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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
 EF ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
١٤٢٥ 
   
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬

 

 W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬        ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ، 
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ،‫א‬   
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ? ‫א‬ ?  ?‫א‬  ‫א‬ ? ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   W    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      
   
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬

 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬‫א‬F ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬
 K
 ،،،‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
< ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

EF‫ א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
< ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪١٠٠‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K١٢

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-١-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W(Survey)‫א‬١–١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

 W٢–١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١J ١F(Diopter)








‫א‬WE١J ١F 


‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Groma)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٢J ١FK‫א‬‫א‬(Choropates)‫א‬(Libella)

-٢-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬







‫א‬WE٢J ١F

‫א‬‫א‬


،
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K(Geomatics)

 W‫א‬٣–١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١
 K‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٤

-٣-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬٤J ١
 W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W(Geodetic Surveying)‫א‬‫ א‬K١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KE٣J ١F،












WE٣J ١F


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W(Plane Surveying)‫א‬‫ א‬K٢
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2 196‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬W(Topographic Surveying)‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K
 K(contour Lines)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬(Cadastral Surveying ):‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-٤-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬




 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫ א‬




 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 W‫א‬١J ٤J ١
 W‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
 KLand Surveys ‫א‬‫ א‬K
 KNavigation Surveys ‫א‬‫ א‬K
 Astronomical Surveys ‫א‬‫ א‬K
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
 KArchaeological Surveys‫א‬‫ א‬K
 KGeological Surveys ‫א‬‫ א‬K
 KMine Surveys ‫א‬‫ א‬K
 KMilitary Surveys‫א‬‫ א‬K
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣
 KTriangulation Surveys ‫א‬ K
 KTraverse Surveys ‫א‬ K
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤
 KChain Surveys ‫א‬ K
 KTheodolite Surveys ‫א‬ K
 KCompass Surveys ‫א‬ K

-٥-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬

 KTacheometric Surveys ‫א‬‫ א‬K


 KPlane table Surveys ‫א‬‫ א‬K
 Photogrammetry ‫א‬‫ א‬K

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬

       


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

       


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

     


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

   
‫א‬ ‫א‬

 
‫א‬

 
‫א‬

-٦-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٤J ١
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬W‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

-٧-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 KK‫א‬–١
 W‫א‬‫א‬–٢
 –١
 –٢
 –٣
 –٤
 W‫א‬–٣
 –١
 –٢
 …‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٤
 W‫א‬‫א‬–٥
 –١
 J ٢

-٨-
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
< ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
٪١٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬
 ‫א‬
 K٪١٠٠‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K١٨

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٢
 K‫א‬ K٣

-٩-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬١J ٢
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬W 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٢
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫ א‬K١
 K‫ א‬K٢
 K‫ א‬K٣
 ‫א‬ K٤
 K‫ א‬K٥
K‫א‬ K٦

 W(Range poles or Rods )‫א‬‫ א‬K١
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K ٥٣‫א‬٥٢‫א‬ J

- ١٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
KE١J ٢F








‫א‬‫א‬WE١J ٢F 

E F‫א‬E 
 F‫א‬ J
 ،E٥٠٢٠F
 K‫א‬‫א‬
KE٢J ٢FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

‫א‬WE٢J ٢F

- ١١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W(Pins or Arrows)‫ א‬K٢


E٦٣FE٤٠J ٢٠FE٣J ٢F‫א‬ ‫א‬ J
   ‫א‬‫א‬
KE٤J ٢F‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F






‫א‬WE٣J ٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٤J ٢F 

 W‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–
 K‫א‬‫א‬–

 W(Pegs)‫ א‬K٣
 W
 KW‫א‬
E٣٠J ٢٠FE٦J ٣F‫א‬ 
 K
 K‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE٧J ٤F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

- ١٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 WW‫א‬
 KE٣٠١٠F،E٢٠{٥F
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E٣٠C٥C٥FE٦J ٣F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬








‫א‬WE٥J ٢F 

 W(Plumb Bob)‫ א‬K٤
 E
 ‫א‬F‫א‬
 WE٦J ٢F







‫א‬WE٦J ٢F

KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K

- ١٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W(Tape)‫ א‬K٥
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W(Linen Tape)‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K









‫א‬WE٧J ٢F 

E٧J ٢FE١{٥J ١F‫א‬‫א‬ -


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬
 KE١٠٠،٥٠،٣٠،٢٥،٢٠،١٥،١٠F‫א‬ -
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬ K١
 K‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
 W
 K‫א‬ K١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢

- ١٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K ‫א‬ K٣
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٥
K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ K٢
K‫א‬

 W(Steel tape )‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
٠{٥FE١٠٠،٥٠،٣٠،٢٥،٢٠،١٠،٥،٢،١F‫א‬ J
 KE١
‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨J ٢FKE‫א‬









‫א‬‫א‬WE٨J ٢F

- ١٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
 W
 K ‫א‬‫א‬ K١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ K١
 K‫א‬ K٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
 K‫א‬‫ א‬K٤

 WInvar Tape‫א‬ K
 KE١٠٠J ٣٠F‫א‬٦E٪٣٦F‫א‬E٪٦٤F‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ K١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
 W
 K‫א‬ K١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
 K‫א‬ K٣

- ١٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W(Field Notebook)‫א‬ K٦
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

- ١٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 WE‫א‬F‫א‬٣J ٢
 W‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
 W‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬W 
 KE٩J ٢F










‫א‬‫א‬WE٩J ٢F

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ K١
 K K٢
 K K٣
 KEF‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
K AB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
 KE٩J ٢F

 ‫א‬‫א‬E٢J ١FA‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
 KA‫א‬‫א‬B
‫א‬‫א‬BA‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬AB‫א‬‫א‬ K٤

 W‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬W 
 KE١٠J ٢F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬WE١٠J ٢F

- ١٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬٢،١‫א‬ K١
A‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
 K‫א‬AB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
F‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE
 KEF‫א‬W J

- ٢٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬٤J ٢
 WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١J ٤J ٢
 K‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K K١
 K‫א‬ K٢
 K K٣
 K‫א‬ K٤
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
 K‫א‬

 KE١١J ٢F‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬WE١١J ٢F

- ٢١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ K١
 K‫א‬ K٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٥
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ K١
 K K٢
 K K٣
 K‫א‬ K٤
 K‫א‬ K٥
 K‫א‬ K٦
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
‫א‬A‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬A‫א‬‫א‬B‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬K
 ‫א‬B‫א‬ K٤
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬B‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٥
A‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ C‫א‬‫א‬ K٦
 KB‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٧
B‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 KB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٨
 K
 W‫א‬‫א‬ K٩
‫א‬+x‫א‬‫א‬×‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬z=AB‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 KEF‫א‬‫א‬J

 W
‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬،١٠٠
‫א‬K٦٣{٧‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٥‫א‬
 K‫؟‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 K٥٦٣{٧Z٦٣{٧Hx١٠٠C٥zZ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٤J ٢
‫א‬‫א‬
  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
‫א‬‫א‬E١٢J ٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬








‫א‬‫א‬WE١٢J ٢F 


 K‫א‬‫א‬ K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 2
E‫א‬F–2E‫א‬‫א‬F =(D)‫א‬‫א‬

 W
‫א‬‫א‬m١٠٠‫א‬
 K‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Km٥‫א‬
 E٥F٢–E١٠٠F٢=‫א‬‫א‬
 m٩٩{٨٧=٢٥–١٠٠٠٠=

 WE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ K
 ŝCosQ = (D)‫א‬‫א‬
 W
 KO٤‫א‬‫א‬m٦٧‫א‬‫א‬AB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

66.84m = (67)cos (4º) = AB‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ F K١
 K K٢
 K K٣
 K K٤
 K K٥
 K‫א‬ K٦
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
 K ‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
K‫א‬

 WE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
J ٢F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٣

‫א‬‫א‬WE١٣J ٢F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٣J ٢F


- ٢٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K K١
 K K٢
 K K٣
 K‫א‬ K٤
 K K٥
 K K٦
 K‫א‬ K٧
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬AB‫א‬‫א‬ K١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬، ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫ א‬K٥
 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ، ‫א‬‫א‬ 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(9.62,3.41,22.9,27.1,15.3) m
 K‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬
 78.23 m =9.62+3.41+22.9+27.1+15.3 =‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬٣J ٤J ٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 EFEF‫א‬،‫א‬W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٤J ٢F
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K K١
 K K٢
 K‫א‬ K٣
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، K١
 KE١٤J ٢FZ

WE١٤J ٢F
- ٢٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬EF‫א‬ K٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬ K٣
 KEFEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬KEF
‫א‬‫א‬W 
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 KEFEF‫א‬،EF‫א‬W‫א‬
 KEFEF‫א‬W‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬ K١
 ، ‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
KE١٥J ٢F









WE١٥J ٢F 

EF‫א‬،EF‫א‬‫א‬EF EF ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬٥J ٢
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
m١٦٣{٥‫א‬ m٥٠‫א‬
 K‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬cm٥‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬=‫א‬‫א‬
٥
 ٠{٠٥ =  =‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٠٠

 ٤٩{٩٥ = ٠{٠٥J ٥٠ =‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
=
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 

 ٤٩{٩٥  ‫א‬‫א‬
=
 ٥٠  ١٦٣{٥
 

 ٤٩{٩٥C١٦٣{٥
 ١٦٣,٣٤= =  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٥٠

 W(sag)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
‫א‬E
 F‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٦J ٢F‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬







‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٦J ٢F


 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٧J ٢F‫א‬‫א‬





‫א‬‫א‬WE١٧J ٢F 

 W‫א‬W ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬K ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
 K‫א‬9 6 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 

- ٣٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٢
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٣
200m‫א‬ K٤
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K7m‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫؟‬6O‫א‬‫א‬72m‫א‬‫א‬AB‫א‬‫א‬ K٥

- ٣١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
< ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 KK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K١٨
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١
 K K٢

- ٣٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬١–٣
 W(Geographical or True Meridian )‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١J ٣FK‫א‬‫א‬








‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١J ٣F

 W(Magnetic Meridian )‫א‬‫א‬–٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٢J ٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢J ٣F

- ٣٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W(Assumed Meridian )‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٣


K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٣J ٣F





‫א‬‫א‬WE٣J ٣F 

 W(Grid Meridian )‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٤
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬ 



‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫ א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

- ٣٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٣
‫א‬،
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ،E٤J ٣F‫א‬‫א‬







 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٤J ٣F 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬H
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 302
 ‫א‬‫א‬77O 30‫א‬AB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬AB‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ZAB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  230H 773Z
  8000Z

- ٣٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W(Bearing)W‫א‬‫א‬٣J ٣
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W(Azimuth or Circular Bearing )‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
EAZFK360O ‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
KE٥J ٣F









‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٥J ٣F



 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W(Reduced Bearing)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
K90O ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٦J ٣FKEBrF

- ٣٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬












 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٦J ٣F

‫א‬‫א‬ 



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬


 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬EBrF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EAZF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٧J ٣FK‫א‬‫א‬

- ٣٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬










‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٧J ٣F 

 W١
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  118٤٥  ZAB‫א‬‫א‬
 23ZAC‫א‬‫א‬، 413218
  345354
 ZAE‫א‬‫א‬، 3601448
 ZAD‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 N 413218 Br = N Az E   413218  AB
 S 611437 Br = (180 – Az) E   1184523  AC
 S 801448 Br = S (Az –180) W   3601448 AD

 N 145606 Br = N (360-Az)   3450454 AE

- ٣٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 S492318Z‫א‬AC‫א‬‫א‬،S14349ZE‫א‬AB‫א‬‫א‬
N654202Z‫א‬AE‫א‬‫א‬،S384453Z‫א‬AD‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
  140349  Az = Br N  140349 E  AB
  1303642  Az = 180 – Br  S 492318 E  AC
  2184453  Az = 180 + Br S 384453 W AD

  2941758  Az = 360- Br N 654202 W AE


 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WE٨J ٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K180OH‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
 180O‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬H
 K180O‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 KA‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬AB‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬FB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬BA‫א‬‫א‬
 KEAB‫א‬

- ٣٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬













‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٨J ٣F 
 W٣
 45OZ‫א‬AB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 180OH‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬AB‫א‬
 225OZ180OH45OZ

- ٤٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W(Compass)‫א‬٤J ٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٩J ٣FW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١J ٤J ٣








‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٩J ٣F
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K(Magnetic Needle )–
 K90O360O‫א‬–
 K‫א‬‫א‬(Sighting Marks)W–
 W‫א‬E‫א‬F٢J ٤J ٣
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
WE١٠J ٣F،(Surveyors Compass)‫א‬ K١

‫א‬WE١٠J ٣F

- ٤١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

، ‫א‬ J 
‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ J 
 K‫א‬
‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 E١١J ٣F

‫א‬WE١١J ٣F

- ٤٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬


 KE١٢J ٣FW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬










‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٢J ٣F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
E ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ ‫א‬EAF
 K‫א‬EBF‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
W‫א‬EFS‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٦٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KEF
 KE56OFKS65O W
 W(Prismatic Compass)‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
K١٨١٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 K

- ٤٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 KE١٣J ٣FW‫א‬‫א‬










‫א‬‫א‬WE١٣J ٣F 

E١٥J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬W K١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬W K٢
 K
‫א‬‫א‬W K٣
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬FK‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ K٤
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬360O‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬W K٥
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
W K٦
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬W K٧
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W  K٨
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W K٩
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W K١٠
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 W‫א‬ K١١
 K‫א‬
 KE١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١٢
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
 K‫א‬ K٢
 K‫א‬ K٣

.(١) ‫ ( ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺭﻗﻡ‬1)


- ٤٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 WE١٤J ٣F‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬







‫א‬‫א‬WE١٤J ٣F

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K J ١
 K J ٢
 K J ٣
K J ٤
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(A, ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
،‫א‬‫א‬(A, B)
 F‫א‬‫א‬،B)
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬
‫א‬EAF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢

