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CHAPTER 2 HARDENED CONCRETE Setting and Hardening Mixing cement with water produces a plastic workable paste.

. Dormant period stage of mixing of cement and water remains at plastic workable paste. Initial set when paste begins to stiffer to such a degree that although still soft and becomes unworkable. Time required to reach this stage is called initial setting time. Final set where the paste continues to stiffen until a stage is reached when it may be regarded as a rigid solid. And the resulting solid is known as the hardened cement paste or cement paste Hardening where the hardening paste continues to harden and gain strength. The initial setting time determines the length of time in which cement mixes remain plastic and workable. Final setting time should not be too long in order to allow construction work to continue within a reasonable time after casting the concrete.

Properties of Hardened Concrete Properties of hardened concrete can be categorized into : Strength, Deformation under load, Durability, Permeability, Shrinkage.

STRENGTH OF CONCRETE Most valuable property, strength of concrete is defined as the max stress it can resist or the max it can carry. Cubes, cylinders and prisms are the 3 type of compression test specimens. Flexural tensile test is used to estimate the load at which the concrete members may crack.

1. size of test specimen, 2. size of specimen in relation to the size of aggregate, 3. support conditions of specimen, moisture conditions of the specimen, type of testing machine, the assumption in the analysis relating stress to failure load.

Factors influencing the strength of concrete : as time passes by, with proper curing the concrete strength should increase. Factors (depending on testing method) influencing the strength of concrete:

Independent factors: the type of cement, age & type of aggregate and admixture, degree of compaction, concrete mix proportions (cement content, aggregatecement ratio, amount of voids and water-cement ratio), type of curing and temperature of curing, nature of loading to which the specimen is subjected (static, sustained, dynamic), type of stress situation that may exist 1) Type of cement: RHPC gains strength more quickly but after several months there is almost the same; SRPC have low tricalcium aluminate which can react with sulphates. SRPC is normally satisfactory in conditions which arise with below ground concreting; LHPC the gains in strength and heat evolves are more slowly than normal concrete of similar composition, through ultimately the strength and the heat of hydration are virtually the same, usually for use in large mass .

cement content: o the higher the cement content the higher is the concrete strength 2) Age of concrete Development of strength depends on: cement type, w/c ratio, and curing condition. Development of continuous system of gel depends on type of cement and w/c ratios. Usually 28 days strength maybe assumed to be 1.5 times the 7 day strength. CP114 (1969) accepts a days strength equal to not less than 2/3 of the required 28 days strength.

3) Type of aggregate The surface characteristic of the aggregate will affect bond strength and that a rougher surface would result in higher strength. For certain type of aggregate, the shrinkage and moisture movement would be decreased when amount of water decreased. Unless full compaction being carried out. When w/c ratio within 0.40, crushed aggregate can produce stronger concrete than gravel. But the effect will disappears when w/c ration at 0.65 Aggregate surface roughness has a considerable affect on bond strength (greater the roughness, higher is the bond strength) due to improvement in mechanical interlocking. The compressive strength of concrete tends to increase with the decrease in the size of coarse aggregate. This due to the facts that smaller size aggregates provide larger surface area for bonding with the mortar matrix. Concrete with higher w/c, required bigger size of the coarse aggregate. Strength up to 20 N/mm2, aggregate up to 40 mm may be used; strength up to 30 N/mm2, aggregate up to 20 mm may be used. The bond is characterized by the presence of a thin layer which bridges between the aggregate and the paste. The aggregate which exhibit moisture movement themselves and have low elastic modulus cause large shrinkage.

AggregateCement Ratio - When the agg-cement ratio increases, compressive strength reduces - Normal concrete has a cement ratio between 0.82 - 0.92

Water-Cement Ratio - The lower is the water-cement ratio, the greater is compressive strength

4) Admixture Adding accelerating admixture (calcium chloride) in the fresh concrete mix will speed up the initial set of the concrete. 5) Degree of compaction When the cement compacts, it have a very low porosity, thus result in a very high strength. The increase in the strength of concrete is probably influenced by the volume of voids in concrete i.e. entrapped air, capillary pores, gel pores, or entrained air.

the max. nominal size of aggregate to be used in concrete is governed by the size of the section and the spacing of the reinforcement. Normally, max. nominal size of aggregate < of the min thickness of the member @ 5 mm less than the min clear distance of main reinforcement @ 5 mm less than the min cover to the reinforcement. Size of aggregate should as large as possible in order to reduce the cement requirement. The workability also increase with the increase in max. size of aggregate. An increase in the compacting factor would increase the workability of fresh concrete and the normal range of concrete usually having compacting factor of 0.82 0.92. water-cement ratio: the compressive of strength of concrete at a given age and under normal temperature, depends primarily on the w/c ratio. The lower the water-cement ratio, the greater is the compressive strength.

