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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Computer Network


A computer network, or simply a network, is a collection of computers and other hardware components interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources and information. Where at least one process in one device is able to send/receive data to/from at least one process residing in a remote device, then the two devices are said to be in a network. Simply, more than one computer interconnected through a communication medium for information interchange is called a computer network. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics, such as the medium used to transport the data, communications protocol used, scale, topology, and organizational scope. Communications protocols define the rules and data formats for exchanging information in a computer network, and provide the basis for network programming. Well-known communications protocols include two Ethernet, hardware and link layer standard that is ubiquitous in local area networks, and the Internet protocol suite, which defines a set of protocols for internetworking, i.e. for data communication between multiple networks, as well as host-to-host data transfer, and application-specific data transmission formats.

1.2 Properties Computer Networks


1. Facilitate communications Using a network, people can communicate efficiently and easily via email, instant messaging, chat rooms, telephone, video telephone calls, and video conferencing. 2. Permit sharing of files, data, and other types of information In a network environment, authorized users may access data and information stored on other computers on the network. The capability of providing access to data and information on shared storage devices is an important feature of many networks. 3. Share network and computing resources

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In a networked environment, each computer on a network may access and use resources provided by devices on the network, such as printing a document on a shared network printer. Distributed computing uses computing resources across a network to accomplish tasks 4. May be insecure A computer network may be used by computer hackers to deploy computer viruses or computer worms on devices connected to the network, or to prevent these devices from normally accessing the network (denial of service). 5. May interfere with other technologies Power line communication strongly disturbs certain forms of radio communication, e.g., amateur radio. It may also interfere with last mile access technologies such as ADSL and VDSL. 6. May be difficult to set up A complex computer network may be difficult to set up. It may also be very costly to set up an effective computer network in a large organization or company.

1.3 Communication media


Computer networks can be classified according to the hardware and associated software technology that is used to interconnect the individual devices in the network, such as electrical cable (Home PNA, power line communication, G.hn), optical fiber, and radio waves (wireless LAN). In the OSI model, these are located at levels 1 and 2. A well-known family of communication media is collectively known as Ethernet. It is defined by IEEE 802 and utilizes various standards and media that enable communication between devices. Wireless LAN technology is designed to connect devices without wiring. These devices use radio waves or infrared signals as a transmission medium.

1.4 Wired technologies


The order of the following wired technologies is, roughly, from slowest to fastest transmission speed.

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Twisted pair wire is the most widely used medium for telecommunication. Twistedpair cabling consist of copper wires that are twisted into pairs. Ordinary telephone wires consist of two insulated copper wires twisted into pairs. Computer networking cabling (wired Ethernet as defined by IEEE 802.3) consists of 4 pairs of copper cabling that can be utilized for both voice and data transmission. The use of two wires twisted together helps to reduce crosstalk and electromagnetic induction. The transmission speed ranges from 2 million bits per second to 10 billion bits per second. Twisted pair cabling comes in two forms: unshielded twisted pair (UTP) and shielded twisted-pair (STP). Each form comes in several category ratings, designed for use in various scenarios.

Coaxial cable is widely used for cable television systems, office buildings, and other work-sites for local area networks. The cables consist of copper or aluminum wire surrounded by an insulating layer (typically a flexible material with a high dielectric constant), which itself is surrounded by a conductive layer. The insulation helps minimize interference and distortion. Transmission speed ranges from 200 million bits per second to more than 500 million bits per second.

ITU-T G.hn technology uses existing home wiring (coaxial cable, phone lines and power lines) to create a high-speed (up to 1 Gigabit/s) local area network.

An optical fiber is a glass fiber. It uses pulses of light to transmit data. Some advantages of optical fibers over metal wires are less transmission loss, immunity from electromagnetic radiation, and very fast transmission speed, up to trillions of bits per second. One can use different colors of lights to increase the number of messages being sent over a fiber optic cable.

