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LOREM IPSUM DOLOR 1. Color Kinetics Name of Light; 2. Beta LED Light; 3. eW Profile Undercabinet Lights; 4. Color Kinetics eWblast Flood Lights; 5. Albeotech Cove Lights; 6. Traditional HPS Area Lights; 7. Betaled Area Lights; 8. Ledtronics Flood Lights; 9. Phillips Down Light

A Future Lit by

LEDs
LEDs

New technologies make LEDs a practical, energy-saving choice for many lighting applications

BY CHAR L I E LAWSO N

LED lighting technologies are getting a lot of attention these days, as green building comes of age and people look for ways to save energy. It makes sense to focus on lighting, since it accounts for between 25 to 40 percent of total energy use in commercial buildings. However, LEDs rise to fame has been so rapid that many in the building industry are still unfamiliar with them, and even if they are familiar with them, they may still wonder if LED lighting is practical and a ordable for their project. These days, because of the rapid improvements and decreasing costs of LED technologies, the answer is often “yes.”

What is LED Lighting?

LED lighting is a type of solid-state light- ing (SSL) that uses light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as sources of illumination rather than electrical filaments, plasma, or gas. LEDs present many advantages over tradi- tional light sources. The highest-e cacy LEDs today produce about 50 lumens per watt, more than twice the output of incan- descent and halogen lamps. Although fluorescent lamps have higher output than today’s LEDs, the ability to more precisely focus LED light output can enable LED luminaires to outperform fluorescents in certain applications. LEDs also have a very long life (30,000 to 50,000 hours) and are the only common non-incandescent light source that does not rely on mercury vapor. LEDs typically use 80 percent less energy than incandescent and 30 percent less energy than CFLs. They also can be dimmed more cost e ectively by varying the current. In addition, the typically small mass of a solid-state electronic lighting device provides for greater resistance

to shock and vibration compared to brittle glass tubes or bulbs and long, thin filament wires.

LEDs Potential

 

for Indoor Applications

In a September 2008 report, The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SSL Division analyzed LED savings in niche markets where LEDs compete or are poised to compete with traditional lighting sources (e.g., incandescent and fluorescent). Some of these markets include down lighting, retail display lighting, under cabinet lighting, and track lighting. In all of the applications listed, LEDs performed as well or better than current technology, including CFL bulbs. According to the report, the highest energy savings would occur when LED down lighting com- pletely replaces current down lighting.

Down Lighting.

LED down lights now outperform their

competitors, sometimes where color

quality is concerned, sometimes in their lifespan or e ciency, and other times they lead the way in all three areas.

Retail Display Lighting.

During the past five years, technical advances in white LEDs have enabled LED- refrigerated-display-case-lighting systems to o er energy savings when replacing fluorescent systems, and now prove to be a much more e cient way to light refrig- eration areas. The superior color temper- ature of these LED products and their

ability to withstand colder environments will surely expedite their dominance of this market. The most common light source for retail display lighting is linear fluorescent track lighting to provide accent or display case lighting, followed by halogen or incan- descent spotlights to provide high- brightness focal-point lighting. Carefully designed LED systems can be viable alternatives to all three of these conven- tional lighting systems. One strategy is to replace high power

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COURTESY FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER

COURTESY FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER BUILDING BLOCKS 1. at Oberley selected insulated concrete block because it

BUILDING BLOCKS 1. at Oberley selected insulated concrete block because it was low maintenance, fire and hurricane reistant, and o ered R-30 insulation e cienc istant, and ofistant, and o ered R-30 insulation

white incandescent or halogen spotlights with colored LEDs for feature displays to draw the customer’s attention. Controlled experiments in retail stores have shown an increase in positive consumer emotions and greater handling of products lighted under colored LED lighting. Another strategy is to replace high wattage incan- descent, halogen, and even CFL reflector lamps with LED reflector lamps. LED reflector lamps, unlike CFL reflector lamps, can serve for both directional and ambient lighting applications. E cient linear LED fixtures are also available to replace magnetic T12 linear fluorescent track lighting systems less than four feet in length and magnetic U- bent T12 fluorescent systems with low fixture e ciencies.