 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KEAF
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
KE‫א‬‫א‬FK‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬EBF‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ J ٤
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٤٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ J ٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬FAB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦
 KEAB‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧
‫א‬‫א‬EAF‫א‬EBF‫א‬ J ٨
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٩
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K٣،٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
 KE١٥J ٣F‫א‬‫א‬،180O







‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٥J ٣F 

- ٤٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K180OH‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
 K‫א‬
 WE1F
١‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 E١J ٣F
‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 o '  o '  o '
 AB  34  00  214  30  180  30
 BC  30  30  210  00  179  30
 CD  306  00  125  30  180  30
 DA  199  30  20  30  179  00
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E١J ٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 AB‫א‬J
 214 30’ – 180O = 34O 30’
O

 W‫א‬‫א‬
34O 30’ + 34O 00’ = 34O 15’
 2
 W AB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 180 + 34 15’ = 214 15’
O O O

 34O15’W‫א‬‫א‬
210O – 180O = BC‫א‬J
 30O

 W‫א‬‫א‬
O O O
30 + 30 30’ = 30 15’
 2

- ٤٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 WBC‫א‬‫א‬
 180 + 30 15’ = 210 15’
O O O

 30O 15’WBC‫א‬‫א‬
 306O- 180O = 126OCD‫א‬J
 ‫א‬‫א‬
O O O
126 + 125 30’ = 125 45’
 2
 WCD‫א‬‫א‬
 180O + 125O 45’ = 305O 45’
 125O 45’WCD‫א‬‫א‬
199O 30’ – 180O = 19O AD‫א‬J
 30’
O
19 30’ + 20 30’ O
= 20 W‫א‬‫א‬
O

 2
 WDA‫א‬‫א‬
 180O + 20 = 200 O O

 20DA‫א‬‫א‬

E٢J ٣F،ABCD‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٢F
 E٢J ٣F
‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 o '  o '  o
 AB  34  15  214  15  180
 BC  30  15  210  15  180
 CD  304  45  125  45  180
 DA  200  00  20  00  180

.(١) ‫ ( ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺭﻗﻡ‬2)


- ٤٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 427‫א‬‫א‬8242‫א‬AB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
 ‫؟‬AB‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،30Z‫א‬AB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
 ‫؟‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ K٥
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٦

- ٥٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
< ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬%١٠٠‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K٣٦

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١
 K‫א‬‫א‬ K٢

- ٥١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W(Theodolite )‫א‬١J ٤
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٤
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ K١
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
 K‫א‬ K٤
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٥
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٦

 W‫א‬٣–٤
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫ א‬K٢
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫ א‬K٣

- ٥٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬W 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W  ‫א‬ K١
 KE١J ٤F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  EF‫א‬ ‫א‬


 
‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬L‫א‬  EF   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

ً / 0.10
0.20 ً 2َ 50.0 70 135 240 ‫ ﻓﻴﻠﺪ –ﺳﻮﻳﺴﺮﺍ‬T4
Wild
ً 0.50 َ
10 12.2 45 100 100 ‫ﻳﺴﻮﻳﺴﺮ‬-‫ ﻛﲑﻥ‬DKM3
Kern
ً
0.20 َ
10 8.0 40 76 98 ‫ ﺃﻭﺗﻴﺲ –ﺇﳒﻠﺘﺮﺍ‬Micro
ptic 3
ً
0.50 َ
10 32.0 80 140 200 ‫ ﺑﺮﻟﲔ‬-‫ ﺇﺳﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﻓﲑﻙ‬Tpr
ً
0.20 8َ / َ4 11.0 40 90 135 ‫ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﱵ‬T3
 E١J ٤F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W K٢
 KE٢J ٤F
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ EF‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬L‫א‬ EF   ‫א‬ ‫א‬
1ً َ 20 5.5 28 70 90 ‫ ﻓﻴﻠﺪ – ﺳﻮﻳﺴﺮﺍ‬T2 Wild
1ً َ 10 3.6 30 70 75 ‫ ﻛﲑﻥ – ﺳﻮﻳﺴﺮﺍ‬DKM2
Kern
1ً َ 20 5.3 31 60 84 ‫ ﺯﺍﻳﺲ ﺑﻴﻨﺎ – ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬Theo 010
1ً َ 20 5.5 30 70 90 ‫ ﺯﺍﻳﺲ ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬Th2
1ً َ 10 6.5 30 70 90 ‫ ﻓﻴﻨﻴﻞ – ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬FT2
1ً َ 10 6.5 30 60 91 ‫ﺮ‬‫ ﻣﻮﻡ – ﺍ‬Te- B1
MOM
1ً َ 20 5.2 25 65 90 ‫ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﱵ‬T2
1ً َ 10 6.3 28 76 98 ‫ ﺃﻭﺗﻴﺲ – ﺇﳒﻠﺘﺮﺍ‬Microptic 2
1ً َ 10 2.5 29 90 90 ‫ ﺇﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ‬TG 1B
1ً َ 10 6.0 30 80 94 ‫ ﺳﻮﻛﻴﺸﺎ – ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ‬TM 1A
 E٢J ٤F

- ٥٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬ K٣


 KE٤J ٤F،E٣J ٤F
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ EF‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬L‫א‬ EF   ‫א‬ ‫א‬
ً
10 َ
20 1.8 20 50 50 ‫ ﻛﲑﻥ ﺳﻮﻳﺴﺮﺍ‬DKM-
1Kern
ً
20 1ْ 4.2 28 70 89 ‫ ﻛﲑﻥ ﺳﻮﻳﺴﺮﺍ‬K1-RA
Kern
ً
20 1ْ 5.0 27 65 73 ‫ ﻓﻴﻠﺪ ﺳﻮﻳﺴﺮﺍ‬T1-A Wild
ً
30 1ْ 3.5 25 70 78 ‫ ﺯﺍﻳﺲ ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬Th3
ً
20 1ْ 4.6 30 70 90 ‫ﺑﺮﻟﲔ‬- ‫ ﺇﺳﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻓﲑﻛﺎ‬Tt
ً
10 َ
20 2.6 20 40 80 ‫ﺮ‬‫ ﻣﻮﻡ –ﺍ‬Te-E6
MOM
ً
10 َ
20 3.9 25 55 70 ‫ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﱵ‬TT4
ً
20 4.5 25 64 89 ‫ ﺃﻭﺗﻴﺲ –ﺇﳒﻠﺘﺮﺍ‬Microptic
1
ً
30 4.4 30 90 90 ‫ ﺇﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ‬41994
6ً 5.3 30 70 80 ‫ ﺳﻮﻛﻴﺸﺎ – ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ‬TM6
ً
10 َ
10 5.2 30 70 80 ‫ ﺳﻮﻛﻴﺸﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ‬TM 10
ً
20 5.00 30 70 80 ‫ ﺳﻮﻛﻴﺸﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ‬TM 20
ً
10 1ْ 4.5 28 70 80 ‫ ﻓﻮﺟﻲ – ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ‬T- 205
 E٣J ٤F

