of Histogram:

A histogram (or rectangular diagram or block diagram) is a graphical representation of a frequency distribution in the form of rectangles one after the other with height proportional to the frequencies. It is two dimensional in which case the height as well as width of the rectangle matters. Que:Represent the following data by means of a Histogram: Age( in years) Number of workers 2025 3 2530 4 3035 5 3540 6 4045 5 4550 4 5055 3

3)

Frequency Polygon of a Line Graph:

A frequency polygon can be constructed for a grouped frequency distribution, with equalinterval, in two different ways: Monthly pocket expenses 0-5 SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

of a student Number of students Solution: Here we have Monthly pocket expenses of a student(in $) 0-5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40

10

16

30

42

50

30

16

12

class- marks 2.5 7.5 12.5 17.5 22.5 27.5 32.5 37.5

Number students 10 16 30 42 50 30 16 12

of

4)

Cumulative Frequency Curve(ogive):

The Cumulative frequency curve for a grouped frequency distribution is obtained by plotting the points and then joining them by a free-hand smooth curve. This is also known as ogive. .

Draw a cumulative frequency curve for the following data: Marks Number of students 0-4 4 4-8 6 8-12 10 12-16 8 16-20 4

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

The cumulative frequency table is as follows: Marks 0-4 4-8 8-12 12-16 16-20 Total Number of students 4 6 10 8 4 32 cumulative frequency 4 4+6=10 10+10=20 20+8=28 28+4=32

Joining these points by a free-hand smooth curve, we have the following cumulative frequency curve: Pie-chart or Pie-graph:

5)

It is drawn by first drawing a circle of a suitable radius and then dividing the angle of 360 degree at its centre in proportion to the figures given under various heads.

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

Master of Business Administration - Semester 3 MB 0050 Research Methodology ASSIGNMENT-Set 2

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

Question 1: What is the significance of research in social and business sciences? Answer:
A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. Although they are often designed for statistical analysis of the responses, this is not always the case. The questionnaire was invented by Sir Francis Galton. Questionnaires have advantages over some other types of surveys in that they are cheap, do not require as much effort from the questioner as verbal or telephone surveys, and often have standardized answers that make it simple to compile data. However, such standardized answers may frustrate users. Questionnaires are also sharply limited by the fact that respondents must be able to read the questions and respond to them. Thus, for some demographic groups conducting a survey by questionnaire may not be practical. As a type of survey, questionnaires also have many of the same problems relating to question construction and wording that exist in other types of opinion polls. Questionnaires may be classified as: Structured/ Standardized Questionnaire: Structured questionnaires are those in which there are definite, concrete and preordained questions with additional questions limited to those necessary to clarify inadequate answers or to elicit more detailed responses. The questions are presented with exactly the same wording and in the same order to all the respondents. Unstructured Questionnaire: In unstructured questionnaires the respondent is given the opportunity to answer in his own terms and in his own frame of reference. Points to take into account while drafting a questionnaire: Writing an effective questionnaire is not a task for novices. At the very least it requires an understanding of four basics. These are: SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

Considering the differences that exist when writing a questionnaire that respondents will fill out themselves as opposed to when a professional interviewer administers the questionnaire to the respondent. Knowing what questions should be asked early on in the questionnaire, in the middle or toward the end. Understanding how to phrase questions. Being sensitive to questionnaire length.

