Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 25

Rock mass classification system:

The most comprehensive & objective classification systems of rock mass are: - RMR (Rock Mass Rating) - Q- System. However, they are more complex than RQD. The system includes several essential properties of a rock body that evaluate its gross properties; i.e. material properties + mass properties

Rock Mass Rating, RMR:


Also called geomechanics classification, based on the work of Bieniawski (1973) The system includes stand-up time of an unsupported stand- time excavation & 6 other parameters: excavation parameters: - uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock material, UCS - Rock quality designation, RQD - Joint or discontinuity spacing - Conditions of discontinuity (infilling, persistence) - Conditions of groundwater - Orientation of discontinuity (strike & dip angle).

Collection of field data for RMR:


The rating of 6 parameters of the RMR are given in Table 1 to 6. For eliminating doubts due to subjective judgments, the rating judgments, for different parameters should be given a range in preference to a single value. (1) Uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock material (qc) The strength of the intact rock material should be obtained from rock cores, the ratings based on uniaxial compressive strength (preferred) & point-load strength as shown in Table 1. point-

Qualitative description Exceptionally strong Very strong Strong Average Weak

Compressive Strength (MPa) > 250 100 250 50 100 25 50 10 25

Point-load strength (MPa) 8 48 24 12 Use of uniaxial compressive strength is preferred - do - do -

Rating 15 12 7 4 2

Very weak

2 10

1 0

Extremely weak 1 2

Note: At compressive strength less than 0.6 MPa, many rock material would be regarded as soil

Table 1: Strength of intact rock material (Bieniawski, 1979) Bieniawski,

Collection of field data for RMR:


(2) Rock Quality Designation (RQD) RQD should be determined as previously discussed and rating are given in Table 2.

Qualitative description Excellent Good Fair Poor Very poor

RQD (%) 90 - 100 75 - 90 50 - 75 25 - 50 0 - 25

Rating 20 17 13 8 3

Table 2: Rock Quality Designation RQD (Bieniawski, 1979) Bieniawski,

Collection of field data for RMR:


(3) Spacing of discontinuities The term discontinuity includes joints, beddings or foliations, shear zones, minor faults, or other weakness planes. The linear distance between two adjacent discontinuities should be measured for all sets of discontinuities & the rating should be obtained from Table 3 for the most critical discontinuity.

Description Very wide Wide Moderate Close Very close

Spacing (m) >2 0.6 2 0.2 0.6 0.06 0.2 < 0.06

Rating 20 15 10 8 5

Note: If more than one discontinuities sets are present and the spacing of discontinuities of each set varies, consider the set with the lowest rating

Table 3: Spacing of discontinuities (Bieniawski, 1979) Bieniawski,

Collection of field data for RMR:


(4) Condition of discontinuity This parameter includes roughness of discontinuity surfaces, their separation (aperture or opening), length or continuity, weathering of the discontinuity surfaces, and infilling (gouge) material. The details of rating are given in Table 4.

Description Very rough and weathered, wall rock tight and discontinuous, no separation Rough and slightly weathered, wall rock surface separation < 1 mm Slightly rough and moderately to highly weathered, wall rock surface separation < 1 mm

Rating 30 25 20

Slickensided wall rock surface or 1 5 mm 10 thick gouge or 1 5 mm wide continuous discontinuity 5 mm thick soft gouge, 5 mm wide continuous discontinuity 0

Table 4: Condition of discontinuities (Bieniawski, 1979) Bieniawski,

Collection of field data for RMR:


(5) Ground water condition In the case of tunnel, the rate of inflow of ground water in litres per minute per 10 m length of the tunnel should be determined, or general condition can be described as completely dry, dry, damp, wet dripping & flowing. damp, flowing. If actual water pressure data is available, these should be stated & expressed in terms of the ratio of the seepage pressure to the major principal stress. The ratings as per the water condition are given in Table 5.