- ٥٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  EF‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬L‫א‬  ‫א‬L‫א‬ EF   ‫א‬ ‫א‬
1ً ْ1 4.3 25 74 96 ‫ ﺯﺍﻳﺲ ﺑﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬Theo
020
1ً ْ1 3.6 27 70 95 ‫ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﱵ‬T 5
1ً ْ1 4.8 25 76 84 ‫ﺮ‬‫ ﻣﻮﻡ – ﺍ‬Te – D2
1ً ْ1 4.7 28 79 79 ‫ ﻓﻴﻠﺪ – ﺳﻮﻳﺴﺮﺍ‬T 16
1ً ْ1 4.3 30 85 98 ‫ ﺃﻭﺑﺘﻮﻥ – ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬Th 4
1ً ْ1 4.9 30 70 90 ‫ ﺇﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ‬4150-
NE
1ً ْ1 5.2 30 90 95 ‫ ﺳﻮﻛﻴﺸﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ‬T 60 D
1ً 3.4 16 62 62 ‫ ﺯﺍﻳﺲ ﺑﻴﻨﺎ – ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬Theo
120
 E٤J ٤F
 WE١J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬٤–٤


‫א‬WE١J ٤F

- ٥٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W(VV)‫א‬‫ א‬K٦
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W(HH)‫א‬‫ א‬K٧
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W(LL)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٨
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W(ZZ)‫א‬ K٩
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬٥–٤
 E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬FW
 KE‫א‬FWild T2
 W‫א‬‫א‬١–٥J ٤
 K٥{٥‫א‬
 X٢٨‫א‬
 ٩٠‫א‬‫א‬
 ٧٠‫א‬‫א‬
 20‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ١‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬٢–٥J ٤
 KWild T2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬J

- ٥٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

T2 ‫ ﺟﻬﺎز‬:(٢-٤)‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

- ٥٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬ K١
K‫א‬‫ א‬K٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
K‫א‬‫ א‬K٤
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٥
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٦
K‫א‬‫א‬ K٧
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٨
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٩
K‫א‬‫ א‬K١٠
K K١١
K‫א‬‫א‬ K١٢
K‫א‬ K١٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١٤
 K‫א‬ K١٥
 K‫א‬ K١٦
K‫א‬ K١٧
K‫א‬‫א‬ K١٨
K‫א‬‫ א‬K١٩
K‫א‬‫א‬ K٢٠
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢٣
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢٤
 K‫א‬‫א‬ K٢٥
K‫א‬‫א‬ K٢٦

- ٥٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 WE٣J ٤FTribrach ‫א‬‫ א‬K









‫א‬‫א‬WE٣J ٤F

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫ א‬K
 W
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬FK ‫א‬  J
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬FK ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WAlidade E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫ א‬K
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF J
 K‫א‬‫א‬
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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ FK‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬400F‫א‬‫א‬360E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ J
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬EE‫א‬F‫א‬F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WTelescope E‫א‬F‫ א‬K
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬١٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
KE٤




‫א‬‫א‬WE٤J ٤F 

- ٦٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 WE٥J ٤FTripod‫א‬‫ א‬K








‫א‬‫א‬WE٥J ٤F

‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬–KE ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬EFJ ‫א‬
‫א‬K
 ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
 
 K‫א‬
 WShipping case ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٦J ٤FE٦J ٤F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬WE٦J ٤F WE٦J ٤F

 W‫א‬‫א‬٦J ٤
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
FK ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
،E ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
E ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬F‫א‬
  K٥
 KE‫א‬‫א‬FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٦
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٧
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،…‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٨
‫א‬K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٩
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K… ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١٠
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٦٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ K١١
 K‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١٢
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ K١٣
 K‫א‬
‫א‬ ، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ K١٤
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١٥
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬  K١٦
 K
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ K١٧
 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬٧J ٤
 W
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬W 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
،  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬–
 K‫א‬–
- ٦٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬–
 WCentering ‫א‬–
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W(Center with the Plumb Bob)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
‫א‬،EAF‫א‬ EAF
 K 
٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
‫א‬FEAF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE
F EAF‫א‬ J ٣
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬
 K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E  
E ‫א‬ F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 WCentering with the centering Rod‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢
‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ ، ‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٧J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬

- ٦٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬













‫א‬‫א‬WE٧J ٤F
 W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،EAF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬180O‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 W(Centering with the Optical Plummet) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٣
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 EAF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
 K‫א‬‫א‬
، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
‫א‬‫א‬EAF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

- ٦٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

(A)‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ J ٣
 K‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬٢،١‫ א‬J ١
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬EAF‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
 K‫א‬ J ٤
 W(Levelling)‫א‬–
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -١
 E١J ٨J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬K
 EFEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EFEF‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬EF‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ 90‫א‬‫א‬ -٢
 KE٢J ٨J ٤F‫א‬
 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 90‫א‬‫א‬ -٣
‫א‬ ‫א‬EF،EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٣J ٨J ٤FK‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 90‫א‬‫א‬ -٤
 KE٤J ٨J ٤FEF‫א‬‫א‬E3F
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-٥
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬










‫א‬‫א‬WE٨J ٤F 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 KEF‫א‬
 W (Focusing)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WE٩J ٤FReticle Cross Hairs ‫א‬‫א‬
 KEF‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬







‫א‬‫א‬WE٩J ٤F 

 WE١٠J ٤FTarget Image Focusing ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF
 K ‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F








‫א‬WE١٠J ٤F 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 WE‫א‬F(Sighting) ‫א‬–
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ،E ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W(Horizontal Circle Reading) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
E‫א‬F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KK‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 F
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،E ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KE
 ‫א‬F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬F
0.01 ‫א‬1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

- ٦٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

E١١J ٤FE‫א‬400F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤


EJ ١١J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
  ‫א‬‫א‬KE
 ١١J ٤F
 Kgrad 00.8‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬105Grad
E
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬K00.224grad ‫א‬‫א‬






‫א‬‫א‬WE١١J ٤F 

105.000 
000.8000
000.0224 
105.8224 grad

 W

105.8224 grad


 KE‫א‬400F‫א‬E360F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٢J ٤F‫א‬
 W

- ٧٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬












‫א‬‫א‬E١٢J ٤F

10‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬1‫א‬،94Z‫א‬‫א‬
 K244Z‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 940000
 001000
 00244
 941244





‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬KE
 ‫א‬‫א‬F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W 000030
 Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ٧١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ J ١
‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
 KE30Z‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬F030
 E‫א‬‫א‬
E Z‫א‬F00
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
 K‫א‬EZ‫א‬‫א‬F0 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬00
 0030Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 WFace LeftW‫א‬‫א‬–١
‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 WFace Right‫א‬‫א‬–٢
‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 WVertical Circle ReadingW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬E١٣J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
180‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EJ ١٤J ٤F‫א‬ J ١
270‫א‬ ‫א‬90‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

- ٧٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬180،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EJ ١٣J ٤F‫א‬ J ٢


