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HANDOUT

call routing and switching charging (CDR) database (subs. profiles) security mobility management

System Architecture
CS TRANSPORT NETWORK
call routing and switching charging (CDR) interface to external networks INCOMING CALLS

Abis BSC
RBS AXE RPP

VLR
PCU
Packet Control Unit

MSC
AXE

AXE

Base Transceiver Station

Visitor Location Register

GMSC
Intermediate exchanges
AXE

ISDN PSTN PLMN

Base Station Controller

Mobile Services Switching Center

Gateway MSC IN SDP


UNIX

GERAN GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network

Intelligent Network

Service Data Point

symmetry line SMS HLR


AXE AXE/UNIX

AUC

EIR

SCP
AXE/TSP

UNIX

GPRS for prepaid

Gb Gd Gr

Home Location Authentication Register Centre

Equipment Identity Register

Service Control Point Optional (specified). In practice not implemented no mobile terminated data services

Internet

Gf

Ge

Iub RNC
CPP

Iu SGSN
WPP

~GMSC ~MSC IP BACKBONE NETWORK GGSN


WPP/J20

Corporate Intranet

B-Node
CPP

Radio Network Controller

packet routing and switching charging (CDR) database (subs. profiles) WPP: Wireless Packe Platform, AXE cabinet security mobility management compliant J20: platform invented by JUNIPER (now ///) session management CIPHERING CPP: Connectivity Packet Platform compression (IP, payload) - /// features TSP: Telephony Server Platform (in future replacement of AXE) RPP: Regional Processor with PCI bus

UTRAN UMTS Terrestial Radio Access Network

Serving GPRS Support Node Routers

Gateway GPRS Support Node packet routing and switching charging (CDR) session management interface to external networks OUTGOING PACKET TRANSFERS

Streaming Services

Telemetry

software hardware (PLD implemented)

Connection Sequence
Internet
Sender
0

Receiver
1 2 3

SYN,seq=x (SYN,seq=x) SYN/ACK,seq=y,ack=x+1

(SYN,seq=y,ack=x+1)
4

ACK, seq=x+1,ack=y+1 DATA,seq=x+1,ack=y+1


4

(ACK, seq=x+1,ack=y+1) (DATA,seq=x+1,ack=y+1)

Note: ACK does not use sequence space

Legend: CLOSED 1 LISTEN


0

SYN-SENT 3 SYN-RECEIVED
2

4 ESTABLISHED (received and sent)

Closing Sequence
Sender
(CLOSE ->)
4 5

Internet

Receiver
4

FIN,seq=x,ack=y (FIN,seq=x,ack=y) ACK,seq=y, ack=x+1


7

(ACK, seq=y,ack=x+1)
6

Inform Application ->

(<- CLOSE)
FIN/ACK,seq=y ack=x+1
9

(FIN/ACK, seq=y,ack=x+1) ACK, seq=x+1,ack=y+1


10

Wait=2*MSL Legend: 4 ESTABLISHED 5 FIN-WAIT-1 6 FIN-WAIT-2


0

(ACK, seq=x+1,ack=y+1)
0

CLOSE-WAIT 9 LAST-ACK 10 TIME-WAIT


7

CLOSED

MSL - Maximum Segment Life

Round Trip Time - RTT


Transmission of 64 Kbytes (TCP)

d
en t

D at

At t=0

After 500 s

After 15 ms

Ac k

no w

After 30 ms

le

dg em

Slow Start Algorithm

10

Advertised Window Initial widow size = 1

Window size is increased exponentially contrary to Congestion Avoidance Algorithm, where window is increased linearly. 3rd Duplicatr ACK, Packet lost Window is too big Start Congestion Avoidance

Transmission Acknowledgement

Transmission protocol architecture


Application IP / X.25
SNDCP SEGMENT
Relay

IP / X.25
IP Packet

SNDCP
LLC FRAME

SNDCP GTP LLC


Relay

GTP UDP / TCP IP L2 L1 Gn

GTP UDP / TCP IP L2 L1 Gi

LLC
RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC/MAC BLOCK

BSSGP

BSSGP Network Service L1bis Gb

MAC GSM RF

Network Service GSM RF L1bis

MAC

Um

MS

BSS

SGSN

GGSN

Control Parameters
Selection of default coding scheme for the whole BSC/PCU RAEPC: PROP=CHCODING1; Choosing appropriate channel coding 1 CS1 , 2 CS2 (UL,DL)

Selection of dedicated coding scheme for the particular cell RLGSC: CELL=KISTA, Cell name NA CS1 CS2, CS downlink for the particular cell. If NA is CS3 selected, the exchange property CHCODING CS4 is used Activation of Link Adaptation feature. CS specified by CHCSDL will be taken as initial value.