1.5 Wireless technologies

Terrestrial microwave Terrestrial microwave communication uses Earth-based transmitters and receivers resembling satellite dishes. Terrestrial microwaves are in the low-gigahertz range, which limits all communications to line-of-sight. Relay stations are spaced approximately 48 km (30 mi) apart.

Communications satellites The satellites communicate via microwave radio waves, which are not deflected by the Earth's atmosphere. The satellites are stationed in
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space, typically in geosynchronous orbit 35,400 km (22,000 mi) above the equator. These Earth-orbiting systems are capable of receiving and relaying voice, data, and TV signals.

Cellular and PCS systems use several radio communications technologies. The systems divide the region covered into multiple geographic areas. Each area has a low-power transmitter or radio relay antenna device to relay calls from one area to the next area.

Radio and spread spectrum technologies Wireless local area network use a highfrequency radio technology similar to digital cellular and a low-frequency radio technology. Wireless LANs use spread spectrum technology to enable communication between multiple devices in a limited area. IEEE 802.11 defines a common flavor of open-standards wireless radio-wave technology.

Infrared communication can transmit signals for small distances, typically no more than 10 meters. In most cases, line-of-sight propagation is used, which limits the physical positioning of communicating devices.

A global area network (GAN) is a network used for supporting mobile across an arbitrary number of wireless LANs, satellite coverage areas, etc. The key challenge in mobile communications is handing off user communications from one local coverage area to the next. In IEEE Project 802, this involves a succession of terrestrial wireless LANs[8]

1.6 Exotic technologies


There have been various attempts at transporting data over more or less exotic media:

IP over Avian Carriers was a humorous April fool's Request for Comments, issued as RFC 1149. It was implemented in real life in 2001.

Extending the Internet to interplanetary dimensions via radio waves.

Both cases have a large round-trip delay time, which prevents useful communication

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1.7 Communications protocols and network programming


A communications protocol is a set of rules for exchanging information over a network. It is typically a protocol stack, which is a "stack" of protocols, in which each protocol uses the protocol below it. An important example of a protocol stack is HTTP running over TCP over IP over IEEE 802.11 (TCP and IP are members of the Internet Protocol Suite, and IEEE 802.11 is a member of the Ethernet protocol suite). This stack is used between the wireless router and the home user's personal computer when the user is surfing the web. Communication protocols have various properties, such as whether they are connectionoriented or connectionless, whether they use circuit mode or packet switching, or whether they use hierarchical or flat addressing. There are many communication protocols, a few of which are described below. 1.8 Ethernet Ethernet is a family of protocols used in LANs, described by a set of standards together called IEEE 802 published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. It has a flat addressing scheme and is mostly situated at levels 1 and 2 of the OSI model. For home users today, the most well-known member of this protocol family is IEEE 802.11, otherwise known as Wireless LAN (WLAN). However, the complete protocol suite deals with a multitude of networking aspects not only for home use, but especially when the technology is deployed to support a diverse range of business needs. MAC bridging (IEEE 802.1D) deals with the routing of Ethernet packets using a Spanning Tree Protocol, IEEE 802.1Q describes VLANs, and IEEE 802.1X defines a port-based Network Access Control protocol, which forms the basis for the authentication mechanisms used in VLANs, but it is also found in WLANs it is what the home user sees when the user has to enter a "wireless access key".

Internet Protocol Suite


The Internet Protocol Suite, often also called TCP/IP, is the foundation of all modern internetworking. It offers connection-less as well as connection-oriented services over an inherently unreliable network traversed by datagram transmission at the Internet protocol (IP)
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level. At its core, the protocol suite defines the addressing, identification, and routing specification in form of the traditional Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) and IPv6, the next generation of the protocol with a much enlarged addressing capability.

1.9 SONET/SDH

Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) are standardized multiplexing protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams over optical fiber using lasers. They were originally designed to transport circuit mode communications from a variety of different sources, primarily to support real-time, uncompressed, circuit-switched voice encoded in PCM(Pulse-Code Modulation) format. However, due to its protocol neutrality and transport-oriented features, SONET/SDH also was the obvious choice for transporting Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) frames.

