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SUBMISSION OF TRAM PAPER

TOPIC:- 64bit vs. 32 bit processor [Are 64 Bit processor is faster than the 32 bit processor? Illustrates this by taking some real world processing in considerations]

SUBJECT: - Computer System Architecture. SUBJECT CODE: - CAP503

SUBMITTED TO: -

SUBMITTED BY:NAME: - Bandana Chopra. CLASS:-MCA (M. Tech). SEC:-1207. ROLL NO:-A24. REG NO:-11208594.

MISS:-Kavisha Dugal Mam

TABLE CONTENT OF PROJECT WORK 1).Abstract. 2). Introduction. 3). Difference between 32 Bit And 64Bit Processor. 4). Pros and cons of the 64 bit processor. 5). Pros and cons of the 32 bit processor. 6). Price and latest Avliable in market. 7). The operating system use in nokia mobile. 8). History of operating system. 9). What is Symbian operating system. 10). Device that use Symbian os. 11). Desigen of Symbian operating system. 12). Feature of Symbian operating system. 13). Latest version of Symbian operating system. 14). Advantage of Symbian in nokia mobile. 15). Disadvantage of Symbian in nokia mobile. 16). Reference. 17). Conclusion.

Abstract : -

Introduction:- Before we get into the details, let us understand first, what this
big fuss of a larger number of bits, is all . A bit is the short form of a binary digit, i.e. 0 or 1. Computers store and perform operations on these binary digits. So, it can be very easily concluded that a 32 bit processor can represent numbers from 0 to 232, while 64 bit processors can represent numbers from 0 to 264. Thus, most of us will simply conclude that, since 64 bit processors can perform calculations on a greater range of numbers as compared to the 32 bit processors; then, of course, they are better. But there are some points need to consider, before reach to conclusion. When we say a 64 bit or 32 bit processor, what we are primarily referring to is the width of the data bus. In a layman's language, a data bus is a cable that carries information to and from the computer's memory, to the processor. A 64 bit processor has a data bus that is 64 bit wide, while a 32 bit processor has a data bus i.e. 32 bits wide. Thus, a 64 bit processor's data bus can carry in more information than that which can be done by the 32 bit processor's data bus. So, conclusion come back is, that 64 bit processors are faster than the 32 bit processors, and hence, they should be declared the winners. But the point out here is - which of these processors will actually suit our needs.

Some History:

AMD launched its first consumer 64-bit processor, the Athlon 64, in 2003, and marketed it as a great performance booster and the future of computing. Microsoft soon followed with a 64-bit version of Windows XP, however, this was essentially unusable since a lot of programs and drivers did not yet work with 64-bit hardware. Over the past few years, the 64-bit version of Windows Vista has become a more mature product. A couple of compatibility updates from Microsoft and

increased industry support, more than 95% of new hardware and software products now work well with the architecture.

64-Bit ComputingPros:

More processing power: In very basic terms, 64-bit means that it can handle twice as many bits per clock cycle. More memory: The 32-bit consumer version of Windows is only capable of addressing 3 to 3.5 GB of RAM; therefore, when we use more than 4 GB, the additional RAM goes to waste. Hitting the 3 to 3.5 GB limit only occurs if we work with several memory-hungry programs at the same time. Performance advantage: Practically speaking, applications can make use of the 64-bit architecture to process huge data operations more quickly. This is especially important with advanced programs, such as video editing suites, games, or encryption software. More security: The 64-bit versions of Windows Vista and 7 contain Kernel Patch Protection which prevents malicious programs from changing the Windows kernel. The operating systems also boast a Data Execution Prevention which uses a special processor feature to prevent an application from running code from a memory region where its not supposed to run. Overall, the 64-bit edition is more secure than its 32-bit counterpart.

64-Bit Computing-Cons:

Possible driver issues: 32-bit drivers are not supported; hardware manufacturers have to provide special 64-bit versions. However, this is not as much of an issue anymore, as nearly all of the hardware that has been released over the past few years has shipped with drivers, right out of the box. If not, these drivers will come via Windows Updates or download from the companys support Web sites. Higher memory consumption: All memory addresses are now 64 bits long instead of 32 bits. This results in a larger memory footprint for Windows and applications. Weve seen 64-bit versions of Windows Vista and 7 taking up 200-350 MB more RAM than 32-bit versions. If we have at least 3 GB of main memory, this is not an issue, but on a low-end machine (1-2 GB), this causes more access to the hard disk and potentially slows down the machine. No compatibility with 16-bit software: Support for old 16-bit applications has been disabled. In most cases, this is not an issue, except when we or our company uses legacy software that has some 16-bit parts still built into it.

Additional Windows layer: 32-bit applications run under the Windows on Windows 64 (WoW64) environment, which emulates the old 32-bit Windows systems. This means that all 32-bit programs need to go through an additional layer in Windows before they can be processed. Although this layer is very thin, it usually results in a 2% performance loss.