Inflow per 10m tunnel None length (litre/min) Joint water pressures / major principal stress General description Rating 0

< 10

10 25

25 125

> 125

0 0.1

0.1 0.2

0.2 0.5

> 0.5

Completely dry 15

damp 10

wet 7

dripping 4

flowing 0

Table 5: Ground water condition (Bieniawski, 1979) Bieniawski,

Collection of field data for RMR: Rating of the above 5 parameters (Table 1 to Table 5) are added to obtain what is called the basic rock mass rating - RMRbasic

Collection of field data for RMR:


(6) Orientation of discontinuities Orientation of discontinuities means the DIP and STRIKE of discontinuities (weakness planes). The dip angle is the angle between the horizontal and the discontinuity plane taken in a direction in which the plane dips. dips. The value of the dip and strike should be recorded as shown in Table 6, the orientation of tunnel axis or slope face or foundation alignment should also be recorded.

A. Orientation of tunnel/slope/foundation axis: ..

B. Orientation of discontinuities Set-1 Average strike: .. (from .. to .. ) Dip .. Set-2 Average strike: .. (from .. to .. ) Dip .. Set-3 Average strike: .. (from .. to .. ) Dip ..

Table 6: Orientation of discontinuities

Collection of field data for RMR:


(6) Orientation of discontinuities The influence of the strike & dip of the discontinuities is considered with respect to the direction of tunnel drivage or slope face orientation or foundation alignment. To facilitate a decision whether the strike & dip are favourable or not, reference should be made to Table 7 & Table 8 which provide a quantitative assessment of critical joint orientation effect with respect to tunnels & dams foundation respectively. Once the ratings for the effect of the critical discontinuity are are known, as shown in Table 9 an arithmetic sum of the joint adjustment rating in and the RMRbasic is obtained. This number is called the final rock mass rating RMR.

Strike perpendicular to tunnel Drive with dip Dip 450 - 900 Very favourable Dip 200 - 450 Favourable Drive against dip Dip 450 - 900 Fair Dip 200 - 450 Unfavourable

Strike parallel to tunnel axis Dip 200 - 450 Fair Dip 450 - 900 Very unfavourable

Irrespective of strike Dip 00 - 200 Fair

Table 7: Assessment of joint orientation effect on tunnels (dips are apparent dips along tunnel axis) (Bieniawski, 1989) Bieniawski,

Dip 00 - 100 Upstream Very favourable

Dip 00 - 100 Dip direction Downstream Fair Unfavourable

Dip 300 - 600 Favourable

Dip 600 - 900 Very Unfavourable

Table 8: Assessment of joint orientation effect on stability of dam foundation (Bieniawski, 1989) Bieniawski,

Joint orientation assessment for: Tunnels Raft foundation Slopes

Very favourable

Favourable

Fair

Unfavourable

Very Unfavourable

0 0 0

-2 -2 -5

-5 -7 -25

-10 -15 -50

-12 -25 -60

Table 9: Adjustment for joint orientation (Bieniawski, 1979) Bieniawski,

Estimation of RMR:
The rock mass rating is an algebraic sum of ratings for all the parameters in Table 1 to 5 & Table 9, after the adjustments for 9, orientation of discontinuities given in Table 7 and 8. 8. The sum of ratings for 4 parameters in Table 2 to Table 5 is called Rock Condition Rating (RCR) which discounts the effect of strength (c) of intact rock material & orientation of joints. ( Heavy blasting creates new fractures, hence it is suggested that 10 points should be added to get RMR for undisturbed rock masses (e.g. excavation by TBM & road headers), and 3 to 5 points may be added depending upon the quality of the controlled blasting.

10

On the basis of RMR values for a given engineering structure, the rock mass is classified in 5 classes (see Table 10) as: Group I: Very good RMR 100 81 Group II: Good RMR 80 61 Group III: Fair RMR 60 41 Group IV: Poor RMR 40 21 Group V: Very poor RMR < 20. Separate RMR should be obtained for tunnels of different orientations after taking into account the orientation of tunnel axis with respect to the critical joint set (Table 6). In terms of quality & mass strength, group I rock is more suitable for excavation of tunnel compared to groups with lower RMR, the tunnel also requires less support.