CHCSDL=

LA = ON/OFF;

EGPRS Coding Schemes


kbps 60
54.4 59.2

50 40
44.8

30 20
14.4 12.0 14.8 11.2 8.4 20.0 16.8 22.4

29.6

10 0

8.0

MCS1

MCS2

MCS3

MCS4

MCS5

MCS6

GPRS
GMSK modulation

EGPRS
8PSK modulation

MCS7

MCS8

MCS9

CS1

CS2

CS3

CS4

GMSK vs 8PSK
1/The same bit 3,7 s 0,1,0 0,0,0 3 amplitude (const.) phase 0,0,1 Q Q 1 0,1,1 amplitude (var.) 1,1,1 I 1 2 3

011 110 000

GMSK
Gaussian Minimum Shift Keyiing

8-PSK
8 - Phase Shift Keyiing

0/Different bit

1,0,1 2 1,0,0 Problem amplitude = 0 Solution axis rotate

1,1,0

SS

SS

time Class C amplifier required. Simple and cheap

time Class A amplifier required. Expensive and complicated

RETRANSMISSIONS
In GPRS retransmission is allowed only with the same coding scheme. coding user data #1 NOT ACK #2 #3
#1 ACK, #3 ACK, #2 NOT ACK

In EDGE retransmission is allowed with different coding scheme and modulation.

#1 sequential number CS 4

#2

MCS 9

#1 MCS 6 #2 NOT ACK NOT ACK #1.1 #1.2 #2.1 Transmission window 64 frames (stall if exceeded) #2.2 MCS3 (GMSK)

#2 retransmission, more coding required #2 CS 2 #???

Transmission window 1024 frames

Example of coding procedure for MCS9


1224 data bits MCS-9 612 convolutional coding 1/3 612

1836 612
P1 P2

1836

puncturing 2/3
P3 P1 P2 P3

20 ms 4 bursts

interleaving

MCS-9 and MCS-5 - comparison


MCS-9 MCS-5

P1 1
PCU

P2 1 P1 1, P1 P1 1, P2 P1 1, P3

P3 1 1
PCU

1 P2 2 P2 P3 3

after 2 re-transmissions the code rate is 1/3

code rate is 1/3

Control Parameters
Selection of Default Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) DL/UL RAEPC: Changing exchange properties

PROP=LQCDEFAULTMCSDL5; Default MCS downlink. Values 1-9 ~ MCS1 - MCS9 (valid if LQCACT1 or 3, no EGPRS LQC DL) PROP=LQCDEFAULTMCSUL5; Default MCS uplink. Values 1-9

~ MCS1- MCS9 (valid if LQCACT2 or 3, no EGPRS LQC UL Activation/Deactivation of EGPRS Link Quality Control (ELQC) RAEPC: PROP=LQCACT 0 1; 2 3 ELQC deactivated ELQC activated for DL TBFs only ELQC activated for UL TBFs only ELQC activated for DL and UL TBFs

Control Parameters
Activation/Deactivation of Incremental Redundancy on UL RAEPC: PROP=EGPRSIRUL 0 1; IR UL not activated IR UL activated

Limiting the highest MCS than can be selected by the system in LQC procedures (UL/DL) RAEPC: PROP=LQCHIGHMCS9; Values 1-9 ~ MCS1- MCS9

Link Adaptation and Incremental Redundancy (LA/IR/BLER) activation RAEPC: PROP=LQCMODEDL/UL 0 1; 2 LA mode LA/IR mode LA/IR BLER mode