6) Concrete mix design: Gives the characteristic compressive strength requirements of the concrete and depends the following 3 main factors: cement content: important on the rate of development of compressive strength of concrete; depends upon the requirements of performance like rapidhardening or low-heatis required. aggregate-cement ratio:

7) Type and temperature of curing: The early-age strength of paste is improved with the rise in curing temperature but its later-age strength is adversely affected. Early-age: ages less than 7 days Later-age: ages exceeding 28 days. The concrete strength is determined by the properties of the cement, therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the cement composition and probably its specific surface area will influence the temperature effect on strength. The effect of temperature on concrete strength may be minimized by the use of a cement low in C3A and high in C2S, i.e. by use of sulphate-resisting cement. Maturity is mentioned as the product of the curing period and temperature. The effect of increased curing temperature would depend on the length of the curing period. In generally, the strength of concrete is found to increase linearly with its maturity. air cured concrete developed less compressive strength to the moist cured concretE

Deformation under load A stress strain relationship under normal loading and under sustained loading. Under normal loading: the first effect of applying a load to concrete is to produce an elastic deformation i.e. as the load increases deformation increases. Under sustained loading, prolong application of stress causes a slow deformation: creep The increase of deformation is not proportional, as the time passes the deformation is lesser. If the load removed, the concrete undergoes an immediate elastic recovery, but the creep recovery is a very slow process and the concrete is not fully regain its original dimensions.

Durability of concrete Defined as the ability to withstand the damaging effects of the environment over a long period of time. The absence of durability maybe caused either by the environment to which the concrete is exposed i.e. external or internal causes. External causes: physical, chemical and mechanical weathering, occurrence of extreme temperature, abrasion, electrolytic action. The common forms of chemical attack : leaching out of cement and action of sulphates. The resistance to sulphate attack can be improved by: adding or partial replacement of cement by pozzolana, using high pressure steam curing and increase permeability. Internal causes: The alkali- aggregate reaction, volume changes due to the differences in thermal properties of aggregate and cement paste and the permeability of the concrete. Recommended ways to have durable concrete are: use of low water-cement ratio Well compacted concrete Good workmanship, reduced porosity Sufficient cover over reinforcement, and The use of aluminious sulphate resisting cement, Portland blastfurnace or Portland pozzolana cement Permeability Concrete has a tendency to be porous due to the presence of voids formed during or after placing. To produce concrete of low permeability, full compaction and proper curing is essential. Low permeability is important in increasing resistant to frost action and chemical attack and in protecting embedded steel against corrosion. Reasons to study the permeability of concrete:

the penetration by material in solution may be adversely affect the durability of concrete e.g. Ca(OH)2 leaches out, and the aggressive liquids attack the concrete. in case of reinforced concrete, ingress of moisture and air will result in corrosion of steel in which leads to an increase in the volume of steel, and to cracking and spalling of concrete cover. the moisture penetration depends on permeability and if the concrete can become saturated with water it is ore vulnerable to frost. the permeability is also interest in connection with watertightness of liquid retaining structures and the problem of hydrostatic pressure in the interior of the dams. Factors influencing permeability are: water-cement ratio, workability, type of structure, method of compaction, soundness and porosity of the aggregate, age (permeability decrease with age), grading of aggregate, curing The permeability of cement paste varies with the age of concrete or with progress of hydration With age, the permeability decreases because gel gradually fill the original water filled space. For the same w/c ratio, the permeability of paste with coarser cement particles is higher than those with finer cement. In general, the higher the strength of cement paste, the lower will the permeability.

Shrinkage Is a contraction deformation suffered by concrete even under no load. The shrinkage is dependent on the amount of drying that can take place. Influenced by the humidity and temperature of the surrounding air, the rate of air flow over the surface and the proportion of the surface area to volume of concrete The two types of shrinkage: plastic shrinkage: due to hydration of cement which results in volume reduction It is aggravated due to loss of water by evaporation from the surface of concrete, particularly under hot climates and high winds drying shrinkage: Take places after the concrete has set and hardened Due to withdrawal of water from concrete stored in unsaturated air voids Rate of shrinkage is affected by: 1. Water-cement ratio: increase with the increase in the w/c ratio 2. Cement content: increase with cement ratio 3. Type of aggregate: the aggregate which exhibit moisture movement themselves and which have low elastic modulus will cause large shrinkage. An increase in max. size of aggregate will decrease the shrinkage. 4. Size and shape of specimen: decrease with surface-volume ratio of the specimen. 5. Type of cement: RHPC shrinks more than the others 6. Admixtures: the shrinkage increase with the addition of calcium chloride and reduces the lime replacement

7. Ambient humidity: shrinkage with the decrease in humidity and the immersion in water cause expansion Concrete in different environment a) Concrete in sea water Maybe damaged by crystallization of salts inside the mass in zones where the concrete is subjected to alternate wetting and drying. The durability is dependent mainly on its density. The required density can be attained by using a maximum w/c ratio of 0.45-0.50 provided the concrete is properly placed and compacted. RC is much more open to damage due to corrosion of reinforcement. The corrosion would result in increase in volume of reinforcement, thus the concrete will crack. A dense concrete cover prevents sea water from penetrating into the concrete and thereby protects the steel against corrosion The use of granulated blast furnace slag as a cement replacement material can increased the chloride resistance in sea water structures. b) Concrete in acidic environment Concrete in acidic conditions with pH=6 or less must be protected by a suitable coating. In any case, the attack of naturally occurring acidic solution which result from the presence of organic acids or carbon dioxide is only normally limited to the surface of the concrete and causes limited damage. Appreciable damage may occur when the aggressive water in under pressure and the concrete is permeable or thin sections is involved (i.e. concrete pipe)