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CHAPTER 2 WATER USED IN CONCRETE MIX Introduction Water read with cement causing hydration of cement.

. (hydration loss of water due to chemical reaction between water and cement) Generally ratio by weight = water : cement = 1:4 Excess of water will cause less strength, durability and density because excess water evaporates leaving voids in concrete. Water cement ratio is influenced by: concrete grade workability nature and type of agg durability Function of water in concrete mix are: Enable the chemical reaction causing setting (become stiff) and hardening (gain in strength) lubricate the mixture of gravel, sand and cement to facilitate placing. Excess of water will also cause: cement grout flow to the surface to form `laitance which prevent proper bonding of the next concrete layer create a plane of weakness. Cement grout leak out from work carry away cement leaving sand and agg cause honeycomb in concrete.

Properties of water Properties of water for concrete use are fit for drinking purposes free from oil free from acid, alkalis and others such as organic impurities. PH value > 6 free from iron, vegetable matter etc. salt water CANNOT BE USED contain salt causing corrosion to reinforcement. If impure water is used it will cause; accelerate or retard setting time vary concrete strength (i.e. reduce concrete strength)

Impurities in water They include salts in sea water industrial waste water silt or suspended particles Salt In Sea Water sea water contain up to 3500 ppm (part per million (3.5%)) of dissolved salts. 78% sodium chloride, 15% chloride and sulphate of magnesium. seawater is not suitable for concrete work due to I. salt in sea water causes surface efflorescence as it flow out of concrete surface and evaporates of water leaving salts deposited on concrete surface. II. salt will cause corrosion of reinforcement. Corroded reinforcement expand causing more reinforcement exposed to salt attack i.e. further of steel and deterioration of concrete. Industrial Waste Water are waste water from paint factories, chemical plant & textile factories etc. The water consist of acid or alkalis not suitable for concrete work. Silt or Suspended Particles They include i. Suspended clay or fine rock particles. ii. Algae plant e.g. seaweed. Algae plant causes reduction in strength of concrete by; i. Reduce bond between aggregate and cement paste. ii. Cause a large amount of air to be trapped in concrete.

SUITABILITY OF WATER Water suitable for concreting works are treated water LOCAL WATER AUTHORITY natural sources spring from mountains Natural water needs to be tested since it contains Clay Silt Leaves Wood Oil Algae Dissolved matter Testing water for concrete common types of testing water are:i. Initial setting time test ii. Compressive time test Initial setting time test use Vicat Apparatus to determine the initial setting time for control and test sample. Natural water is suitable for concreting when initial setting time for test sample do not differ than 30 minutes of that the control sample. Each types of cement should have an initial setting time of at least by 30 minutes more than its min. initial setting time. * * Sea water slightly accelerates the setting time of cement i.e. reduction in the initial setting time.

Compressive Strength Test Compressive strength of 28 days is determine for both control and test cube. Water is suitable when average compressive strength of test cubes is not less than 80% of the average strength of control cube test.