There are some basic differences in how the questionnaire should be constructed if it is to be filled out personally by the respondent or if an interviewer is going to administer it. These are: Self-administered questionnaires should be simple, straightforward and logical. Question 2 should follow question 1. Question 3 should follow question 2, and so forth. Further, the going-in assumption with self-administered questionnaires should be that respondents will not complete a questionnaire when there are complex skip patterns, when pages are crowded or hard to read or when instructions for completion are overly complex. It has been estimated that as many as 50% of respondents who start a selfadministered questionnaire will not complete it because they become irritated and annoyed at the way it is constructed. When writing a self-administered questionnaire, then, every care must be taken to ensure that it is easy to complete in that it almost answers itself. Self-administered questionnaires should be written with an eighth grade mentality in mind while interviewer-administered questionnaire can be quite complex. Because interviewers are trained in the flow of the questionnaires they administer and will conduct a number of practice interviews prior to confronting a respondent, developing a complex questionnaire that is interviewer-administered does not present a problem for the respondent. Keep the respondent in one mind-set at a time. If at all possible, complete all your questions about one topic before moving on to the next. For example, dont ask about a favorite place to shop, then about brands used and then go back to additional questioning on favorite place to shop. Save sensitive questions for the end. Again, this might not always be possible, but when it doesnt matter, be aware that sensitive questions such as race or income can alienate respondents and turn them off to the entire interview process. If asked at the end, respondents are more likely to answer as they are wholly invested in the questionnaire. Biased question: What do you like about the last airline flight you took? Assumption here is that respondent liked something and the question tends to push for a positive response. Unbiased question. What, if anything, do you like the last airline flight you took? By simply using if anything as part of the question phrasing, the respondent is not put on the spot to find something to like.

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

When conducting telephone interviews, its relatively easy to keep respondents on the phone and answering questions for 15, 20 or 25 minutes if the questionnaire has a good flow and is thoughtfully written. But try keeping a respondent on the phone for 3 minutes with a questionnaire that is the least bit confusing, seems redundant or is insensitive to sensitive issues.

Question 2: WHAT IS THE MEANING OF HYPOTHESIS? DISCUSS THE TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS. Answer:
Examples of research hypotheses for a relational study The older the person, the more health problems he or she encounters.4-H members attending 4-H summer camp stay enrolled in 4-H longer. The greater the number of money management classes attended, the greater the amount of annual savings achieved. Types of relational studies include correlation studies and ex post facto studies. Co relational Study: A co relational study compares two or more different characteristics from the same group of people and explains how two characteristics vary together and how well one can be predicted from knowledge of the other. A concurrent co relational study draws a relationship between characteristics at the same point in time. For example, a student's grade point average is related to his or her class rank.A predictive co relational study could predict a later set of data from an earlier set. For example, a student's grade point average might predict the same student's grade point average during senior year. A predictive co relational study could also use one character is tictopredict what another characteristic will be at another time. For example, a student's SAT score is designed to predict college freshman grade point average. Ex Post Facto (After the Fact) Study: An ex post facto study is used when experimental research is not possible, such as when people have self-selected levels of an independent variable or when a treatment is naturally occurring and the researcher could not "control" the degree of its use. The researcher starts by specifying a dependent variable and then tries to identify possible reasons for its occurrence as well as alternative (rival) explanations such confounding (intervening, contaminating, or extraneous) variables are "controlled" using statistics.This type of study is very common and useful when using human subjects in real-worldsituations and the investigator comes in "after the fact." For example, it might be observed that students from one town have higher grades than students from a different town attending the same high school. Would just "being from a certain town" explain the differences? In an ex post facto study, specific reasons for the differences would bee explored, such as differences in income, ethnicity, parent support, etc. It is important to recognize that, in a relational study, "cause and effect" cannot be claimed. All that can be claimed is that that there is a relationship between the variables. For that matter, SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