Estimation of RMR:

Parameters & properties of rock mass 100-81 (I) Classification of rock mass Average stand-up time Cohesion of rock mass (MPa)* Angle of internal friction of rock mass Very good 10 years for 15 m span > 0.4

Rock Mass Rating (Rock Class) 80-61 (II) Good 6 months for 8 m span 0.3 0.4 60-41(III) Fair 1 week for 5 m span 40-21 (IV) Poor 10 hours for 2.5 m span 0.1 0.2 < 20 (V) Very poor 30 min.for 1 m span

0.2 0.3

< 0.1

> 450

350 450

250 350

150 250

150

Note * These values are applicable to slopes only in saturated and weathered rock mass

Table 10: Design parameters & engineering properties of rock mass (Bieniawski, 1979) (Bieniawski,

11

Estimation of RMR:
Separate RMR should be obtained for tunnels of different orientations after taking into account the orientation of tunnel axis with respect to the critical joint sets (Table 6). RMR can be used for estimating many useful parameters such as the unsupported span, the stand-up time (bridging action span, standperiod) & the support pressure for an underground opening. It can also be used for selecting a method of excavation & permanent support system for underground excavation in rock (Bieniawski, 1976). Bieniawski, Deformation modulus & allowable bearing pressure may also be estimated.

A. Orientation of tunnel/slope/foundation axis: ..

B. Orientation of discontinuities Set-1 Average strike: .. (from .. to .. ) Dip .. Set-2 Average strike: .. (from .. to .. ) Dip .. Set-3 Average strike: .. (from .. to .. ) Dip ..

Table 6: Orientation of discontinuities

12

Application of RMR:
(1) Average stand-up time for arched roof: standroof: The stand-up time depends upon effective span of the opening standwhich is defined as the width of the opening or the distance between the tunnel face and the last support, whichever is smaller. smaller. For arched openings the stand-up time would be significantly standhigher than that for a flat roof. Controlled blasting will further increase the stand-up time as standdamage to the rock mass is decreased. It is important not to delay supporting of the roof in the case of rock with high stand-up time, as this may lead to deterioration in standthe rock which ultimately reduces the stand-up time. stand-

Relationship between RMR rating, stand-up time & Unsuppoted span stand(Bieniawski, 1989) Bieniawski,

13

Application of RMR: RMR: (2) Estimation of support pressure: pressure: The estimation of support pressure for openings with flat roof is given as (Unal, 1983): (Unal, Pv = {(100 RMR) / 100} B Pv : support pressure : rock density B : tunnel width

Application of RMR: RMR: (2) Estimation of support pressure: pressure: For rock tunnel with arched roof the estimation of short-term shortsupport pressure is given as (Goel & Jethwa, 1991): (Goel Jethwa, Pv = {(0.75 B0.1 H0.5 RMR) / (2 RMR)} MPa Pv : short-term roof support pressure (MPa) short(MPa) H : depth of tunnel in m (> 50 m) B : span of opening in m (Method of excavation by conventional blasting method) Comprehensive guidelines

14

(2) Estimation of support pressure: pressure: Bieniawski (1989) provides a comprehensive guidelines for selection of tunnel stabilisation methods. This is applicable to tunnels excavated with conventional drill & blast method. These guidelines depend upon factors like depth below surface (in situ overburden stress) tunnel size & shape & method of excavation. The stabilisation measures are the permanent and not temporary (or primary) support.

Excavation shape: horseshoe; width: 10m; vertical stress: 25MPa; construction method drill and blast Rock Mass Excavation Support Rating Rock bolts (20mm dia. fully Shotcrete Steel sets bonded) Very good rock (I) RMR: 81-100 Good rock (II) RMR: 61-80 Fair rock (III) RMR: 41-60 Poor rock (IV) RMR 21-40 Very poor rock (V) RMR < 20 Full face 3m advance Full face 1.0-1.5m advance. Complete support 20m from face. Top heading and bench 1.5 3m in advance top heading. Commence support after each blast. Complete support 10m from face. Top heading and bench 1.0 1.5m advance in top heading. Install support concurrently with excavation 10m from face. Multiple drifts. 0.5 - 1.5m advance in top heading. Install support concurrently with excavation. Shotcrete as soon as possible after blasting. Generally, no support required except for occasional spot bolting Local bolts in crown 3m long, spaced 2.5m with occasional wire mesh. Systematic bolts 4m long, spaced 1 - 2m in crown and walls with wire mesh in crown. Systematic bolts 4 - 5m long, spaced 1 - 1.5m in crown and walls with wire mesh. Systematic bolts 5 - 6m long, spaced 1 - 1.5m in crown and walls with wire mesh. Bolt invert 50mm in crown where required 50 - 100mm in crown and 100mm in sides 100 - 150mm in crown and 100mm in sides 150 - 200mm in crown, 150mm in sides and 50mm on face None None