‫א‬‫א‬90
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EJ ١٣J ٤F‫א‬ J ٣
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬270‫א‬‫א‬90‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬180
 K‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬









‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٣J ٤F

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 KEF‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬E،،،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٤J ٤FW

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬







‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٤J ٤F

E،،،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬– ‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
F‫א‬،E
 ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 KEF‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬E‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬FEF‫א‬ K٤
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬EF
٠٠
 ٠٠30‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٠٠
 ٠٠30‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٥
‫א‬(A)‫א‬‫א‬(1)‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 KEF
EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE،،،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE5J ٤FF
‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٦
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
KEF‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤٠
 ٢٣١٠
 KE5J ٤FF

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E،،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٧
1350559(C)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٦F 
 KE5J ٤F000033(A)،2881404(D)،
‫א‬‫א‬180‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬ K٨
EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬180E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
1800035‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(6)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 KEF
‫א‬‫א‬E،،،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٩
 K(6)‫א‬‫א‬
٢٦
 ٢٢12EF،٣١٥
 ٠٦01EF،١٠٨١٤04EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E،،،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1800030EF
 KE5J ٤FF
 ‫א‬EFE ،،،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١٠
KE١٥J ٤F‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٥J ٤F

- ٧٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬EF‫א‬E،،،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١J ٤F
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E5J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٨٠J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬
 = ‫א‬
 ٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬HE ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬Z
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F
 2
 00 0030Z0030H0030H00ZE–F‫א‬‫א‬
 2
 40 2211Z2210H2212H40ZE–F‫א‬‫א‬
 2
 0600Z0559H0601H135ZEJ F‫א‬‫א‬
 135
 2
 1404Z1404H1404H388ZEJ F‫א‬‫א‬
 288
 2
 00 0034Z0033H0035H00ZEJ F‫א‬‫א‬
 2
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 40
 2141Z0000
 30
 J 40
 1111
 Z^1EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 94
 4349Z403311–1350600Z^2EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 0804Z1350600–2881404Z^3EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 153
- ٧٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 71
 4630Z2881404–E00
 0034H360FZ^4EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 0004Z4^H3^H2^H1^ZEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 360
 K360
 Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 –‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬
 E‫א‬400 F360
 00
 0004HZ3600000–3600004Z‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬J
 Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 1 J Z4J Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 4
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
E‫א‬F‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 40
 2140Z000001–402141Z‫א‬1^‫א‬‫א‬
 94
 4348Z000001–94
 4349Z‫א‬2^‫א‬‫א‬
 153
 0803Z000001–1530804Z‫א‬3^‫א‬‫א‬

- ٧٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 71
 4629Z00001–714630Z‫א‬4^‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 360Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

.(١٠) ‫ ( ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺭﻗﻡ‬3)


- ٧٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 1L‫א‬ Wild T2L‫א‬  L‫א‬  L‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  L‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
   000 00 30      
  180 00 30      
  040 22 10      
  220 22 12      
   135 05 59      
  315 06 01      
   288 14 04      
  108 14 04      
   000 00 33      
  180 00 35      
       
       
       
      ‫א‬ 
Z    Z‫א‬ 
 E٥J ٤F

- ٧٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
 K‫א‬ J ٢
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K J ١
 K J ٢
 KE‫א‬F J ٣
 (Measuring of vertical angles) W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(Automatic index)E ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E90
 F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬Wild T2‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–E‫א‬F–‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٨٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 E٢F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E،،،F‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 J W
 K‫א‬E٢F،E١F‫א‬‫א‬ K١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬ K٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–E‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٢J ٤F‫א‬
٤٩
 ‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬–  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
 KEF‫א‬‫א‬KEF‫א‬‫א‬K94
 14
‫א‬‫א‬E،،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
9333٠٥
 EF،854406‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬874434EF
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬180‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬ K٥
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬180‫א‬
2674442EF ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣F‫א‬
 KEF‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬E،،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٦
2663635EF ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣F‫א‬
 K265
 4401EF2741540EF
E،،F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KEF‫א‬
 K‫א‬E،،،F‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٧

- ٨١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
 KE
 KE١٦J ٤FW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–90Z‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬100ZE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 270
 –‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ZE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬300–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ZE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KE?‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬H?‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F1L2Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬











‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٦J ٤F

- ٨٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

E٦J ٤F‫א‬E،،،F‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
1449–900000Z ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–90Z‫א‬‫א‬EF ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 4 1449J Z94
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
00–2654451Z270– ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ZE ‫א‬‫א‬FEF ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 4 1509J Z27000
 E‫א‬‫א‬F(B)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 4 1554HZ854406–900000Z
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E‫א‬‫א‬F(B)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 4 1540HZ2700000–2741540Z
 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
E?‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬H?‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F½Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ٠٤
ْ ١٤
َ 59
ْ - = ( ٠٤
ْ ١٤
َ 49
ً + ٠٤
ْ ١٥
َ 09
ً )½-=
 EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ْ ١٥
٠٤ َ 47
ً = ( ٠٤
ْ ١٥
َ ٥٤
ً + ٠٤
ْ ١٥
َ 40
ً )½=
 KE٦J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬

- ٨٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 WE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

.(١٠) ‫ ( ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺭﻗﻡ‬4)


- ٨٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 E٦J ٤F
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 1L‫א‬ Wild T2L‫א‬  L‫א‬  L‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1 ‫א‬  L‫א‬‫א‬  L‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  L‫א‬  L‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   94 14 49 -04 14 49 -04 14 59 ‫א‬  
  265 44 51 -04 15 09  ‫א‬ 
  85 44 06 04 15 54 -03 23 15 ‫א‬  Z 
  274 15 40 04 15 40   
   93 29 05 -03 23 05 02 15 22 ‫א‬  Z 
  266 96 35 -03 23 25   
   87 44 34 02 15 26 ‫א‬  2.00‫א‬
  272 15 18 02 15 18  ‫א‬ 
      
      
      
      
      
      

- ٨٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٢
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٤
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٥

- ٨٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
< ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
< ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬،(Digital Theodolite)‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪١٠٠‫א‬

 K٤٢W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١
 K K٢

- ٨٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W(Digital Theodolite) ‫א‬‫א‬


 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١J ٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
 K‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
 KEF‫א‬ J ٣
 W‫א‬‫א‬٢–٥
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬ J ١
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
 W‫א‬‫א‬٣–٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
 E
 ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
 K‫א‬
، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ J ٧
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J ٨
 ‫א‬‫א‬ J ٩
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١٠
K‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١١
 K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١٢

- ٨٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤J ٥
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
FKE١J ٥FK‫א‬ 
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬








‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١J ٥F 


 E٥FKDT 600‫א‬‫א‬EF

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬٣٤١C١٦٥CF١٦٥W‫א‬
 K4.2W‫א‬
 E‫א‬‫א‬FK236W‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٥٠
 ٢٠
 J FW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE70
 30
 J FW‫א‬
 KE٦٤C١٢٠F‫א‬‫א‬٨LCDW‫א‬

.(١٥) ‫ ( ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺭﻗﻡ‬5)