1.10 Asynchronous Transfer Mode


Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a switching technique for telecommunication networks. It uses asynchronous time-division multiplexing and encodes data into small, fixed-sized cells. This differs from other protocols such as the Internet Protocol Suite or Ethernet that use variable sized packets or frames. ATM has similarity with both circuit and packet switched networking. This makes it a good choice for a network that must handle both traditional high-throughput data traffic, and real-time, low-latency content such as voice and video. ATM uses a connection-oriented model in which a virtual circuit must be established between two endpoints before the actual data exchange begins. While the role of ATM is diminishing in favor of next-generation networks, it still plays a role in the last mile, which is the connection between an Internet service provider and the home user. For an interesting write-up of the technologies involved, including the deep stacking of communications protocols used, see

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1.11 Scale
Networks are often classified by their physical or organizational extent or their purpose. Usage, trust level, and access rights differ between these types of networks.

1.11.1 Personal area network


A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer and different information technological devices close to one person. Some examples of devices that are used in a PAN are personal computers, printers, fax machines, telephones, PDAs, scanners, and even video game consoles. A PAN may include wired and wireless devices. The reach of a PAN typically extends to 10 meters. A wired PAN is usually constructed with USB and Fire wire connections while technologies such as Bluetooth and infrared communication typically form a wireless PAN.

1.11.2 Local area network


A local area network (LAN) is a network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as home, school, computer laboratory, office building, or closely positioned group of buildings. Each computer or device on the network is a node. Current wired LANs are most likely to be based on Ethernet technology, although new standards like ITU-T G.hn also provide a way to create a wired LAN using existing home wires (coaxial cables, phone lines and power lines).

1.11.3 Metropolitan area network


A Metropolitan area network (MAN) is a large computer network that usually spans a city or a large campus.

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1.10.4 Wide area network


A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a large geographic area such as a city, country, or spans even intercontinental distances, using a communications channel that combines many types of media such as telephone lines, cables, and air waves. A WAN often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies. WAN technologies generally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model:

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CHAPTER 2 OSI model


The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection effort at the International Organization for Standardization. It is a prescription of characterizing and standardizing the functions of a communications system in terms of abstraction layers. Similar communication functions are grouped into logical layers. A layer serves the layer above it and is served by the layer below it.

2.1 Layer 1: physical layer


The physical layer defines electrical and physical specifications for devices. In particular, it defines the relationship between a device and a transmission medium, such as a copper or fiber optical cable. This includes the layout of pins, voltages, line impedance, cable specifications, signal timing, hubs, repeaters, network adapters, host bus adapters (HBA used in storage area networks) and more. The major functions and services performed by the physical layer are:

Establishment and termination of a connection to a communications medium. Participation in the process whereby the communication resources are effectively shared among multiple users. For example, contention resolution and flow control.

Modulation or conversion between the representation of digital data in user equipment and the corresponding signals transmitted over a communications channel. These are signals operating over the physical cabling (such as copper and optical fiber) or over a radio link.

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2.2 Layer 2: data link layer


The data link layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the physical layer. Originally, this layer was intended for point-to-point and point-to-multipoint media, characteristic of wide area media in the telephone system

2.3 Layer 3: network layer


The network layer provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable length data sequences from a source host on one network to a destination host on a different network (in contrast to the data link layer which connects hosts within the same network), while maintaining the quality of service requested by the transport layer. The network layer performs network routing functions, and might also perform fragmentation and reassembly, and report delivery errors. Routers operate at this layer, sending data throughout the extended network and making the Internet possible. This is a logical addressing scheme values are chosen by the network engineer. The addressing scheme is not hierarchical. The network layer may be divided into three sublayers:
1. Sub network access that considers protocols that deal with the interface to networks, such as X.25; 2. Subnetwork-dependent convergence when it is necessary to bring the level of a transit network up to the level of networks on either side 3. Subnetwork-independent convergence handles transfer across multiple networks.

