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Assignment 1st Network management 7th sem Computer science

what is an use of ICMP???

The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) [RFC792] protocol is classic example of a client server application. The ICMP server executes on all IP end system computers and all IP intermediate systems (i.e routers). The protocol is used to report problems with delivery of IP datagrams within an IP network. It can be sued to show when a particular End System (ES) is not responding, when an IP network is not reachable, when a node is overloaded, when an error occurs in the IP header information, etc. The protocol is also frequently used by Internet managers to verify correct operations of End Systems (ES) and to check that routers are correctly routing packets to the specified destination address.

ICMP messages generated by router R1, in response to message sent by H0 to H1 and forwarded by R0. This message could, for instance be generated if the MTU of the link between R0 and R1 was smaller than size of the IP packet, and the packet had the Don't Fragment (DF) bit set in the IP packet header. The ICMP message is returned to H0, since this is the source address specified in the IP packet that suffered the problem. A modern version of Path MTU Discovery provides a mechanism to verify the Path MTU [RFC4821]. The format of an ICMP message is shown above. The 8-bit type code identifies the types of message. This is followed by at least the first 28 bytes of the

packet that resulted in generation of the error message (i.e. the network-layer header and first 8 bytes of transport header). This payload is, for instance used by a sender that receives the ICMP message to perform Path MTU Discovery so that it may determine IP destination address of the packet that resulted in the error. Longer payloads are also encouraged It is the responsibility of the network layer (IP) protocol to ensure that the ICMP message is sent to the correct destination. This is achieved by setting the destination address of the IP packet carrying the ICMP message. The source address is set to the address of the computer that generated the IP packet (carried in the IP source address field) and the IP protocol type is set to "ICMP" to indicate that the packet is to be handled by the remote end system's ICMP client interface.

Types of messages and format???

ICMP Error Messages

ICMP Error Messages are used when it is necessary to report a problem that is preventing delivery from occurring. Although IP is an unreliable protocol that may fail without warning, it is important for the network to know when problems occur that will prevent delivery from ever occurring. Destination Unreachable A Destination Unreachable Error Message can signify any number of problems. It can mean that a router was unable to find a path to a remote system, or it can mean that a port number on the destination system is currently unavailable, or a variety of other problems. Time ExceededTime Exceeded Error Messages are used to indicate that a forwarding or reassembly operation took too long to complete, and the reporting device is discarding the data.

Redirect The Redirect Error Message is used whenever a router needs to inform a sender of a shorter path to the specified destination. This message is typically seen when users only have a single (default) route defined on a network with multiple routers, and they should be sending datagrams for a specific network to a router other than the default. If the users don't send the datagrams to the "better" router, then the default router may use Redirect Error Messages to inform the sender of the correct router to use. Source Quench Whenever a device is sending too much data for the destination host to process, the recipient can send an ICMP Source Quench Error Message back to the sender, suggesting the sender throttle back on the rate at which it is sending data. If the sender does not slow down, then some packets are likely be discarded by the congested device. Parameter Problem The Parameter Problem Error Message generally means that something is wrong with the IP datagram itself, and that the datagram is being discarded. ICMP Query Messages

Since ICMP is a generic messaging protocol, it is also useful for determining general characteristics about the network. ICMP Query Messages provide this service, allowing systems to request information about the network in general. ICMP queries are conversational by nature, with one system seeking information from another, and with the remote system returning the requested information. This is seen with the ping program's use of Echo Request Query Messages, which are responded to with Echo Reply Query

Messages. This model is in contrast to the "one-way" nature of ICMP Error Messages, which are sent but not responded to. Echo Request and Echo Reply The ICMP Echo Request Query Message is a probe sent by a user to a destination system, which responds with an ICMP Echo Reply Query Message (assuming it received the original Echo Request Query Message). RFC 1122 states that "every host must implement an ICMP Echo server." Since this service is mandatory, any user should be able to send an ICMP Echo Request to any host on the Internet and receive an ICMP Echo Reply message back. However, this is not always the case, as firewalls may be blocking the packets (for security reasons), or the packets may simply fail to be delivered. Timestamp Request and Timestamp Reply Another pair of ICMP Query Messages that can be useful for testing the network is the Timestamp Request and Timestamp Reply Query Messages, which allow a sender to determine the amount of latency that a particular network is experiencing, bi-directionally. A message is sent with an originating timestamp, and a reply is generated with a "received" timestamp and a "returned" timestamp. The original sender can compare these fields to determine the amount of latency for each direction, as well as the amount of processor utilization on the target host. Address Mask Request and Address Mask Reply RFC 792 defined a variety of host-configuration messages, allowing diskless systems to obtain IP addresses and other data during the boot process by using ICMP messages. However, the primary ICMP Query Messages used for this the Information Request and Information Reply Query Messages - have since been deprecated and are now obsolete. The Address Mask Request and Address Mask Reply Query Messages are also somewhat obsolete, although their usage has not been deprecated as of yet. Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement The Router Discovery protocol consists of a Router Solicitation Query Message which is issued by hosts when they first become active on the network (sent to

the all-routers multicast address of Each router on the network should then respond to the Router Solicitation Query Messages with a unicast Router Advertisement Query Message, informing the querying device directly of the IP addresses that can be used for packet forwarding. In addition, routers will also issue unsolicited Router Advertisement messages on a periodic basis (sent to the all-hosts multicast address of, allowing hosts to change their routing tables as higher-priority routers become available, or to expire old routers if they are no longer being advertised after a certain length of time.