Light to medium ribs spaced 1.5m where required Medium to heavy ribs spaced 0.75m with steel lagging and forepoling if required

Table 11: RMR guide for excavation & stabilisation methods in rock tunnel

15

Application of RMR: RMR: (3) Modulus of deformation: deformation: Nicholson & Bieniawski (1990) developed an empirical expression for modulus reduction factor (MRF). This factor is calculated in order to derive modulus of deformation for a rock mass using its RMR and Youngs modulus of its core sample: Young
(RMR/22.82) MRF = Ed / Er = 0.0028 RMR2 + 0.9 exp(RMR/22.82)

Where: Ed is deformation modulus of rock mass Er is deformation modulus of intact rock material

Application of RMR:
(3) Modulus of deformation: deformation: Mitri et al. (1994) used the following equation to derive the modulus of deformation of rock masses: MRF = Ed / Er = 0.5 { 1 cos ( (RMR / 100) } Where: Ed is deformation modulus of rock mass Er is deformation modulus of intact rock material

16

Application of RMR:
(3) Modulus of deformation: deformation: Hoek & Brown (1997) suggested the modulus of deformation of rock masses: Ed = { (qc) / 10} {10 (RMR 10)/40 } GPa, qc 100Mpa { GPa, Where: qc is average uniaxial crushing strength of intact rock material in MPa. MPa. The modulus of deformation of poor rock masses with water sensitive minerals decrease significantly after saturation and with time after excavation.

Application of RMR:
(4) Allowable bearing pressure: pressure: Foundation on weak, heterogeneous and highly undulating surfaces of sub-surface rock mass may pose serious problem of subdifferential settlement. The design of foundation depends on the subsurface strata and its bearing capacity Where the foundation rests directly on bedrocks (e.g. spun pile & end-bearing pile), the bearing pressure can be obtained from endavailable classification tables. Pressure acting on a rock bed due to building foundation should not be more than the safe bearing capacity of rock foundation system taking into account the effect of eccentricity.

17

(4) Allowable bearing pressure: pressure: It is often useful to estimate the safe bearing pressure (SBP) for for preliminary design on the basis of the classification approach (e.g. RMR). Orientation of joints plays a dominant role in stress distribution distribution below strip footing due to low shear modulus of bedrocks. Bearing capacity of rocks will be drastically low for near vertical vertical joints that strike parallel to the footing length as pressure bulb bulb extends deep into the strata see Figure. Shear zone and clay gouge, if present below foundation level, need to be treated to improve bearing capacity & reduce differential settlement.

Orientation of joints and stress distribution below strip footing due footing to low shear modulus (Singh, 1973)

18

Similar to the effect of rocks displaying minerals arrangement (lamination & foliation) - variations in UCS & failure strain

(4) Allowable bearing pressure: pressure: A rock mass classification for assessing net SBP is shown in Table 12 (Peck et al., 1974). The terms net SBP and the allowable bearing pressure (ABP) are similar in terms of meaning. But, the net SBP here means the ultimate SBP, whereas the ABP means bearing pressure being considered for the designs (i.e ABP after taking into account the (i.e FOS).

19

Rock types / material Massive crystalline bedrock including granite, diorite, gneiss, hard limestone & dolomite Foliated rocks such as slate and schist in sound condition Bedded limestone in sound condition Sedimentary rock including hard shale and sandstone Soft or broken bed rock (excluding shale) & limestone Soft shales

Safe Bearing Pressure qns (t/m2) 1000

400 400 250 100 30

Table 12: Net safe bearing pressure qns for various rock types (Peck et al., 1974)

Estimation of allowable bearing pressure using RMR: RMR: The RMR system may also be used to obtain net ABP as proposed by Mehrotra (1992). The guidelines for the ABP (Table 13) are: (1) The RMR should be obtained below the foundation at depth equal to the width of the foundation, provided RMR does not change with depth. If the upper part of the rock, within a depth of about one fourth of the foundation width, is of lower quality the the value of this part should be used or the inferior rock should be replaced with concrete. Values of qa in the Table are to limit settlement & must not be increased if foundation is embedded into rock. (2) During earthquake loading, the values ABP may be increased by 50% in view of rheological behaviour of rock masses.