Pros and cons: Pros: A common misconception is that 64-bit architectures are no better than 32-bit architectures unless the computer has more than 4 GB of random access memory. This is not entirely true:

Some operating systems and certain hardware configurations limit the physical memory space to 3 GB on IA-32 systems, due to much of the 34 GB region being reserved for hardware addressing; see 3 GB barrier; 64-bit architectures can address far more than 4 GB. Some operating systems reserve portions of process address space for OS use, effectively reducing the total address space available for mapping memory for user programs. For instance, 32-bit Windows reserves 1 or 2 GB (depending on the settings) of the total address space for the kernel, which leaves only 3 or 2 GB (respectively) of the address space available for user mode. This limit is very much higher on 64-bit operating systems. Memory-mapped files are becoming more difficult to implement in 32-bit architectures as files of over 4 GB become more common; such large files cannot be memory-mapped easily to 32-bit architecturesonly part of the file can be mapped into the address space at a time, and to access such a file by memory mapping, the parts mapped must be swapped into and out of the address space as needed. This is a problem, as memory mapping, if properly implemented by the OS, is one of the most efficient disk-to-memory methods. Some 64-bit programs, such as encoders, decoders and encryption software, can benefit greatly from 64-bit registers, while the performance of other programs, such as 3D graphics-oriented ones, remains unaffected when switching from a 32-bit to a 64-bit environment.

Some 64-bit architectures, such as x86-64, support more general-purpose registers than their 32-bit counterparts (although this is not due specifically to the word length). This leads to a significant speed increase for tight loops since the processor does not have to fetch data from the cache or main memory if the data can fit in the available registers.

Example in C: int i, b, c, d, e; for (i=0; i<100; i++) { b = i; c = b; d = c; e = d; } If a processor only has the ability to keep two or three values or variables in registers it would need to move some values between memory and registers to be able to process variables d and e as well; this is a process that takes many CPU cycles. A processor that is capable of holding all values and variables in registers can loop through them without needing to move data between registers and memory for each iteration. This behavior can easily be compared with virtual memory, although any effects are contingent upon the compiler.

CONS:The main disadvantage of 64-bit architectures is that, relative to 32-bit architectures, the same data occupies more space in memory (due to longer pointers and possibly other types, and alignment padding). This increases the memory requirements of a given process and can have implications for efficient processor utilization. Maintaining a partial 32-bit model is one way to handle this, and is in

general reasonably effective. For example, the Z/OS operating system takes this approach, requiring program code to reside in 31-bit address spaces (the high order bit is not used in address calculation on the underlying hardware platform) while data objects can optionally reside in 64-bit regions.

The difference between 64 and 32 bit processors: In the future, the battle Between 64 bit vs. 32 bit processors will inevitably yield the 64 bit processor as the victor, but this transition is going to take some time. First, we will talk about the pure mathematics and structure of the processors that are involved that. We will keep this part short and sweet. A bit is short for binary digit. It is basically how a computer stores and makes references to data, memory, etc. A bit can have a value of 1 or 0, thats it. So binary code is streams of 1s and 0s, such as this random sequence 10010010011. These bits are also how our processor does calculations. By using 32 bits our processor can represent numbers from 0 to 4,294,967,295 while a 64-bit machine can represent numbers from 0 to 18,446,744,073,709,551,615. Obviously this means our computer can do math with larger numbers, and be more efficient with smaller numbers. Now see, that description wasnt too bad, but the question is how does this affect us, the average PC owner? The largest benefit will go to academic institutions and private companies, where large calculations are being performed, huge databases are being accessed, and complex problems are being solved. Everyone that doesnt fall into that category will see some benefit of using 64 bit processors over 32 bit processors, but not much in todays marketplace. The AMD Athlon 64-bit processor is completely backward compatible, meaning we can currently use it with 32-bit operating systems and software programs. We will see some benefits by using this setup, but because the programs werent written to take advantage of the extra power, they wont use much of it. The true benefits of this set up dont come from the amount of bits, but by the improved structure of the 64 bit vs. 32 bit processor's older structure. A 64-bit processor is made with more advanced silicon processes, have more transistors, and faster speeds. This is currently where the true benefit of switching to a 64-bit

processor lays. As for 64-bit operating systems and software, many are in the works, but nothing is in final version. Microsoft has released a beta version of Windows XP that takes advantage of the 64 bit technology, but there are still issues. The problem is when you run 32-bit software programs in the environment of a 64-bit operating system. Many programs wont work properly, such as Adobe Acrobat and Windows Media Player, for example. Another issue is Ram. We really need about 4 GB of RAM to take full advantage of the capabilities offered by a 64-bit processor, while most PC owners have less than 1 GB under their computers hood. 32-bit refers to the number of bits (the smallest unit of information on a machine) that can be processed or transmitted in parallel, or the number of bits used for single element in a data format. The term when used in conjunction with a microprocessor indicates the width of the registers; a special high-speed storage area within the CPU. A 32-bit microprocessor can process data and memory addresses that are represented by 32 bits. 64-bit therefore refers to a processor with registers that store 64-bit numbers. A generalization would be to suggest that 64-bit architecture would double the amount of data a CPU can process per clock cycle. Users would note a performance increase because a 64-bit CPU can handle more memory and larger files. One of the most attractive features of 64-bit processors is the amount of memory the system can support. 64-bit architecture will allow systems to address up to 1 terabyte (1000GB) of memory. In today's 32-bit desktop systems we can have up to 4GB of RAM (provided our motherboard that can handle that much RAM) which is split between the applications and the operating system (OS).

