Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 4

Chapter 4: Cell Structure and Function

Vocabulary: Cell Cell Theory Organelle Plasma Membrane Eukaryote Prokaryote Selectively Permeable Peripheral Protein Integral Protein Cytoplasm Cytosol Tissues Organ Organ System Colonial Organism ______________________________________________________________________________ 4.1 Cell: the basic unit of structure and function in every living organism History: Robert Hooke: first to see cell-empty, microscopes Anton van Leewenhoek: 10X better magnification microscope than Hooke, saw first live cell; animolecules Robert Brown: discovered cell nucleus Matthias Schleiden: botanist, all plants have cells Theodore Schwann: zoologist, all animals have cells Rudolf Virchow: epidemiologist, cells come from other cells+ they are the basic units of structure and function in an organism Cell Theory:

1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism 3. Cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells 4.2 Parts of and Animal Cell:
Plasma Membrane: around the outside of the cell, every cell has one, covers cells surface and acts as a barrier between the inside and the outside of a cell Selectively Permeable: only allows some things in/ out of the cell, but not everything- acts like a filter Phospholipid Bilayer/ Fluid Mosaic Model: 2 layers of lipids (hydrophobic tail, hydrophilic head) but flexible to let things in Proteins: Integral: proteins embedded in the plasma membrane within the phospholipid bilayer Carrier: moves things from one side of the cell to the other Receptor: starts a reaction Enzyme: catalyst; tied to membrane lowers amount of activation energy needed Marker: Tells which protein Peripheral: Protein placed on outer or inner side of membrane, but not embedded in it. Enzyme:^^ Marker:^^ Cytoplasm: between the cell membrane and the nucleus Organelles: one of the small bodies that are found in the cytoplasm of a cell and that are specialized to perform a specific function Mitochondrion: produces energy (ATP) for the cell; had double lipid bilayer; aerobic cellular respiration outer membrane, inner membrane, outer matrix, inner matrix and christa Ribosomes: site of protein synthesis- rRNA joins ribosomes and then proteins are created; 2 subunits-large and small; ribosomes are on the outside of the rough endoplasmic reticulum Endoplasmic Reticulum: used for intercellular transport of proteins Rough: large, membranous tubes used for transport of proteins (created from the ribosomes on it) then travels through-if needed through smooth as well; away from nucleus

Smooth: tubular ways to travel within the cell; proteins go through-NO RIBOSOMES; extension of the rough endoplasmic reticulum Golgi Apparatus: folded membranous tubes used to modify proteins, pinches off at the end used to transport proteins either out of the cell, or to let them stay in the cell- creates lysosomes Lysosomes: digestive vesicles from the Golgi Apparatus used to eat dead organisms or dead cells themselves Cytoskeleton: a Microfilaments: flexible, made of actin, used to change the shape of the membrane during endocytosis and exocytosis Microtubules: rigid, used to help with cell movement, makes up centrioles, and the inside of flagellum and cilium Cillia (9+2): many, short little hair like things on the edge of an organism to help with movement-not necessarily of the cell, but within the cell as well. Follows the 9+2 model Flagella (9+2): long hair like structure coming from the surface of an organism which helps with movement of an organism. Follows the 9+2 model. Cell Nucleus: the control center of the cell, stores DNA, only in Eukaryotic cells Nuclear Envelope/ Nuclear Pores: like the membrane, but of a nucleus instead. Nuclear pores let certain things in and out of the nucleus- its protein lined. Nuclear Matrix: like the cytoplasm of a cell, chromatin is stored here. Chromatin: a form of DNA Chromosomes: chromatin as it is being split Nucleolus: The nucleus of a nucleus- where DNA is created Centrioles: helps with the division of chromatin; made up of microtubules Parts of a Plant Cell Cell Wall: 2 layers surrounding the plasma membrane; prevents cytolysis Primary: outer layer, flexible Secondary: layer between primary and cells plasma membrane Middle Lamella: the glue/area between plant cells Vacuoles: Central Vacuole: the large vacuole in a plant cells that stores water and is how turgor pressure affects a plant Contractile Vacuole: in freshwater unicellular organisms, the contractile vacuole squeezes out excess water like a sponge

Plastids: storing materials Leucoplasts: store starch potatoes Chromoplasts: colors in a plant cell carrot Chloroplasts: green in a plant cell leaf Outer Membrane outer part of plastid Inner Membrane inner part of plastid Thylakoid Membrane the membrane of the thylakoid sac Thylakoid Sac the whole thylakoid Thylakoid Space the inside of a thylakoid sac Granum a stack of thylakoid sacs Stroma the space around the multiple granum in a plastid

4.3 Multicellular Organism: CellsTissuesOrgansOrgan SystemOrganism Evolution of a Multicellular Organism: Single Celled OrganismColonial OrganismSpecialization/DifferentiationTissues