- ٨٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬
 K١٦٠W‫א‬
 KE26F26xW‫א‬
 K1 30W‫א‬
 0.9W
 K‫א‬‫א‬100W‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 7 W‫א‬
 K0.5W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 KR14/C٢W‫א‬
 K٢٥٢٣W‫א‬
 WE٢J ٥F‫א‬
 K‫א‬ J ١
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ J ٢
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣
 K‫א‬ J ٤
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬ J ٥
 K‫א‬‫ א‬J ٦
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٨
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٩
 KE٣J ٥FK‫ א‬J ١٠
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J ١١
 K‫א‬ J ١٢
 K‫א‬ J ١٣
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ J ١٤

- ٩٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬ J ١٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF J ١٦
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١٧
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١٨
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١٩
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF J ٢٠
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢١
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ J ٢٢
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬ J ٢٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢٤
K‫א‬ J ٢٥

 WE٣J ٥F WE٢J ٥F


 DT600

- ٩١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٤J ٥F‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
 KE٥J ٥FE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F(R14/C) J ٢
KE٦J ٥F‫א‬ J ٣

 ‫א‬WE٦J ٥F  WE٥J ٥F  WE٤J ٥F


 ‫א‬    ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬

 WCentering W‫א‬–
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
 KE٧J ٥F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
 E٨J ٥FK‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣
 KE٩J ٥F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬WE٩J ٥F  ‫א‬WE٨J ٥F  WE٧J ٥F


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬–
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
KE١٠J ٥F‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬WE١٠J ٥F 
 ‫א‬ 

KE١١J ٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢



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 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬






 
WE١١J ٥F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KE١٢J ٥F‫א‬






‫א‬WE١٢J ٥F 
 ‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٩٠‫א‬ J ٤
KE١٣J ٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



- ٩٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬







‫א‬‫א‬WE١٣J ٥F 
 ‫א‬‫א‬ 


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬٩٠‫א‬ J ٥
 W‫א‬‫א‬،E١٤J ٥F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٩٠‫א‬–
 K‫א‬


‫א‬WE١٤J ٥F
‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦
 K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J ٧


F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬
KE٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٨
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WE١٥J ٥FE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬–






WE١٥J ٥F
‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬E ‫א‬ F‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬W
 ‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬ ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
 FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W 
 KE٣J ٥F ON‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
 KE١٦J ٥FEF‫א‬
KE١٧J ٥FEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣








 ‫א‬‫א‬WE١٧J ٥F  ‫א‬‫א‬WE١٦J ٥F


 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
 KE٣J ٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E F‫ א‬J ٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E F‫ א‬J ٢
E F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
 K‫א‬

- ٩٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣

- ٩٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
< ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K١٢

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٠٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM)W ‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١J ٦
 WElectro – Optical Instruments W‫א‬‫א‬١–١J ٦
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Geodimeter)
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،E١J ٦F ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Ŝ = ½ V.t
 W
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WS
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬V
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WT







‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١J ٦F

- ١٠١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

(Microwave W ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ١J ٦


 WKDistance Measuring instruments)
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،E٢J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬









‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢J ٦F 
 W‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٦
،
 ‫א‬‫א‬(Altarnating Current (AC))
K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 (299792.5 + 0.4 km/sec)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 KEL١٠C٣F300000 km/sec
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
v
f =
λ

- ١٠٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬W λ
 K(Velocity)‫א‬WV
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Hertz) (Hz)F‫א‬K(Frequency )‫א‬WF
 K‫א‬
 W
 K‫א‬‫א‬1Hz
‫א‬K(S = ½ vt)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٣J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Phase Difference)
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٤J ٦FE٦F

‫א‬WE٤J ٦F ‫א‬WE٣J ٦F

.(٦) ‫ ( ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺭﻗﻡ‬6)


- ١٠٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣J ٦
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤J ٦
 W
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

 + 5 mm  
 5 ppm  
 

 (ppm: part per million )


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
 ‫א‬5km‫א‬200m‫א‬‫א‬

 +10mm + 5ppm 
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


- ١٠٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 E٢٠٠‫א‬FW‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
10 1
= = 50ppm
١٠٠٠×٢٠٠ ٢٠٠٠٠

 W‫א‬‫א‬

5
× 200 = + 0.001 M = +1mm
1000000

 K‫א‬١٠‫א‬(+5mm)‫א‬‫א‬
 WE5 KMF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
10 1
= = 1ppm
١٠٠٠×١٠٠٠ 1000

 W‫א‬‫א‬
5
× 10000 = + 0.05 M = +٥٠mm
1000000

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٠٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
‫א‬7km‫א‬،300m‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، + 12mm + 3ppm

- ١٠٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
< ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٠٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪١٠٠‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K١٢

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢

- ١٠٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W(Map)W‫א‬١–٧
‫א‬،
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٧
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢

 (Cadastral Maps)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١J ٢J ٧
٥٠٠W١،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٢٥٠٠W١١٠٠٠W١
 KE١J ٧F

WE١J ٧F

- ١٠٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
 K‫א‬ J ٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
 K‫א‬ J ٤
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦

 (Topographic Maps )W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٢J ٧
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٢J ٧F٥٠٠٠W١

‫א‬WE٢J ٧F

- ١٠٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-
 K‫א‬‫א‬ -
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬٣J ٧
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W٢W١‫א‬–١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WW١‫א‬–٢

- ١١٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE
 ٤C٦F
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-
 K‫א‬‫ א‬-
 K‫א‬‫א‬ -
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F250000W1 J ١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬100000W1 J ٢
 K100000W1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬5000W1 J ٣
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 KEW١F‫א‬‫א‬–١
 W‫א‬K٤٦
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫ א‬-
 KEF‫א‬‫ א‬-
K‫א‬‫א‬90‫א‬‫א‬90180‫א‬
 ‫א‬
‫א‬K
 180180K 360‫א‬
 KE٣J ٧F

‫א‬‫א‬WE٣J ٧F

- ١١١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 250000W1‫א‬‫א‬–٢
C١{٥١٦ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 J WE4218F١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E18NF‫ א‬-
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E42EF‫א‬ -
 KE٤J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬







‫א‬‫א‬WE٤J ٧F 

 WEF100000W1‫א‬–٣
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K
 CK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٥J ٧F‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٠٠٠٠٠W١‫א‬WE٥J ٧F

- ١١٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 KE4218F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
 C J ٢
K4&3&2&1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬J
 K4218J 1
 K4218J 2
 K4218J 3
 K4218J ٤

 KE4218J 2FE٥J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬
 KEF50000W1‫א‬–٤
J ٧)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬100000W1‫א‬
 KE٦J ٧FE٥







٥٠٠٠٠W١‫א‬WE٦J ٧F 

‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١

- ١١٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
 K 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
 W‫א‬‫א‬٤J ٧
‫א‬،
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬ ،  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 J W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ -
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬٥J ٧
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٦J ٧
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

- ١١٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 J W
 K‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ 
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K
‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ، ‫א‬‫א‬
KE٧F‫א‬‫א‬

.(١٣) ‫ ( ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺭﻗﻡ‬7)


- ١١٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬ J ١
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦

- ١١٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
< ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪١٠٠‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٢

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

- ١١٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W١J ٨
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
  
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ KEF
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬W٢J ٨
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K(North Pole)N.P‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K(South Pole)S.P‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬ ‫א‬F
 W،E١J ٨F
 12713824 mZ‫א‬‫א‬
 12756776 mZ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 12735300 mZ‫א‬
 6367650 mZ ErF‫א‬







‫א‬‫א‬WE١J ٨F

- ١١٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬W١J ٢J ٨
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٢J ٨FK‫א‬






‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢J ٨F
 W‫א‬
rZ‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 r Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z&‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z
WEquator ‫א‬‫א‬W٢J ٢J ٨
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E٣J ٨F

- ١١٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬









‫א‬‫א‬WE٣J ٨F 

 W‫א‬‫א‬W٣J ٢J ٨
 Longitude λ (F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
180360٥K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬K 180
 KE٤J ٨FK‫א‬







‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٤J ٨F

- ١٢٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 Latitude E ΦF‫א‬
 ‫א‬180K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 KE٥J ٨FK90‫א‬‫א‬90








‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٥J ٨F


 KE٦J ٨FW‫א‬‫א‬W٣J ٨









‫א‬‫א‬WE٦J ٨F 


- ١٢١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬Er F‫א‬‫א‬
 W

r = r cos (Ø)

 W
 ‫א‬‫א‬Wr
 ‫א‬Wr
 K‫א‬‫א‬WØ

 W
K‫א‬‫א‬  43 30
 ‫א‬K 24  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K6367650 mZ‫א‬
 W‫א‬

r = r cos (Ø) 


 r =6367650 COSE24
 4330F
 =5783901 m 

- ١٢٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٤J ٨
 KE٧J ٨FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬









‫ اﻷﺳﺘﻮاء‬‫א‬WE٧J ٨F

 24360٥‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K15
 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

λZ15 t 

 W
 K‫א‬‫א‬Zt
 K‫א‬‫א‬Zλ

 W
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
180
 K‫א‬
EF‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-
K‫א‬

- ١٢٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬ EF‫א‬ ‫א‬‫ א‬-


KE٨J ٨F

‫א‬WE٨J ٨F


 W
 W‫א‬J ١
 tHZ‫א‬
 W‫א‬J ٢
Kt–Z‫א‬

 W
‫א‬‫؟‬8‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 λ = 45O

- ١٢٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 λ = 15t
 45 = 15t
 ٤٥
 t Z ٣
 ١٥

 K 11= 3+8W‫א‬‫א‬


 WEProjectionF‫א‬W٥J ٨
 K‫א‬
 ‫א‬W١J ٥J ٨
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬J ١
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬J ٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬J ٤
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬W٢J ٥J ٨
K‫א‬EØ،λF‫א‬‫א‬x , y‫א‬
 W
 K‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
K‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢

- ١٢٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬W٣J ٥J ٨
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 W‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬J ١
 K‫א‬J ٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬J ٣

 W‫א‬W١J ٣J ٥J ٨
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٩J ٨F‫א‬‫א‬J ١










‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٩J ٨F





- ١٢٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬J ٢
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ،
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٠J ٨F








‫א‬‫א‬WE١٠J ٨F 

 W‫א‬W٢J ٣J ٥J ٨
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬، 
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
KE١١J ٨FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




- ١٢٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬









‫א‬‫א‬WE١١J ٨F 

،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ،E١٢J ٨F ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬








‫א‬WE١٢J ٨F

- ١٢٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬W٣J ٣J ٥J ٨
K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 KE١٣J ٨F‫א‬‫א‬









‫א‬‫א‬WE١٣J ٨F 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 WUniversal Transverse Mercator (UTM)W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٤J ٥J ٨
 W
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F J ١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J ٣
KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٢٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬
 ،6٥Z60 ‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
‫א‬
‫א‬3٥
KE١٤J ٨FK‫א‬






UTMWE١٤J ٨F


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
 ‫א‬E180٥،174٥F‫א‬‫א‬

E٥J 6٥F‫א‬31‫א‬‫א‬
E١J ٨FE١٥J ٨F










 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ WE١٥J ٨F 

- ١٣٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 E١J ٨F
 ‫א‬UTM
‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻭﺩ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
180O 11 117OW 114OW 21 57OW 54OW
1 177OW 174OW 114OW 54OW
174OW 12 111OW 108OW 22 51OW 48OW
2 171OW 168OW 108OW 48OW
168OW 13 105OW 102OW 23 45OW 42OW
3 165OW 162OW 102OW 42OW
162OW 14 99OW 96OW 24 39OW 36OW
4 159OW 165OW 96OW 36OW
165OW 15 93OW 90OW 25 33OW 30OW
5 153OW 150OW 90OW 30OW
150OW 16 87OW 84OW 26 27OW 24OW
6 147OW 144OW 84OW 24OW
144OW 17 81OW 78OW 27 21OW 18OW
7 141OW 138OW 78OW 18OW
138OW 18 75OW 72OW 28 15OW 12OW
8 135OW 132OW 72OW 12OW
132OW 19 69OW 66OW 29 09OW 06OW
9 129OW 126OW 66OW 06OW
126OW 20 63OW 60OW 30 03OW 00OW
10 123OW 120OW 60OW 00OW
120OW

- ١٣١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 E١J ٨F
 ‫א‬UTM
‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻭﺩ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
31 03OE 06OE 41 63OE 66OE 51 123OE 126OE
06OE 66OE 126OE
32 09OE 12OE 42 69OE 72OE 52 129OE 132OE
12OE 72OE 132OE
33 15OE 18OE 43 75OE 78OE 53 135OE 138OE
18OE 78OE 138OE
34 21OE 24OE 44 81OE 84OE 54 141OE 144OE
24OE 84OE 144OE
35 27OE 30OE 45 87OE 90OE 55 147OE 150OE
30OE 90OE 150OE
36 33OE 36OE 46 93OE 96OE 56 153OE 156OE
36OE 96OE 156OE
37 39OE 42OE 47 99OE 102OE 57 159OE 162OE
42OE 102OE 162OE
38 45OE 48OE 48 105OE 108OE 59 165OE 168OE
48OE 108OE 168OE
39 51OE 54OE 49 111OE 114OE 59 171OE 174OE
54OE 114OE 174OE
40 57OE 60OE 50 117OE 120OE 60 177OE 180O
60OE 120OE


60٥&34٥‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
40،39،38،37،36E60٥J 54
 J 48
 J 42
 J 36
 J 30
 F
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٣٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ J ١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬60‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤
K
(E)‫א‬‫א‬EXFW‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
K(N)‫א‬‫א‬(y)K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 λ
N = Ør
180
 
1+SIN
 r
E =
 ٢
ln E λ
1-SIN λ
F


- ١٣٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W
 WUTME١٦J ٨F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 46
ْ 43 َ = λ
ْ 38
24 َ  = Ø