variables that are completely unrelated could, in fact, vary together due to nothing more than coincidence. That is why the researcher needs to establish a plausible reason (research hypothesis) for why there might be a relationship between two variables before conducting a study. For instance, it might be found that all football teams with blue uniforms won last week. There is no likely reason why the uniform color had any relationship to the games' outcomes, and it certainly was not the cause for victory. Similarly, you must be careful about claiming that your Extension program was the "cause" of possible results. Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions who, what, where, when and how...Although the data description is factual, accurate and systematic, the research cannot describe what caused a situation. Thus, Descriptive research cannot be used to create causal relationship, where one variable affects another. In other words, descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity. The description is used for frequencies, averages and other statistical calculations. Often the best approach, prior to writing descriptive research, is to conduct a survey investigation. Qualitative research often has the aim of description and researchers may follow-up with examinations of why the observations exist and what the implications of the findings are.In short descriptive research deals with everything that can be counted and studied. Bothered are always restrictions to that. Your research must have an impact to the lives of the people around you e.g. finding the most frequent disease that affects the children of a town. The reader of the research will know what to do to prevent that disease thus; more people will live a healthy life. Descriptive research does not fit neatly into the definition of either quantitative or qualitative research methodologies, but instead it can utilize elements of both, often within the same study. The term descriptive research refers to the type of research question, design, and data analysis that will be applied to a given topic. Descriptive statistics tell what is, while inferential statistics try to determine cause and effect. A case study is a research method common in social science. It is based on an in-depth investigation of a single individual, group, or event. Case studies may be descriptive or explanatory. The latter type is used to explore causation in order to find underlying principles. They may be prospective, in which criteria are established and cases fitting the criteria are included as they become available, or retrospective, in which criteria are established for selecting cases from historical records for inclusion in the study. Rather than using samples and following a rigid protocol (strict set of rules) to examine limited number of variables, case study methods involve an in-depth, longitudinal (over along period of time) examination of a single instance or event: a case. They provide asystematic way of looking at events, collecting data, analyzing information, and reporting the results. As a result the researcher may gain a sharpened understanding of why the instance happened as it did, and what might become important to look at more extensively in futureresearch. Case studies lend themselves to both generating and testing hypotheses.Another suggestion is that case study should be defined as a research strategy, an empiricalinquiry that investigates a phenomenon within its real-life context. Case study research means single and multiple case studies, can include quantitative evidence, relies on multiplesources of evidence and benefits from the prior development of theoretical propositions.Case studies should not be confused with qualitative research and they can be based on any mix of quantitative and qualitative evidence. SingleSIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

subject research provides the statistical framework for making inferences from quantitative case-study data.

Question 3: Explain the sampling process? Answer


The difference between non-probability and probability sampling is that non-probability sampling does not involve random selection and probability sampling does. Does that mean that non-probability samples aren't representative of the population? Not necessarily. But it does mean that non-probability samples cannot depend upon the rationale of probability theory. At least with a probabilistic sample, we know the odds or probability that we have represented the population well. We are able to estimate confidence intervals for the statistic. With non-probability samples, we may or may not represent the population well, and it will often be hard for us to know how well we've done so. In general, researchers prefer probabilistic or random sampling methods over non probabilistic ones, and consider them to be more accurate and rigorous. However, in applied social research there may be circumstances where it is not feasible, practical or theoretically sensible to do random sampling. Here, we consider a wide range of non-probabilistic alternatives. We can divide non-probability sampling methods into two broad types: Accidental or purposive. Most sampling methods are purposive in nature because we usually approach the sampling problem with a specific plan in mind. The most important distinctions among these types of sampling methods are the ones between the different types of purposive sampling approaches. Accidental, Haphazard or Convenience Sampling One of the most common methods of sampling goes under the various titles listed here. I would include in this category the traditional "man on the street" (of course, now it's probably the "person on the street") interviews conducted frequently by television news programs to get a quick (although non representative) reading of public opinion. I would also argue that the typical use of college students in much psychological research is primarily a matter of convenience. (You don't really believe that psychologists use college students because they believe they're representative of the population at large, do you?). In clinical practice, we might use clients who are available to us as our sample. In many research contexts, we sample simply by asking for volunteers. Clearly, the problem with all of these types of samples is that we have no evidence that they are representative of the populations we're interested in generalizing to -- and in many cases we would clearly suspect that they are not. Purposive Sampling In purposive sampling, we sample with a purpose in mind. We usually would have one or more specific predefined groups we are seeking. For instance, have you ever run into people in a mall or on the street who are carrying a clipboard and who are stopping various people and asking if they could interview them? Most likely they are conducting a purposive sample (and most likely they are engaged in market research). They might be looking for Caucasian females SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