2.4 Layer 4: transport layer


The transport layer provides transparent transfer of data between end users, providing reliable data transfer services to the upper layers. The transport layer controls the reliability of a given link through flow control, segmentation/desegmentation, and error control. Some protocols are state- and connection-oriented. This means that the transport layer can keep track of the segments and retransmit those that fail. The transport layer also provides the acknowledgement of the successful data transmission and sends the next data if no errors occurred.

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2.5 Layer 5: session layer


The session layer controls the dialogues (connections) between computers. It establishes, manages and terminates the connections between the local and remote application. It provides for full-duplex, half-duplex, or simplex operation, and establishes checkpointing, adjournment, termination, and restart procedures.

2.6 Layer 6: presentation layer


The presentation layer establishes context between application-layer entities, in which the higher-layer entities may use different syntax and semantics if the presentation service provides a mapping between them. If a mapping is available, presentation service data units are encapsulated into session protocol data units, and passed down the stack. This layer provides independence from data representation (e.g., encryption) by translating between application and network formats. The presentation layer transforms data into the form that the application accepts. This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network.

2.7 Comparison with TCP/IP model


TCP/IP has four broad layers of functionality which are derived from the operating scope of their contained protocols, namely the scope of the software application, the end-to-end transport connection, the internetworking range, and the scope of the direct links to other nodes on the local network. Even though the concept is different from the OSI model, these layers are nevertheless often compared with the OSI layering scheme in the following way: The Internet application layer includes the OSI application layer, presentation layer, and most of the session layer. Its endto-end transport layer includes the graceful close function of the OSI session layer as well as the OSI transport layer. The internetworking layer (Internet layer) is a subset of the OSI network layer (see above), while the link layer includes the OSI data link and physical layers, as well as parts of OSI's network layer. These comparisons are based on the original sevenlayer protocol model as defined in ISO 7498, rather than refinements in such things as the internal organization of the network layer document.

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The presumably strict peer layering of the OSI model as it is usually described does not present contradictions in TCP/IP, as it is permissible that protocol usage does not follow the hierarchy implied in a layered model. Such examples exist in some routing protocols (e.g., OSPF), or in the description of tunneling protocols, which provide a link layer for an application, although the tunnel host protocol may well be a transport or even an application layer protocol in its own right.

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CHAPTER 3 Broadcast Routing Protocols


Sending packet to all destinations simultaneously is called Broadcasting.

3.1 Broadcasting Methods 1. Simple Broadcasting


In this method, the source will send a distinct packets to each destination. This method has two drawbacks It wastes the bandwidth.

The sourse has to have a complete list of all destinations. 2. Flooding


Flooding is a simple routing algorithm in which every incoming packet is sent through every outgoing link. Flooding is used in bridging and in systems such as Usenet and peer-to-peer file sharing and as part of some routing protocols, including OSPF, DVMRP, and those used in ad-hoc wireless networks Algorithm There are several variants of flooding algorithm. 1. Each node acts as both a transmitter and a receiver. 2. Each node tries to forward every message to every one of its neighbors except the source node. This results in every message eventually being delivered to all reachable parts of the network. Algorithms may need to be more complex than this, since, in some case, precautions have to be taken to avoid wasted duplicate deliveries and infinite loops, and to allow messages to eventually expire from the system. A variant of flooding called selective flooding partially addresses these issues by only sending packets to routers in the same direction. In selective

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flooding the routers don't send every incoming packet on every line but only on those lines which are going approximately in the right direction. Advantages

If a packet can be delivered, it will (probably multiple times). Since flooding naturally utilizes every path through the network, it will also use the shortest path.

This algorithm is very simple to implement.

Problems

Flooding can be costly in terms of wasted bandwidth. While a message may only have one destination it has to be sent to every host. In the case of a ping flood or a denial of service attack, it can be harmful to the reliability of a computer network.

Messages can become duplicated in the network further increasing the load on the networks bandwidth as well as requiring an increase in processing complexity to disregard duplicate messages.

Duplicate packets may circulate forever, unless certain precautions are taken:

Use a hop count or a time to live count and include it with each packet. This value should take into account the number of nodes that a packet may have to pass through on the way to its destination.