GPRS Channels
GSM Basic Physical Channels Dedicated (Fixed) Packed Data Channels On Demand Packet Data Channels permanently reserved for GPRS temporarily used by GPRS (dynamic allocation)

COMBINED RA/LA UPDATE Logical Channels GSM BCH: FCCH SCH BCCH CCCH: PCH RACH AGCH TCH PBCCH Option MPDCH parameter MPDCH - first of dedicated PDCHs, carry DATA + SIGNALLING (80-90%) (10-20%) GPRS DCCH: SDCCH FACCH SACCH

PACCH PTCCH PDTCH

PPCH PRACH PAGCH

Control Parameters

RLGSC: CELL=KISTA, FPDCH/SPDCH=3, MPDCH=YES/NO;

Changing of GPRS cell parameters Cell name Number of Fixed/Semi-dedicated PDCHs (max 16) Allocation of MPDCH in the cell

NETWORK OPERATION MODES


NOM I no MPDCH parameter GPRSNWMODE=0
CS PAGING MULTIPLEXED WITH USER DATA MSC BSC Gs SGSN BSC PCH SGSN MSC NO Gs

NOM II (no MPDCH) GPRSNWMODE=2

ACTIVE DATA TRANSFER MS LISTENS ONLY TO PCH

PCH

CS PAGING PS PAGING

MS LISTENS ONLY TO PCH -NO PAGING COORDINATION WITH DATA TRANSFER

-COMBINED RA&LA UPDATE -COMBINED GPRS/IMSI ATTACH -PAGING COORDINATION

NOM I, MPDCH exists GPRSNWMODE=1


CS PAGING MULTIPLEXED WITH USER DATA MSC BSC Gs SGSN PCH

NOM III (MPDCH exists) GPRSNWMODE=3

MSC NO Gs BSC SGSN

ACTIVE DATA TRANSFER MS LISTENS ONLY TO PPCH

PPCH MS LISTENS TO PCH AND PPCH

PPCH PCH FOR NON GPRS MSs PCH

-NO PAGING COORDINATION WITH DATA TRANSFER

DUAL TRANSFER MODE


MS Classes A DTM (simplified A) B C PAGING BSC is responsible for paging coordination.
DATA TRANSFER FACCH MSC CS PAGING PS PAGING 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

GSM and GPRS channel allocation must be coordinated. (GPRS channel administration is responsible for this).

BSC

NO Gs

MS must support DTM. However, paging coordination works for all MSs (session must be suspended)

SGSN

RA/LA UPDATE BSC is responsible for paging coordination.


LA UPDATE SDCCH

MSC

RA UPDATE TUNNELED

BSC SGSN

Control Parameters
Setting Network Operation Mode RAEPC: Changing exchange properties (many different properties are changed with this command)

PROP=GPRSNWMODE1; Choosing appropriate NOM Activation of Dual Transfer Mode in the cell RLDUI: CELL=KISTA, Initiation of DTM Cell name

Primary PDCH Set (PSET) limit PRIMPLIM


0 B 1 2 3 4 5 6 M 7

Primary PSET PRIMLIM = 4 PRIMPLIM = 1 MPDCH = 1 RLGSC command

Control Parameters
Changing PBCH configuration RLPDC: MAXSBLK = 1-4, GPRS Packet Control Channel Data, Change Maximum number of PBCCH radio blocks to be used within a multiframe. Preferred maximum number of Packet System Information messages per PBCCH radio block. Number of traffic radio blocks on MPDCH TS

MAXSMSG = 1-16,

TRAFBLK = 0-10;

(12 - MAXSBLK - TRAFBLK ) >= 1

At least 1 block required for paging

TBF is unidirectional (independent control of UL and DL radio resources) 1MS 1 UL () TBF 1MS 1 DL () TBF 1MS 1 UL () TBF + 1 DL () TBF
More than 1 MS per single PDCH

DL
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

More than 1 PDCH per single MS (but only one TBF)

UL
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

DL Transfer TFI (Temporary Flow Identity) TBF ID (VALUES 0-31) MSs listen to all PDCHs allocated to them. Moreover they read all radio blocks. However, only radio blocks allocated to them (proper TFI) are processed. Without QoS resources are divided evenly among all MSs. (MSs
TFI=1

DL
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

and

will use TS4 alternately.