between 30-40 years old. They size up the people passing by and anyone who looks to be in that category they stop to ask if they will participate. One of the first things they're likely to do is verify that the respondent does in fact meet the criteria for being in the sample. Purposive sampling can be very useful for situations where you need to reach a targeted sample quickly and where sampling for proportionality is not the primary concern. With a purposive sample, you are likely to get the opinions of your target population, but you are also likely to overweight subgroups in your population that are more readily accessible. All of the methods that follow can be considered subcategories of purposive sampling methods. We might sample for specific groups or types of people as in modal instance, expert, or quota sampling. We might sample for diversity as in heterogeneity sampling. Or, we might capitalize on informal social networks to identify specific respondents who are hard to locate otherwise, as in snowball sampling. In all of these methods we know what we want -- we are sampling with a purpose. Modal Instance Sampling In statistics, the mode is the most frequently occurring value in a distribution. In sampling, when we do a modal instance sample, we are sampling the most frequent case, or the "typical" case. In a lot of informal public opinion polls, for instance, they interview a "typical" voter. There are a number of problems with this sampling approach. First, how do we know what the "typical" or "modal" case is? We could say that the modal voter is a person who is of average age, educational level, and income in the population. But, it's not clear that using the averages of these is the fairest (consider the skewed distribution of income, for instance). And, how do you know that those three variables -- age, education, income -- are the only or even the most relevant for classifying the typical voter? What if religion or ethnicity is an important discriminator? Clearly, modal instance sampling is only sensible for informal sampling contexts. Expert Sampling Expert sampling involves the assembling of a sample of persons with known or demonstrable experience and expertise in some area. Often, we convene such a sample under the auspices of a "panel of experts." There are actually two reasons you might do expert sampling.First, because it would be the best way to elicit the views of persons who have specific expertise. In this case, expert sampling is essentially just a specific sub case of purposive sampling. But the other reason you might use expert sampling is to provide evidence for the validity of another sampling approach you've chosen. For instance, let's say you do modal instance sampling and are concerned that the criteria you used for defining the modal instance are subject to criticism. You might convene an expert panel consisting of persons with acknowledged experience and insight into that field or topic and ask them to examine your modal definitions and comment on their appropriateness and validity. The advantage of doing this is that you aren't out on your own trying to defend your decisions -- you have some acknowledged experts to back you. The disadvantage is that even the experts can be, and often are, wrong. Quota Sampling In quota sampling, you select people non-randomly according to some fixed quota. There are two types of quota sampling: proportional and non proportional. In proportional quota sampling you want to represent the major characteristics of the population by sampling a proportional amount of each. For instance, if you know the population has 40% women and 60% men, and that you want a total sample size of 100, you will continue sampling until you get those percentages and then you will stop. So, if you've already got the 40 women for your sample, but not the sixty men, you will continue to sample men but even if legitimate women SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