Comparison real life example:-

When we come down to comparing the speeds of both the processors, at our home or office level, we will find no significant change in it. The spreadsheets won't load any faster, browsing speed over the Internet stays the same, and there will be no change in the booting time of your computer. So, what makes the difference then? 64 bit processors turn out to be very useful for the scientific organizations, universities and major software development firms. They will also prove to be of much use, if our work is that of animation or graphic designing. They can perform calculations on a wider range of data and can give more accurate and precise

information for smaller numbers. On the other hand, if we do not need our computer to perform these processes, then a 32 bit processor will solve most of our needs. Besides, when we come down to the cost, 32 bit processors have definitely hit the bottom line. In fact, what makes the 64 bit processor better than the 32 bit processor, at home or office level, is not that they can access and process data better, but the advanced silicon technology, with which they are manufactured. When 64 bit processors hit the market, the major factors that made them suffer a lot, were that there were not many software compatible with them. However, this is not a deciding factor anymore when you are planning to buy a new processor. With companies like AMD, that has been sticking to the 64 bit technology, the software developers have come down with a solution by developing software, which are compatible with both the 32 bit and 64 bit processors. Another important point that needs to be mentioned is that a multicore processor resembles in features, more to a 64 bit processor than a 32 bit processor. Again, speaking in a layman's language, one has to use more than one 32 bit processor to match the performance of a 64 bit processor. One more important factor that needs to be considered is that, if we really need our 64 bit processors to work well, then we will definitely need a RAM with more storage capacity. Even, a 512 MB or 1 GB RAM will not show any significant improvement in the processing speed, when working with a 64 bit processor.************************************ The world length of a computer or the microprocessor is given as n bits, where n may be 8,16,32 or 64.A binary digit 0 or 1 is called a bit . An 8 bit microprocessor can process 8 bit data at a time. If data consists if the more than 8 bits ,the processor take up 8 bits of data forts and makes its processing ,then the next group of 8 bits of data are taken up one by one for processing. Its ALU is designed to process 8 bits data. Its general purpose register which hold data for processing, are 8 bit register. Similarly, 16 bit of data at a time, its ALU processes the 16 bits data and general purpose register hold 16 bit data. Similarly 32 and 64 bit processors process the 32 and 64 bit data at a time respectively. A processor of longer world length more powerful and can process data at faster speed as compared to a processor of shorter word length. A change from a 32-bit to a 64-bit architecture is a fundamental alteration, as most operating systems must be extensively modified to take advantage of the new architecture, because that software has to manage the actual memory addressing hardware. Other software must also be ported to use the new capabilities; older 32-bit software may be supported through either a hardware compatibility mode in which the new processors support the older 32-bit version of the instruction set as well as the64bit version, through software emulation, or by the

actual implementation of a 32-bit processor core within the 64-bit processor, as with the Itanium processors from Intel, which include an IA-32 processor core to run 32-bit x86 applications. The operating systems for those 64-bit architectures generally support both 32-bit and 64-bit applications. There are 3 most obvious advantages of 64-bit processors over their 32-bit counterparts: Extended address space, Capacity increase Bigger number of general- purpose registers. The extended 64-bit address space theoretically allows the processor to work with 16 bytes of physical memory within the flat memory model. Although contemporary 64-bit processors can address only 1 byte (2^40) of memory in practice, it is still much higher than in case of 32-bit addressing. A larger amount of available memory in its turn allows us to eliminate or greatly reduce sluggish operations of data swapping to the disk. The bigger number of registers and increase of their size allow the processor to handle large memory areas simultaneously, to handle variables and arrays more effectively and to pass function arguments in registers instead of the stack. Keep in mind that you must port your program using the 64-bit version of the compiler and consider changes of the data model (new type capacities) to get a real performance gain on a 64-bit processor. Launching an application not adapted for the 64-bit platform might on the contrary cause great performance loss depending on the specifics of the architecture of the processor being used. Conclusion:So, we finally conclude that the choice lies entirely on the type of work we need to do. If our work is not related to very heavy calculations and graphics or we are not interested in playing big multimedia games, then of course, the 32 bit processors will solve our purpose. Moreover, we can save some bucks for buying some other component, like an extra RAM, which would definitely prove to be of more use. But, with a 64 bit processor, we will definitely not need a better processor for quite some time.