TFI=3 TS=3&4

TFI=1 TS=4&5

TFI=7 TS=6&7

DISCARD (not my TFI)

OK (my TFI, process)

UL Transfer USF (Uplink State/Status Flag) (VALUES 0-7) transmitted downlink designates the MS that is allowed to transmit in UL direction on the particular TS

DL
0 1 2 3

USF=1 4

USF=1 5

USF=4 6

USF=5 7

content addressed for

UL
0 1 2 3 2 4 5 6 7

1 TS USF 4 1 5 3 TS USF 5 1 6 4 TS USF 6 2 7 3 TS USF 7 5

[Hint] Parameter TBF Granularity enables transmission of more UL Radio Blocks upon reception of proper TFI (TBF Granularity =4 4 Radio Blocks may be transmitted)

PCU CAPACITY
Maximum number of RPP: 64 book, now 128. Maximum number of Cells: 512. Maximum number of PDCHs: 4096. RPP Limitations Maximum number of PDCHs: 150 software limitation (6 DSP*25 PDCHs) Maximum number of PDCHs: 64 hardware limitation for CS3&4, EDGE (64 Devices) Can work only towards Gb
0 1 2

RTGPHDV-0&&-31
29 30 31

DSP #1

DSP #2

DSP #3

DSP #4
32 33 34

RTGPHDV-32&&-63

GS
61 62 63

DSP #5

DSP #6

DSP #7

DSP #8 64 kb/s 1 RTGPHDV = 4 Logical PDCHs for CS1&2

LPDCH~PDCH

1 RTGPHDV = 1 Logical PDCHs for CS3&4 and EDGE

RADIO

Packet Data Channels (PDCHs)

Abis Capacity

Um

A-bis BSC/ TRC

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 speech GPRS

0 1 2 3 4 CS 1&2

30 31

0 1 2 3 4 5 CS 1-4 EDGE

3031

Control Parameters
Definition of required number of PDCH RLBDC: CELL=KISTA, CHGR=0-15, NUMREQBPC=8-128, Changing configuration of BPDCH Cell name Channel Group number Number of required BPCs, if not given all TSs are GPRS capable Number of required GPRS CS-3 or CS-4 BPCs Number of required EGPRS BPCs This parameter indicates if Timeslot Number (TN) 7 on the BCCH frequency can be configured with Traffic Channels (TCHs) supporting EGPRS or GPRS only.

NUMREQCS3CS4BPC=0-128

NUMREQEGPRSBPC=0-128, TN7BCCH=GPRS/EGPRS;

Control Parameters
Definition of required number of PDCH RXMOI: ABISALLOC = FIXED, FLEXIBLE RLGSC: FLEXHIGHGPRS = 0, 1 Definition of Managed Object Abis configuration

General Packet Radio Service, Change How to access Abis resources for MSs not capable of EGPRS using E-PDCHs.

Control Parameters
Definition of required number of PDCH RLGSC: CELL=KISTA, 0 All on-demand PDCHs are possible to preempt 1 On-demand PDCHs not used for Dual Transfer Mode(DTM) are possible to preempt 2 On-demand PDCHs not used for Streaming are possible to... 3 On-demand PDCHs not used for DTM nor for Streaming are PDCHPREEMPT= 4 ; On-demand PDCHs that are not essential are

5 On-demand PDCHs that are not essential nor DTM PDCHs 6 On-demand PDCHs that are not essential nor Streaming PDCHs are possible to preempt 7 On-demand PDCHs that are not essential nor DTM nor Streaming 8 Idle on-demand PDCHs are possible to preempt

Quality of Service
Conversational Not implemented in GERAN symmetrical Similiar to CS (HIGH & STEADY) (LOW & STEADY) GBR ~ (MAY VARY) AV_BR DEL ~ AV_DEL Streaming V (OPTION) asymmetrical (only DL is important)

(Guaranteed Bitrate) GBR (Delay) DEL

20 s BUFFER

VoIPoGPRS Interactive V (OPTION)

STREAMING Background (BASIC)