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٦J ٨F

 W‫א‬
 λ
N = Ør
180
 
λ
N = E°٢٤ ٣٨
َ F C ٦٣٦٧٦٥٠ C
180
Z ٢٧٣٧٦٦١m





 r 1+SIN λ
E =
 ٢
ln E 1-SIN λ F
 

1+SIN(°٤٦٤٣)
E =
٦٣٦٧٦٥٠
٢
ln E 1-SIN (°٤٦٤٣)
F Z ٥٨٨٦٢٥٥m

- ١٣٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W J ١
 K‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬324315‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
 ‫؟‬6367650mZ‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٥
 WUTM‫א‬‫ א‬J ٦
λ = 52 27
Ø = 33 42

- ١٣٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
< ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٢

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٣٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 WW١J ٩
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬W٢J ٩
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬W١J ٢J ٩
 K١
 K٢
 K٣
 WW

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WW
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WW
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬W٢J ٢J ٩
 ‫א‬J ١
 ‫א‬J ٢
 ‫א‬K٣
 W‫א‬W
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٣٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬٪100‫א‬
 K‫א‬ J ١
K J ٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤
K‫א‬ J ٥
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٦
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧
 W‫א‬W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬W
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬W٣J ٩
 ‫א‬K١
 ‫א‬K٢
 ‫א‬K٣
 ‫א‬‫א‬K٤
 W‫א‬W١J ٣J ٩
‫א‬‫א‬K 
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬K١
 ‫א‬‫א‬K٢
 ‫א‬‫א‬K٣

- ١٣٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬W
 ‫א‬‫ א‬K١
‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
EKKKKK‫א‬–F‫א‬ K٣
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
‫א‬ K٥
‫א‬‫א‬ K٦
E ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ K٧
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٨
‫א‬‫א‬ K٩
‫א‬‫ א‬K١٠
‫א‬‫א‬ K١١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١٢
‫א‬‫ א‬K١٣
‫א‬‫ א‬K١٤
W‫א‬‫א‬ K١٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
K‫א‬‫א‬ -

- ١٣٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬W
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫ א‬K١
  K٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٣
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
 W‫א‬‫א‬W
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
 W‫א‬‫א‬J ٣
 W‫א‬‫א‬–
 K‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬EF
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF
 K‫א‬EF
 K‫א‬EF
 W‫א‬W٢J ٣J ٩
 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
‫א‬ J ٢
‫א‬ J ٣

- ١٤٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
K‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
KEEllipseF‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤
KEEUTMF‫א‬FK‫א‬‫ א‬J ٥
K‫א‬‫ א‬J ٦
K‫א‬ J ٧
K‫א‬ J ٨
K‫א‬ J ٩
K‫א‬‫ א‬J ١٠
K‫א‬ J ١١
‫א‬ J ١٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١٣
 W‫א‬W
 W
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦
K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٤١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬W
‫א‬
  
 W
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬EF
 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
 W‫א‬EF
 W
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
K‫א‬ J ٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣
K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
 W‫א‬EF
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ١٤٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬


 W‫א‬‫א‬J ١
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬J ٢
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KEHard diskF‫א‬‫א‬ •

 KECDF‫א‬ •

 KK •

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬EF
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬W٣J ٣J ٩
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٤٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬W٤J ٣J ٩
‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
W‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
 K‫א‬K
 K‫א‬K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٤٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬ J ١
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
 K‫א‬‫ א‬J ٥
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦

- ١٤٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  EF‫א‬‫א‬  
  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 K،K‫א‬KE١٩٨٣F، J ١
 K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬K، J ٢
KE١٩٩١F‫א‬،K،‫א‬K،  J ٣
 K‫א‬،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬KE١٩٨٩F، J ٤
 K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K، J ٥
 KK‫א‬‫א‬KE١٩٩٧F، J ٦
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE١٩٨٩FKK، J ٧
 K‫א‬،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K، J ٨
 K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K، J ٩
KE٢٠٠٠F‫א‬،K‫א‬،K، J ١٠
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K
 ‫א‬E
 F‫א‬K‫א‬،K، J ١١
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬K،‫א‬K،‫א‬ J ١٢
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬KE٢٠٠٢F‫א‬،K‫א‬، J ١٣
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
14- Davis , Raymod E., Foote, Francis S., Anderson, James M. and Mikhail , Edward M.
(1981) . Surveying: Theory and practice.Mc Graw – Hill.

15- SOKKIA, Surveying instrument (1999). Electronic Digital Theodolite : Operator’s manual
. SOKKIA Co., LTD.

- ١٤٦ -
 ‫א‬  EF‫א‬‫א‬  
  ‫א‬


‫א‬  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ١  ‫א‬J ١
 ٢  ‫א‬١J ١
 ٢  ٢J ١
 ٣  ‫א‬٣J ١
 ٤  ‫א‬٤J ١
 ٩  ‫א‬J ٢
 ١٠  ‫א‬‫א‬١J ٢
 ١٠  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٢
 ١٨  E‫א‬F‫א‬٣J ٢
 ٢١  ‫א‬‫א‬٤J ٢
 ٢٩  ‫א‬٥J ٢
 ٣٢  ‫א‬J ٣
 ٣٣  ‫א‬‫א‬١J ٣
 ٣٥  ‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٣
 ٣٦  ‫א‬‫א‬٣J ٣
 ٤١  ‫א‬٤J ٣
 ٥١  ‫א‬‫א‬J ٤
 ٥٢  ‫א‬١J ٤
 ٥٢  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٤
 ٥٢  ‫א‬٣J ٤
 ٥٥  ‫א‬‫א‬٤J ٤
 ٥٦  ‫א‬‫א‬٥J ٤
 ٦٢  ‫א‬‫א‬٦J ٤
 ٦٣  ‫א‬٧J ٤
 ‫א‬  EF‫א‬‫א‬  
  ‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٨٧  ‫א‬‫א‬J ٥
 ٨٨  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١J ٥
 ٨٨  ‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٥
 ٨٨  ‫א‬‫א‬٣J ٥
 ٨٩  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤J ٥
 ١٠٠  ‫א‬‫א‬J ٦
 ١٠١  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١J ٦
 ١٠٢  ‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٦
 ١٠٤   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣J ٦
 ١٠٤  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤J ٦
 ١٠٧  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٧
 ١٠٨  ‫א‬١J ٧
 ١٠٩  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٧
 ١١٠  ‫א‬‫א‬٣J ٧
 ١١٤  ‫א‬‫א‬٤J ٧
 ١١٤  ‫א‬‫א‬٥J ٧
 ١١٤  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٦J ٧
 ١١٧  ‫א‬‫א‬J ٨
 ١١٨  ١J ٨
 ١١٨  ‫א‬٢J ٨
 ١٢١  ‫א‬‫א‬٣J ٨
 ١٢٣  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤J ٨
 ١٢٥  ‫א‬٥J ٨
 ١٣٦  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٩
 ١٣٧  ١J ٩
 ‫א‬  EF‫א‬‫א‬  
  ‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ١٣٧  ‫א‬٢J ٩
 ١٣٨  ‫א‬‫א‬٣J ٩
 ١٤٦  ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

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