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CHAPTER 2 FRESH CONCRETE Introduction Fresh concrete is a mixture of water, cement aggregates and admixture (if any) Cement

nt paste = water + cement o Normally use for floor finishing Mortar = water + cement + sand o Use for brickwork, plastering and etc Concrete = water + cement + sand + coarse agg o Use for concrete work For fresh concrete to be acceptable, it should: Be easily mixed and transported Be uniform throughout a given batch and between batches Be of a consistency so that it can fill completely the forms for which it was designed Have the ability to be compacted without excessive loss of energy Not segregate during placing and consolidation Have good finishing characteristics Properties of fresh concrete The main properties of fresh concrete are : Consistency or slump o slump test be used as rough measure of consistency of concrete o show the wetness or dryness of the concrete mix o change in slump change in the grading or proportion of aggregate or water content

Uniformity o indicates that concrete is mixed thoroughly until uniform appearance is obtained with all materials are uniformly distributed o mix for at least 1 minute, preferably 3 minutes in the mixer o Objective of mixing to coat the surface of all agg particles with cement paste & blend the ingredients into a uniform mass. Workability o often defined in terms of the amount of mechanical energy, or work required to fully compact concrete without segregation. This is important since the final strength is a function of compaction o Implies the ease with which concrete mix can be handled from mixer to its finall compacted shape o Common test are: Slump test, flow table test (for flowing concrete) vebe test and compacting factor test o Main characteristic of workability are : Consistency state of fluidity of concrete mix including wettest & densest type depends on water content Mobility the ease concrete can flow into moulds and around steel completely filling the moulds (formworks) and be remoulded Compatibility the ease concrete is completely compacted and air void removed Stability Ability of concrete to maintain its uniformity concrete remain stable coherent homogeneous mass during handling and vibration without segregating

Measurement of workability 1. SLUMP TEST

Procedure 1. concrete is filled in 3 layers 2. each layer is tamped 25 times with rounded end steel rod 3. Mould is held firmly against its base 4. Immediately and slowly lift the cone vertically leaving concrete to stand by itself 5. Mould is placed (up side down) beside the concrete specimen and slump is measured Slump types (i) True slump concrete slump evenly all round (ii) Shear slump of the concrete cone slide down (iii) Collapse slump 50 to 100mm (75mm ideal)

2. COMPACTING FACTOR TEST Gives behaviour of fresh concrete under the action external forces Target value 0.82 0.92 3. VEBE TEST The slump test is the most common in use because of : o the simplicity of the apparatus o It is useful for check on day to day or hour to hour variation in the materials being fed into the mixer. The slump test is not useful for stiff mixes and lean mixes. Both Compacting factor test and VEBE test are useful for stiff mixes, but VEBE test is more useful for the following reasons: o The problem of sticking of concrete in the hoppers of the compacting factor apparatus. o The treatment of concrete during the test is comparatively closely related to the method of placing in real practice.

Factors Affecting Workability 1. Water-cement ratio o o o o o Ideal use water-cement ratio = 1:4 Higher water cement ratio increase workability but increase void in concrete, result in segregation and bleeding Problem of shrinkage and creep of hardened concrete if using high water content Lesser w/c ratio = lower workability Target slump value for must concreting work is between 50100mm (medium)

2. Aggregate (with constant w/c ratio) o Workability will be reduced when using: a) Finer aggregatehigh specific surface area b) Use of irregular & angular aggregate o Workability will be increased when using: a) Rounded aggbecause reduction in particle interference b) Coarse agg in large sizereduction in total specific surface area o Higher the ratio of course agg & fine agg will lower the workabilitycausing of segregation 3. Admixture o Addition of air entraining admixture and plasticizer will increase workability o Pozzolanic materials and slag will reduce workability. 4. Fineness of cement o Greater fineness, increase cohesiveness but reduce workability o RHPC have very fine cement particle, will reduce workability as compared to OPC o Fineness of cement influence on bleeding

5. Time and Temp o High temp cause absorption and evaporation hence reduce workability o Evaporation is influenced by:a) Concrete temp b) Air temp c) Relative humidity d) Wind velocity o In hot and windy day, increase water content to maintain workability o Fresh concrete loses workability due to the loss of moisture due to evaporation o Fresh concrete must delivered or placed in formwork within 1 hour after adding water o Good practice to place fresh concrete into formwork within 30-60 minutes after mixing. Segregation Is the separation of constituents so that their distribution no longer uniform Governed by total specific surface area of solid particles including cement. Can be prevented by providing the direction of fall during dumping/dropping of concrete in vertical. When discharge is at an anglelarger agg is thrown to the far side of container & mortar is collected at the near side >>>segregation Reasons of segregation of concrete : o If the mix is very dry coarse agg tend to separate o If the mix is very wet cement grout tend to be o separated from coarse agg o If specific gravity of coarse & fine agg differs o incresse segregation o Over vibration is prone to segregation

Bleeding Is form of segregation where water rise to surface of freshly placed concrete. During compacting & until the cement paste harden, it is natural tendency for the solid particles to move downward and displace water. Expressed as settlement per unit height of concrete & cause plastic shrinkage cracking Can be reduced by: o Finer cement o High alkali o High C3 A o Addition of calcium chloride o High temperature o Use of pozzolans o Aluminum powder o Air entraining agent