Task Lighting.

In the last five years, LED task lighting products have been introduced on the market as replacements to ine cient incandescent, halogen, and T12 and cir- cline fluorescent task lights used in the commercial, industrial, and residential sectors. In 2007, DOE estimated that LED task lights have the potential to save 13 terrawatts/year if the entire market shifted to LED technology. This amounts to the annual consumption of two large (1,000 MW) coal power plants or the

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annual electricity consumption of one million U.S. households.

Outdoor LED Applications

Outdoor white lighting applications have become the most widely adopted uses for LED. The energy savings and decreased maintenance needs are more apparent in these applications, and the quality of light in parking areas and garages has led to widespread adoption of the technology. However, a very large share of the marketplace still remains open for retrofit. As with indoor white lighting applica- tions, the higher initial cost keeps a lot of customers tied to conventional lighting. Although several cities have begun to adopt LED street and area lights, the num- ber of LED streetlights these cities have installed amounts to less than one-tenth of one percent of the total installed base of streetlights in the United States. A similar promising niche application for LEDs is residential step, path, and porch lighting. Several manufacturers have created specialized products for this application, with some designs winning the annual Lighting for Tomorrow prizes for innovative and energy-e cient LED product designs. LED products are bene- ficial in this application because they provide enhanced nighttime visibility, longer lifetimes, and energy savings

COURTESY FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER BUILDING BLOCKS 1. at Oberley selected insulated concrete block because it
COURTESY FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER BUILDING BLOCKS 1. at Oberley selected insulated concrete block because it

BIM contributes to high-performance, sustainable green buildings

when replacing incandescent or halogen outdoor lighting, especially the more high powered landscape lighting. Other outdoor applications will soon follow, especially applications in which the brightness of LED lighting increases both consumer and employee safety and achieves considerable maintenance and energy savings, such as lighting for haz- ardous areas in the industrial field and places like correctional facilities.

COURTESY FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER BUILDING BLOCKS 1. at Oberley selected insulated concrete block because it

How Many Dollars Does it

COURTESY FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER BUILDING BLOCKS 1. at Oberley selected insulated concrete block because it

Cost to Change a Light Bulb?

When looking at the true cost of imple- menting LED lighting, we must consider not only the initial installation cost, but the maintenance scenario over the next 15 to 20 years, depending on hours of usage and expected lifetime of the particular LED fixture. We must compare these num- bers to the initial cost of metal halide or HPS bulbs, as well as the hours it takes to change the bulbs at the end of their life- time, how much a man or snorkel lift will cost for the day, and lost revenue if tra c needs to be diverted or parking shut down. And, we look at those costs each time one of those bulbs reaches the end of its life. Now we start to see a return on invest- ment (ROI) that shifts from the 10-year mark down to between two and five years in some cases. Recently, a DOE Gateway analysis of an LED-lit parking lot at Raley’s supermar- ket in West Sacramento, Calif., found a 70 percent energy savings with LED over the usual metal halide solution. Another benefit of LED technology played a large role in that savings. The fixtures are instant on/o and dimmable. Sensors were installed that switched the LED fixtures to half power when the parking lot was unoccupied. In this case, the LED lights showed an ROI of less than five years. When examining the cost for indoor LED lighting, we have to factor in the cost of cooling an indoor space and how light- ing a ects indoor temperatures. We don’t leave maintenance completely out of the mix for hard-to-reach bay or ceiling

COURTESY FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER BUILDING BLOCKS 1. at Oberley selected insulated concrete block because it

in many ways, as the model created with BIM greatly reduces the ambiguity

fixtures and display fixtures that are in precarious positions; however, the heat emitted from indoor fluorescent, incan- descent, metal halide, and HPS lighting fixtures have a major impact on the BTUs it takes to cool a building. In most of the cost comparisons between LED and tradi- tional indoor lighting systems, when we take into account energy savings and main- tenance costs, once again we are looking at an ROI of less than five years. We will most likely not see a single point in time where the general public begins a mass exodus to LED lighting, but rather a series of applications that start to switch over. The switch has already started in area, street, and parking lot lighting. The next big push seems to be in down lighting and under cabinet applications.