20

Class No.

II Good 80-61

III Fair 60-41

IV Poor 40-21

V Very poor 20-0

Description Very of rock good RMR qa (t/m )


2

100-81

600-440 440-280 280-135 135-45 45-30

Table 13: Net allowable bearing pressure qa based on RMR (Mehrotra, 1992) (Mehrotra,

Classification for bearing pressure: pressure: Another classification of rock masses for ABP is given in Table 14 (Krahenbuhl & Wagner,1983). [Note*: the 2nd column of Table 14 indicates sites with highly weathered rock and unfavourable geological structures, subjected to instability]. There is a correlation between RQD and ABP but relatively conservative compared to Table 14. For socketed piles & shallow 14. foundations, Gill (1980) gives the following formula: Allowable Bearing Pressure, qa = qc Nj Nd

21

Rock Type

Highly weathered structure unfavourable for stability* 15

Fairly weathered structure favourable for stability 30

Highly weathered structure favourable for stability 35

Fairly weathered structure favourable for stability 50

Un-weathered rock structure un-favourable for stability

Un-weathered rock structure favourable for stability

Marls, marls interbedded with sandstone Calc-schist, calcschist interbedded with quarzites Slates, phyllites, schists interbedded with hard sandstones & quartzite or gneiss Limestone, dolomite & marbles Sandstone Calcareous conglomerates (massive) Quartzite (massive) Gneiss (massive) Granite & plutonic rocks

60

110

15

30

45

65

100

200

20

35

60

75

90

130

50 40 to 60 (massive) 60 50 to 70 30 to 60 20

80 90

90 120

130 150

150 170

200 220

100 150 150 250

120 120 120 > 330

200 180 180

200 200 200

330 330 330

Table 14: Allowable Pressure qa of various rock types under different weathering conditions (Krahenbuhl & Wagner, 1983) (Krahenbuhl

Classification for bearing pressure:


Allowable Bearing Pressure, qa = qc Nj Nd Where: qc: avg. laboratory uniaxial compressive strength Nj: empirical coeff. depending on the spacing of discontinuities coeff. (see Table 15), and calculated as: 15),

Nj =

s 3 + (B ) 10 1 + (300 s )

s: spacing of joint in cm B: footing width in cm

22

Spacing of discontinuities, cm 300 100 300 30 100

Nj 0.4 0.25 0.1

Table 15: Value of Joint Spacing & Nj for estimation of Allowable Bearing Pressure

Classification for bearing pressure:


Allowable Bearing Pressure, qa = qc Nj Nd

Nj =

s 3 + (B ) 10 1 + (300 s )

: opening of joints in cm Nd is = 0.8 + 0.2 (h/D) < 2 1.0 = 1.0 for shallow foundations of buildings h: depth of socket in rock D: diameter of socket

23

Classification for bearing pressure: pressure: Equation qa = qc Nj Nd may also be applied to shallow foundation considering Nd = 1.0. It may be noted that the above correlation does not take into account for orientation of joints. joints. It is recommended that plate load test should be conducted on poor rocks where ABP is like to be less than 100 t/m2. Uncertainties on ABP may be improved by a larger number of observation pits, say at a rate of at least 3 pits per important structure. The load test should be conducted in the pit representing the poorest rock qualities.

Coefficient of Elastic Uniform Compression for machine foundation: foundation: The coefficient of uniform compression Cu is defined as the ratio between pressure and corresponding settlement of block foundation. foundation. Typical values of Cu for machine foundation on rock mass are listed in Table 16. The coefficient of uniform shear is generally taken as Cu/2. It may be noted that Cu is less than 10 kg/cm3 in very poor rocks.

24

Rock type

Weathered granites Massive limestones Flaky limestones Shaly limestones Soft shales Saturated soft shales Saturated non-plastic shales

Allowable Bearing Press (t/m2) 160 75 50 45 33 27

Cu (kg/cm2/cm) 17 25 12 7 7 1.5 2.6

Table 16: Coefficient of Elastic Uniform Compression Cu for rock masses (Ranjan et al., 1982) (Ranjan

25