respondents come along, you will not sample them because you have already "met your quota." The problem here (as in much purposive sampling) is that you have to decide the specific characteristics on which you will base the quota. Will it be by gender, age, education race, religion, etc.? Non-proportional quota sampling Is a bit less restrictive. In this method, you specify the minimum number of sampled units you want in each category. Here, you're not concerned with having numbers that match the proportions in the population. Instead, you simply want to have enough to assure that you will be able to talk about even small groups in the population. This method is the non-probabilistic analogue of stratified random sampling in that it is typically used to assure that smaller groups are adequately represented in your sample. Heterogeneity Sampling We sample for heterogeneity when we want to include all opinions or views, and we aren't concerned about representing these views proportionately. Another term for this is sampling for diversity. In many brainstorming or nominal group processes (including concept mapping), we would use some form of heterogeneity sampling because our primary interest is in getting broad spectrum of ideas, not identifying the "average" or "modal instance" ones. In effect, what we would like to be sampling is not people, but ideas. We imagine that there is a universe of all possible ideas relevant to some topic and that we want to sample this population, not the population of people who have the ideas. Clearly, in order to get all of the ideas, and especially the "outlier" or unusual ones, we have to include a broad and diverse range of participants. Heterogeneity sampling is, in this sense, almost the opposite of modal instance sampling. Snowball Sampling In snowball sampling, you begin by identifying someone who meets the criteria for inclusion in your study. You then ask them to recommend others who they may know who also meet the criteria. Although this method would hardly lead to representative samples, there are times when it may be the best method available. Snowball sampling is especially useful when you are trying to reach populations that are inaccessible or hard to find. For instance, if you are studying the homeless, you are not likely to be able to find good lists of homeless people within a specific geographical area. However, if you go to that area and identify one or two, you may find that they know very well whom the other homeless people in their vicinity are and how you can find them. Characteristics of good Sample: The decision process is a complicated one. The researcher has to first identify the limiting factor or factors and must judiciously balance the conflicting factors. The various criteria governing the choice of the sampling technique are: 1. Purpose of the Survey: What does the researcher aim at? If he intends to generalize the findings based on the sample survey to the population, then an appropriate probability sampling method must be selected. The choice of a particular type of probability sampling depends on the geographical area of the survey and the size and the nature of the population under study. 2. Measurability: The application of statistical inference theory requires computation of the sampling error from the sample itself. Only probability samples allow such computation. Hence, where the research objective requires statistical inference, the sample should be drawn by applying simple random sampling method or stratified random sampling method, depending on whether the population is homogenous or heterogeneous. SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

3. Degree of Precision: Should the results of the survey be very precise, or could even rough results serve the purpose? The desired level of precision is one of the criteria for sampling method selection. Where a high degree of precision of results is desired, probability sampling should be used. Where even crude results would serve the purpose (E.g., marketing surveys, readership surveys etc),any convenient non-random sampling like quota sampling would be enough. 4. Information about Population: How much information is available about the population to be studied? Where no list of population and no information about its nature are available, it is difficult to apply a probability sampling method. Then an exploratory study with non-probability sampling may be done to gain a better idea of the population. After gaining sufficient knowledge about the population through the exploratory study, an appropriate probability sampling design may be adopted. 5. The Nature of the Population: In terms of the variables to be studied, is the population homogenous or heterogeneous? In the case of a homogenous population, even simple random sampling will give a representative sample. If the population is heterogeneous, stratified random sampling is appropriate. 6. Geographical Area of the Study and the Size of the Population: If the area covered by a survey is very large and the size of the population is quite large, multi-stage cluster sampling would be appropriate. But if the area and the size of the population are small, single stage probability sampling methods could be used. 7. Financial Resources: If the available finance is limited, it may become necessary to choose a less costly sampling plan like multistage cluster sampling, or even quota sampling as a compromise. However, if the objectives of the study and the desired level of precision cannot be attained within the stipulated budget, there is no alternative but to give up the proposed survey. Where the finance is not a constraint, a researcher can choose the most appropriate method of sampling that fits the research objective and the nature of population. 8. Time Limitation: The time limit within which the research project should be completed restricts the choice of a sampling method. Then, as a compromise, it may become necessary to choose less time consuming methods like simple random sampling, instead of stratified sampling/sampling with probability proportional to size; or multi-stage cluster sampling, instead of single-stage sampling of elements. Of course, the precision has to be sacrificed to some extent. 9. Economy: It should be another criterion in choosing the sampling method. It means achieving the desired level of precision at minimum cost. A sample is economical if the precision per unit cost is high, or the cost per unit of variance is low. The above criteria frequently conflict with each other and the researcher must balance and blend them to obtain a good sampling plan. The chosen plan thus represents an adaptation of the sampling theory to the available facilities and resources. That is, it represents a compromise between idealism and feasibility. One should use simple workable methods, instead of unduly elaborate and complicated techniques.