MBR (max bitrate)

?
E-MAIL, FTP

WWW, WAP, CHAT (Round Trip Time) RTT (Traffic Handling Priority) THP = 1 (high priority), 2, 3 (low priority)

# OF SAMPLES

QoS IMPLEMENTATION STREAMING GBR BPDCH BR or GPDCH BR or EPDCH BR CS 1&2 CS 1-4 CS 1-4, MCS 1-9
BR WE CAN EXPECT FROM 1 TS AV 50%

= # TS

INTERACTIVE STREAMING STREAMING

6K 95% 3 TSs/16 K

8K 50% 2 TSs for 16 K

BR

TSs FOR STREAMING ONLY 1 STREAMING TBF PER PDCH SELECED BY LOT

PRIORITY: 1. Signalling 2. Streaming media 3. Streaming Ericsson Instant Talk 4. Interactive 5. Background

INTERACTIVE

STREAMING

INTER. THP 1

INTER. THP 2

INTER. THP 3 TS

BACKGROUND

Control Parameters
Definition of Power Control Parameters

RLGSC: CELL=KISTA, GAMMA = 0 62

Definition of GAMMA

[dB] only even

RAEPC: CELL=KISTA, PROP = ALPHA 0-10

Definition of ALPHA

2~0.2

CELL CHANGE DOWNLINK


LLC TLLI ~ P-TMSI LLC frame + Cell ID (BVCI, not CGI)

5 RACH 7 4 BCCH

10

BSC
FLUSH 8

SGSN

6 AGCH Cell change

New packets

Not confirmed Packets

9 2 Move data to new buffers

Buffers for old cell


3

Uplink resources are allocated for acknowledgement

[Hint] If MS moves to new BSC, data is deleted from the old buffers and higher layers protocols (TCP) performs retransmissions. Up to R11 subscriber is charged for this data. In R12 CDRs are modified and minus quantity may occur.

Control Parameters
Definition of Cell Reselection Parameters

RLSBC: CELL=KISTA, CRO = 0,1,2, ,63 PT = 0,1,2, ,30 31 TO = 0,1,, ,6,7

Definition of GAMMA

(corresponding to 0,2,4, ,126 [dB]) (corresponding to 20,40,60, ,620 s) (temporary offset is ignored and the sign of cell reselect offset is changed) (corresponding to 0,10, ,60, infinite [dB])

CELL CHANGE DOWNLINK


LLC TLLI ~ P-TMSI LLC frame + Cell ID (BVCI, not CGI)

5 RACH 7 4 BCCH

10

BSC
FLUSH 8

SGSN

6 AGCH Cell change

New packets

Not confirmed Packets

9 2 Move data to new buffers

Buffers for old cell


3

Uplink resources are allocated for acknowledgement

[Hint] If MS moves to new BSC, data is deleted from the old buffers and higher layers protocols (TCP) performs retransmissions. Up to R11 subscriber is charged for this data. In R12 CDRs are modified and minus quantity may occur.

NETWORK ASSISTED CELL CHANGE


6 RACH

LLC TLLI ~ P-TMSI

8 8 1 7 AGCH Cell change notification message 5

BSC

SGSN

3 System info about the Cell Change Notification new cell concluded with (Dont send any info) <CELL CHANGE ORDER> you can go New Not confirmed packets Packets 2

Network increases throughput taking resources from other MSs to finish LLC frame 4

Uplink resources are allocated for acknowledgement

Empty buffers

[Hint] In R.11 working only for INTRA BSC CELL CHANGE In R.12 working also for INTER BSC CELL CHANGE In R.06 working also for INTER SYSTEM CELL CHANGE [Hint] Network controlled CC. System behaves similarly to CS HO. In R.06 available only for GSM-UMTS CC. Implemented by Alcatel.