DOE and the Illuminating Engineering Society are putting considerable e ort into solid-state-lighting technology and making sure that the industry is aware of the current limitations and when a partic- ular product is ready for widespread use. In the meantime, LED lighting is pro- ving itself to be a ordable, if you take a comprehensive look at what the “true cost” of light really is.

COURTESY FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER BUILDING BLOCKS 1. at Oberley selected insulated concrete block because it
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W HAT YOU S HOU LD K N OW B EF OR E YOU IN V E ST I N LED s

Ask the manufacturer or lighting consulting company you are working with the following questions before you purchase an LED lighting product.

LM-79-08 is the test procedure developed by the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES) for measuring electrical and photometric characteristics of SSL sources, and is the easiest and most reliable way of comparing products. Conscientious manufacturers will have tested their luminaires to this procedure and should be willing to provide the information. Knowing whether a product was tested at a particular CCT is important, because LED perfor- mance tends to vary significantly with spectral output.

The expected life of LED luminaires is usually tied to projections of lumen maintenance at various operating temperatures. Lifetime claims of 50,000 to 100,000 hours are common, but most products have been on the market less than a year and are undergoing almost continual LED and other design upgrades, so it will likely be some time before their actual lifetimes can be reliably predicted. In the meantime, IES has developed the LM-80-08 test procedure for producing the data needed to project LED lumen maintenance. Because the procedure was only finalized in September 2008, many products won’t have LM-80-08 data available yet, but conscientious luminaire manufacturers will at least have measured the steady-state operating temperature of the LEDs in situ to confirm they’re operating at or below the LED manufacturer’s maximum recommended level.

One indication of how confident manufacturers are about their lifetime data is how willing they are to back it up with a warranty. Compare warranty terms and conditions. They vary widely.

BUG stands for “backlight-uplight-glare,” and is used by IES in place of the outdated cuto

classifications to indicate the di erent vertical zones of the entire sphere around the luminaire. BUG ratings indicate a product’s e ectiveness in directing light only where it’s wanted. Data

should be provided on the amount of lumens emitted in each zone.

F lorida G reen B uilding.org

It’s important to compare the information above for any LED luminaire being considered along- side that of the incumbent product to ensure a satisfactory result from the planned replace-

LED LIGHTS S AV E F LORI DA D E V ELOPM EN T T HOUSA ND S O F DO LL ARS

A southern Florida residential development will save $9,000 a year thanks to its decision to light its landscape with LEDs. Jacaranda Lakes, a community of 1,200 middle-upper- class homes in the Ft. Lauderdale suburb of Plantation, recently commissioned a

specialty landscape-lighting contract firm, to create a lighting plan for six entrances, as well as the development’s park.

The lighting firm knew that lighting the expansive entrances would require hundreds of accent lights. With soaring electricity costs, lighting of this scope would translate to significant electricity bills. In addition, the neighborhood associa- tion pays a maintenance fee every time a bulb burns out and needs to be replaced. With hundreds of lights, maintenance costs quickly pile up.

To circumvent electricity and maintenance fees, contractors suggested LED lighting that emitted the warm, white light home- owners and the association had come to expect from their development’s lighting. Plus, these lights use 75 percent less elec- tricity than typical incandescent lighting with an average life span of 20 years—not only saving on electricity costs, but elimi- nating the need to change bulbs.

The neighborhood association estimates that opting for LED instead of incandescent or halogen lighting will save Jacaranda Lakes $9,000 a year. This includes a dramatic drop in maintenance costs, a decrease in bulb/fixture damage and significant energy savings. Over the 20-year lifespan of the lighting, the development should see a savings of $180,000.

In addition, the association was so happy with the lighting results that they had the firm take out existing lighting from a previ- ously lit entrance and replace all the lighting with LED products.

“We love how all of the entrances look, we’re amazed by the energy savings, and we know the lighting is going to attract potential buyers and protect the value of our devel- opment’s homes,” said Joe Kay, Jacaranda

Lakes property manager. “I would recom-

mend LEDs to any development and home-

owner. You may pay a little more for the initial fixtures, but you’ll see dramatic cost savings over time. ”

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