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

Question 4: Distinguish between schedules and questionnaires. Answer:


A search for knowledge by analyzing numerical data is known as Statistical Survey or Statistical Investigation. A Statistical survey is a scientific process of collection and analysis of numerical data. Statistical surveys are used to collect numerical information about units in a population. Surveys involve asking questions to individuals Surveys of human populations are common in government, health, social science and marketing sectors.Statistical surveys are categorized into two stages planning and execution. The figure 2.1 shows the two broadstages of Statistical survey planning a Statistical Survey: The relevance and accuracy of data obtained in a survey depends upon the care exercised in planning. A properly planned investigation can lead to best results with least cost and time.Execution of Statistical survey:Control methods should be adopted at every stage of carrying out the investigation to check the accuracy, coverage, methods of measurements, analysis and interpretation. The collected data should be edited, classified, tabulated and presented in diagrams and graphs. The data should be carefully and systematically analyzed and interpreted. Difference between a schedule and a questionnaire there is a difference between a schedule and a questionnaire. A schedule is a form that the investigator fills himself through surveying the units or individuals. A questionnaire is a form sent (usually mailed) by an investigator to respondents. The respondent has to fill it and then send it back to the investigator.QuestionnairesOften, information is collected through questionnaires. The questionnaires are filled with questions pertaining to the investigation. They are sent to the respondents with a covering letter soliciting cooperation from the respondents (respondents are the people who respond to questions in the questionnaire). The respondents are asked to give correct information and to mail the questionnaire back. The objectives of investigation are explained in the covering letter together with assurance for keeping information provided by the respondents as confidential. Good questionnaire construction is an important contributing factor to the success of a survey. When questionnaires are properly framed and constructed, they become important tools by which statements can be made about specific people or entire populations. This method is generally adopted by research workers and other official and non-official agencies. This method is used to cover large areas of investigation. It is more economical and free from investigators bias. However, it results in many non-response situations. The respondent may be illiterate. The respondent may also provide wrong information due to wrong interpretation of questions. Schedule Filled By Investigators Information can be collected through schedules filled by investigators through personal contact. In order to get reliable information, the investigator should be well trained, tactful, unbiased and hard working. A schedule is suitable for an extensive area of investigation through investigators personal contact. The problem of non-response is minimised.There is a difference between a schedule and a questionnaire. A schedule is a form that the investigator fills himself through surveying the units or individuals. A questionnaire is a form sent (usually mailed) by an investigator to respondents. The respondent has to fill it and then send it back to the investigator. Observation SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

Observations, as the name implies refers to situations where participants are observed from a safe distance and their activities are recorded minutely. It is a time consuming method of data collection as you may not get the desired conditions that are required for your research and you may have to wait till participants are in the situation you want them to be in. Classic examples of observation are wild life researchers who wait for the animals of birds to be in a natural habitat and behave in situations that they want to focus upon. As a method of data collection, observation has limitations but produces accurate results as participants are unaware of being closely inspected and behave naturally. Interviewing Interviewing is another great technique of data collection and it involves asking questions to get direct answers. These interviews could be either one to one, in the form of questionnaires, or the more recent form of asking opinions through internet. However, there are limitations of interviewing as participants may not come up with true or honest answers depending upon privacy level of the questions. Though they try to be honest, there is an element of lie in answers that can distort results of the project. Though both observation and interviewing are great techniques of data collection, they have their own strengths and weaknesses. It is important to keep in mind which one of the two will produce desired results before finalizing. Observation vs. Interviewing Data collection is an integral part of any research and various techniques are employed for this purpose. Observation requires precise analysis by the researcher and often produces most accurate results although it is very time consuming Interviewing is easier but suffers from the fact that participants may not come up with honest replies. Interviews take many different forms. It is a good idea to ask the organization in advance what formatthe interview will take. These are structured to reflect the competencies or qualities that an employer is seeking for a particular job, which will usually have been detailed in the job specification or advert. The interviewer is looking for evidence of your skills and may ask such things as: Give an example of a time you worked as part of a team to achieve a common goal. If you have applied for a job or course that requires technical knowledge, it is likely that you will be asked technical questions or has a separate technical interview. Questions may focus on your final year project or on real or hypothetical technical problems. You should be prepared to prove yourself, but also to admit to what you do not know and stress that you are keen to learn. Do not worry if you do not know the exact answer - interviewers are interested in your thought process and logic. Companies use screening tools to ensure that candidates meet minimum q u a l i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s . Computer programs are among the tools used to weed out unqualified candidates. (This is why you need a digital resume that is screening-friendly. See our resume centre for help.) Sometimes human professionals are the gatekeepers. Screening interviewers often have honed skills to determine whether there is anything that might disqualify you for the position. Remember they do not need to know whether you are the best fit for the position, only whether you are not a match. For this reason, screeners tend to dig for dirt. Screeners will hone in on gaps in your employment history or pieces of information that look inconsistent. They also will want to know from the outset whether you will be too expensive for the company. SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