Control Parameters
Activation of Network Control Mode 2 in a cell RLNMI: CELL=KISTA; Changing of reporting period for NMC 2 RLNMC: CELL=KISTA; Modification of NCM2 in a cell 0 - 0.48 seconds 1 - 0.96 seconds 2 - 1.92 seconds 3 - 3.84 seconds 4 - 7.68 seconds 5 - 15.36 seconds 6 - 30.72 seconds 7 - 61.44 seconds Activation of NCM2 in a cell

CELL=KISTA;

Control Parameters
RAEPC command GPRS Extended Dynamic Allocation activation (more UL TCHs) PROP=GPRSEDAACT 0 1 not active active requires

GPRS Neutral UL/DL State Handling activation PROP=GPRSNEUTRALACT 0 1 not active active

Dynamic Uplink (UL) and DL Resource Handling activation requires PROP=DYNULDLACT 0 1 not active active

Counter examples (per Cell)


User sending data in Background Class Capable of EDGE Downloading the data Total LLC data volume of GMM/SM signaling transferred 100 kbit with 20 kbit/s + 200 kbit with 30 kbit/s DLBGEGTHR = 100*20+200*30 = 2000 + 6000 = 8000 kbit2/s
error in the previous slide

DLBGEGDATA = 100 + 200 = 300 kbit

8000 kbit 2 /s IP Weighted Throughput = = 26,7 kbit/s 300 kbit

KPI: IP buffer discards


Counters (per Cell)
IP Discards due to no available PDCH:s or no TFI LDISTFI IP Discards due to Radio Contact Lost (T3195=5 sec.) LDISRR IP Discards due to Other Reasons LDISOTH IP Discards due to RAU (Routing Area Update) FLUDISC

Counters (per Cell)


ACCEGEXTIPLAT IP Latency measured for EGPRS capable and Extended UL MSs. Units: ms EGEXTIPLAT accumulator ACCEGNOEXTIPLAT IP Latency measured for EGPRS capable and not Extended UL capable MSs. Units: ms EGNOEXTIPLAT accumulator ACCGEXTIPLAT IP Latency measured for GPRS capable and Extended UL MSs. Units: ms GEXTIPLAT accumulator ACCGNOEXTIPLAT IP Latency measured for GPRS capable and not Extended UL capable MSs. Units: ms GNOEXTIPLAT accumulator

Counters (per Cell)


INT8BRGPRSTBF Volume of RLC data successfully received by the MS in TBFs with a radio link bit rate in the 8 kbps (X < 9 ) interval for CS-1/2/3/4, RLC acknowledged mode TBFs.

INT10BRGPRSTBF (9 < X < 11) INT12BRGPRSTBF (11 < X < 13) INT14BRGPRSTBF (13 < X < 15) INT16BRGPRSTBF (15 < X < 17) INT18BRGPRSTBF (X > 17 )

Counters (per Cell)


INT10BREGPRSTBF Volume of RLC data successfully received by the MS in TBFs with a radio link bit rate in the 10 kbps interval (X < 12.5) for EGPRS, RLC acknowledged mode TBFs. INT15BREGPRSTBF (17,5 < X < 22,5) INT20BREGPRSTBF (17,5 < X < 22,5) INT25BREGPRSTBF (22,5 < X < 27,5) INT30BREGPRSTBF (27,5 < X < 32,5) INT35BREGPRSTBF (32,5 < X < 37,5) INT40BREGPRSTBF (37,5 < X < 42,5) INT45BREGPRSTBF (42,5 < X < 47,5) INT50BREGPRSTBF (47,5 < X < 52,5) INT55BREGPRSTBF (X > 52,5)

PCU Limitations Maximum number of RPP: 64 book, now 128. Maximum number of Cells: 512. Maximum number of PDCHs: 4096. RPP Limitations Maximum number of PDCHs: 150 software limitation (6 DSP*25 PDCHs) Maximum number of PDCHs: 64 hardware limitation for CS3&4, EDGE (64 Devices) Can work only towards Gb
0 1 2

RTGPHDV-0&&-31
29 30 31

DSP #1

DSP #2

DSP #3

DSP #4
32 33 34

RTGPHDV-32&&-63

GS
61 62 63

DSP #5

DSP #6

DSP #7

DSP #8 64 kb/s 1 RTGPHDV = 4 Logical PDCHs for CS1&2

LPDCH~PDCH

1 RTGPHDV = 1 Logical PDCHs for CS3&4 and EDGE

RADIO

Packet Data Channels (PDCHs)