Have each node keep track of every packet seen and only forward each packet once Enforce a network topology without loops

3. Mutidestination Routing
This is the third algorithm used for broadcasting, In this algorithm each packets contains a list of destination or a bit map which indicates the desired destination. Then it decides the set of output lines required. Ex. Adhoc OnDemand Distance Vector Routing AODV is an on demand routing protocol with small delay. That means that routes are only established when needed to reduce traffic overhead. AODV supports Unicast, Broadcast and Multicast without any further protocols. The Count-To-Infinity and loop problem is solved
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with sequence numbers and the registration of the costs. In AODV every hop has the constant cost of one. The routes age very quickly in order to accommodate the movement of the mobile nodes. Link breakages can locally be repaired very efficiently. To characterize the AODV with the five criteria used by Keshav AODV is distributed, hop-by-hop, deterministic, single path and state dependent. AODV uses IP in a special way. It treats an IP address just as an unique identifier. This can easily be done with setting the Subnetmask to 255.255.255.255 . But also aggregated networks are supported. They are implemented as subnets. Only one router in each of them is responsible to operate the AODV for the whole subnet and serves as a default gateway. It has to maintain a sequence number for the whole subnet and to forward every package. In AODV the routing table is expanded by a sequence number to every destination and by time to live for every entry. It is also expanded by routing flags, the interface, a list of precursors and for outdated routes the last hop count is stored. AODV defines three types of control messages for route maintenance: RREQ- A route request message is transmitted by a node requiring a route to a node. As an optimization AODV uses an expanding ring technique when flooding these messages. Every RREQ carries a time to live (TTL) value that states for how many hops this message should be forwarded. This value is set to a predefined value at the first transmission and increased at retransmissions. Retransmissions occur if no replies are received. Data packets waiting to be transmitted (i.e. the packets that initiated the RREQ). Every node maintains two separate counters: a node sequence number and a broadcast_ id. The RREQ contains the following fields. Table 2.1: RREQ FIELDS Source Address Broadcast Id Source sequence no. Destination address Destination sequence no. Hop count

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The pair <source address, broadcast ID> uniquely identifies a RREQ. Broadcast_id is incremented whenever the source issues a new RREQ. RREP- A route reply message is unicast back to the originator of a RREQ if the receiver is either the node using the requested address, or it has a valid route to the requested address. The reason one can unicast the message back, is that every route forwarding a RREQ caches a route back to the originator. RERR- Nodes monitor the link status of next hops in active routes. When a link breakage in an active route is detected, a RERR message is used to notify other nodes of the loss of the link. In order to enable this reporting mechanism, each node keeps a precursor list'', containing the IP address for each its neighbors that are likely to use it as a next hop towards each destination.

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Conclusion
In computer networking, broadcasting refers to transmitting a packet that will be received by every device on the network In practice, the scope of the broadcast is limited to a broadcast domain. Broadcast a message is in contrast to unicast addressing in which a host sends datagrams to another single host identified by a unique IP address. Not all network technologies support broadcast addressing; for example,

neither X.25 nor frame relay have broadcast capability, nor is there any form of Internet-wide broadcast. Broadcasting is largely confined to local area network (LAN) technologies, most notably Ethernet and token ring, where the performance impact of broadcasting is not as large as it would be in a wide area network. The successor to Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4), IPv6 also does not implement the broadcast method, so as to prevent disturbing all nodes in a network when only a few may be interested in a particular service. Instead it relies on multicast addressing a conceptually similar one-to-many routing methodology. However, multicasting limits the pool of receivers to those that join a specific multicast receiver group. Both Ethernet and IPv4 use an all-ones broadcast address to indicate a broadcast packet. Token Ring uses a special value in the IEEE 802.2 control field.

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REFERENCES
1. Compute Networks Edition, by Andrew S Tanenbaum and David J Wetherall, 5th

Pearson Education 2012 .

2. Data communication and Networking by Behrouz A.Fourozan, 4th Edition, Tata Mcgraw-Hill Publication 2009. 3. Encarta Encyclopedia.

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