On the opposite end of the stress spectrum from screening interviews is the informational interview. A meeting that you initiate, the informational interview is underutilized by job-seekers who might otherwise consider themselves savvy to the merits of networking. Jobseekers ostensibly secure informational meetings in order to seek the advice of someone in their current or desired field as well as to gain further references to people who can lend insight. Employers that like to stay apprised of available talent even when they do not have current job openings, are often open to informational interviews, especially if they like to share their knowledge, feel flattered by your interest, or esteem the mutual friend that connected you to them. During an informational interview, the jobseeker and employer exchange information and get to know one another better without reference to specific job opening.

Question 5: what are the problems encountered in the interview? Ans. Interview Problems
SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

In personal interviewing, the researcher must deal with two major problems, inadequate response, non-response and interviewers bias. 1 Inadequate response Kahn and Cannel distinguish five principal symptoms of inadequate response. They are: partial response, in which the respondent gives a relevant but incomplete answer non-response, when the respondent remains silent or refuses to answer the question irrelevant response, in which the respondents answer is not relevant to the question asked inaccurate response, when the reply is biased or distorted and verbalized response problem, which arises on account of respondents failure to understand a question or lack of information necessary for answering it. Semester: 3 2 Interviewers Bias The interviewer is an important cause of response bias. He may resort to cheating by cooking up data without actually interviewing. The interviewers can influence the responses by inappropriate suggestions, word emphasis, tone of voice and question rephrasing. His own attitudes and expectations about what a particular category of respondents may say or think may bias the data. Another source of response of the interviewers characteristics (education, apparent social status, etc) may also bias his answers. Another source of response bias arises from interviewers perception of the situation, if he regards the assignment as impossible or sees the results of the survey as possible threats to personal interests or beliefs he is likely to introduce bias. As interviewers are human beings, such biasing factors can never be overcome completely, but their effects can be reduced by careful selection and training of interviewers, proper motivation and supervision, standardization or interview procedures (use of standard wording in survey questions, standard instructions on probing procedure and so on) and standardization of interviewer behavior. There is need for more research on ways to minimize bias in the interview. 3 Non-responses Non-response refers to failure to obtain responses from some sample respondents. There are many sources of non-response; non-availability, refusal, incapacity and inaccessibility. 4 Non-availability Some respondents may not be available at home at the time of call. This depends upon the nature of the respondent and the time of calls. For example, employed persons may not be available during working hours. Farmers may not be available at home during cultivation season. Selection of appropriate timing for calls could solve this problem. Evenings and weekends may be favorable interviewing hours for such respondents. If someone is available, then, line respondents hours of availability can be ascertained and the next visit can be planned accordingly. 5 Refusals Some persons may refuse to furnish information because they are ill-disposed, or approached at the wrong hour and so on. Although, a hardcore of refusals remains, another try or perhaps another approach may find some of them cooperative. Incapacity or inability may refer to illness which prevents a response during the entire survey period. This may also arise on account of language barrier. 6 Inaccessibility Some respondents may be inaccessible. Some may not be found due to migration and other reasons. Non-responses reduce the effective sample size and its representativeness. 7 Methods and Aims of control of non-response Kish suggests the following methods to reduce either the percentage of non-response or its effects: 1. Improved procedures for collecting data are the most obvious remedy for nonresponse. Improvements advocated are (a) guarantees of anonymity, (b) motivation of the SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

respondent to co-operate (c) arousing the respondents interest with clever opening remarks and questions,(d) advance notice to the respondents. 2. Call-backs are most effective way of reducing not-at-homes in personal interviews, as are repeated mailings to no-returns in mail surveys. 3. Substitution for the non-response is often suggested as a remedy. Usually this is a mistake because the substitutes resemble the responses rather than the non-responses. Nevertheless, beneficialsubstitution methods can sometimes be designed with reference to important characteristics of the population. For example, in a farm management study, the farm size is an important variable and if the sampling is based on farm size, substitution for a respondent with a particular size holding by another with the holding of the same size is possible. Attempts to reduce the percentage or effects on non-responses aim at reducing the bias caused by differences on non-respondents from respondents. The non-response bias should not be confused with the reduction of sampled size due to non-response. The latter effect can be easily overcome, either by anticipating the size of non-response in designing the sample size or by compensating for it with supplement. These adjustments increase the size of the response and the sampling precision, but they donot reduce the non-response percentage or bias.

Question 6: Write short note of the following: A-Dispersion B-Mathematical averages Answer
SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

Measures of Central Tendency: Analysis of data involves understanding of the characteristics of the data. The following are the important characteristics of a statistical data: Central tendency Dispersion Skewness Kurtosis

In a data distribution, the individual items may have a tendency to come to a central position or an average value. For instance, in a mark distribution, the individual students may score marks between zero and hundred. In this distribution, many students may score marks, which are near to the average marks, i.e. 50. .Such a tendency of the data to concentrate to the central position of the distribution is called central tendency. Central tendency of the data is measured by statistical averages. Averages are classified into two groups. 1. Mathematical averages 2. Positional averages Arithmetic mean, geometric mean and harmonic mean are mathematical averages. Median and mode are positional averages. These statistical measures try to u n d e r s t a n d h o w individual values in a distribution concentrate to a central value like average. If the values of distribution approximately come near to the average value, we conclude that the distribution has central tendency. Arithmetic mean is the most commonly used statistical average. It is the value obtained by dividing the sum of the item by the number of items in a series.

Dispersion:

Dispersion is the tendency of the individual values in a distribution to spread away from the average. Many economic vari8bleSilke income, wage etc., are widely varied f r o m t h e mean. Dispersion is a statistical measure, which understands the degree o f variation of items from the average. Objectives of Measuring Dispersion: Study of dispersion is needed to:1.To test the reliability of the average2.To control variability of the data3.To enable comparison with two or more distribution with regard to their variability4.To facilitate the use of other statistical measures.Measures of dispersion points out as to how far the average value is representative of theindividual items. If The dispersion value is small, the average tends to closely represent theindividual values and it is reliable. When dispersion is large, the average is not a typical representative value. Measures of dispersion are useful to control the cause of variation. In industrial production, efficient operation requires control of quality variation. Measures of variation enable comparison of two or more series with regard to their variability. A high degree of variation would mean little consistency and low degree of variation would mean high consistency. Properties of a Good Measure of Dispersion: A good measure of dispersion should be simple to understand. 1. It should be easy to calculate 2. It should be rigidly defined 3. It should be based on all the values of a distribution SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-3 HR Research methodology.

4. It should be amenable to further statistical and algebraic treatment. 5. It should have sampling stability 6. It should not be unduly affected by extreme values. Measures of Dispersion: Lorenz curve is a graphical measure of dispersion. Measures of dispersion can be absolute or relative. An absolute measure of dispersion is expressed in the same unit of the original data. When two sets of data are expressed in different units, relative measures of dispersion are used for comparison. A relative measure of dispersion is the ratio of absolute measure to an appropriate average. The following are the important relative measures of dispersion. 1. Coefficient of range 2. Coefficient of Quartile deviation 3. Coefficient of Mean deviation 4. Coefficient of Standard deviation

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Research Methodology Set -1&2