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Topic 10 Types of Bearings

What is a Bearing? Robust Design Concurrent Engineering Centers of Action Constraint Preload Load/Life Lubrication Error Motions

2000 Alexander Slocum



What is a Bearing?
Bearing is defined by Websters to be a support or supporting part
In machine design, a bearing is a component that allows for relative motion between two bodies Your skeleton is the central structure that supports your body and its modules, your Your joints are bearings that allow different body modules to mo ve with respect to each other Bearings allow machines to move

Bearings can have many forms, but only two types of motions
Linear motion or rotary motion

In all bearings, cleanliness and surface finish are most important There are many different types of bearings
Sliding Rolling Flexing Fluid Film (hydrodynamic) All are designed using the same philosophy of understanding the flow of forces in the machine, and the mechanical constraints used to mount them

2000 Alexander Slocum



Robust Design
The bearings are the machine elements that allow components to move with respect to each other with a minimum amount of friction and wear. When designed, manufactured, and used properly, bearings will work great! The biggest killers of bearings are:
Overloading originates ouchies! Overconstraint ordains overloading! Maligned moments make a morass! Dirt decries disaster! Lubrication loss lessens life!

2000 Alexander Slocum



Concurrent Engineering
Bearings: For the concepts you are envisioning, how will you support moving components by linear or rotary motion? Concurrent engineering requires us to consider:
Structure: How can you use symmetry and monolithic features to provide support and ease installation? Kinematics: Do the bearings have the required range of motion, without jamming? Actuators, Sensors & Controls: Will be bearings withstand the actuator loads and speeds? Manufacturing: How do you make sure you can make it? Always think ahead to how will you make what you design!

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Centers of Action
A body behaves as if all its mass in concentrated at its center of mass A body supported by bearings, behaves as if all the bearings are concentrated at the center of stiffness
The point at which when a force is applied to a locked-in-place axis, no angular motion of the structure occurs It is also the point about which angular motion occurs when forces are applied elsewhere on the body Found using a center-of-mass type of calculation (K is substituted for M) To find the X location of the center of stiffness with respect to an arbitrary coordinate system:

= center _ of _ stiffness

i =1 i

i =1

center of stiffness axis

2000 Alexander Slocum



Centers of Action
Moments are what cause bending and binding in the system, so if they can be minimized, this is good! If the actuation force acts through the center of mass:
There is no inertial moment on the body There are no reaction forces on the bearings

The center of mass and the center of stiffness do not necessarily have to be located at the same point
However, for stacked multi axis structures: The centers of mass of the axes move Locate the point of actuation at the nominal center of mass

If the force is located between the center of friction and the center of stiffness:
There will be no moment acting on the system The center of friction and the center of stiffness do not necessarily have to be located at the same point

2000 Alexander Slocum



EVERY element has six degrees of freedom You MUST let move what you need to move
E.g., large degrees of freedom, your overall Design Parameters

You MUST restrain what needs to be restrained

E.g., resist wheel and linkage forces, such as thrust forces that try to pry the wheel off the shaft

You MUST NOT restrain natural error motions that exist to allow for misalignment between elements!
E.g., a cars drive shaft has universal joints at the ends and a spline (linear sliding) connection As the car flexes, these elements accommodate relative motion between the axle and the transmission E.g., shafts that bend a lot have their bearings in spherical mounts, or they use spherical roller bearings

2000 Alexander Slocum



Constraint: Design Process

From your FRs, you should be able to determine whether or not the bearing needs to resist bi-directional loads
This will require the bearing to either be one or two-sided It can ride on top of a rail and resist pulling or tipping loads by gravity, magnets, or vacuum It can wrap around a rail and resist pulling or tipping loads by geometry

Make sure you have constrained what you want to constrain!

If the body is to have N degrees of freedom free to move, there has to be 6 N bearing reaction points! Remember, to resist translation, a force is required. To resist rotation, a moment, or two forces acting as a couple, is required!

2000 Alexander Slocum 10-8


Constraint: Design Process

Sketch the component to be supported by the bearings and the applied loads Sketch the bearing contact points
Is the problem statically determinate? E.g., can a simple free body diagram enable you to calculate the loads at each of the bearing contact points?

Imagine the system gets hot and expands

Can your bearings accommodate the expansion of system components? Do expanding components act like presses to squoonch the bearings?

Imagine the system is heavily loaded

Can your bearings accommodate deflections in the structures?

Imagine the systems dimensions are WAY off

Can your bearings accommodate the improperly manufactured parts?

2000 Alexander Slocum



Constraint: Stick Figures

Exercise: Draw a shaft and add radial and thrust bearing surfaces and other features (e.g., bearings, support structure) to constrain the shaft Use the coordinate system, with its six degrees of freedom arrows as a reminder that bearing points must be selected to work individually or in pairs to restrain five DOF

2000 Alexander Slocum 10-10


Constraint: Saint-Venant
St. Venant: Linear Bearings:
Linear motion: L/D>1, 1.6:1 very good. 3:1 super ideal

St. Venant: Rotary Bearings:

Rotary motion: L/D>3 if you are to have the bearings build the shaft into a wall IF L/D<3, BE careful that slope from shaft bending does not KILL the bearing!
Wheel Shaft

Sliding bearing in structure

!!Non Optimal!!

Sliding bearing in structure

2000 Alexander Slocum 10-11 2/6/2002

Constraint: Rotary Motion

Every rotary motion axis has one large degree of freedom, and five small error motions 5 degrees of freedom are typically constrained with one thrust bearing and two radial bearings

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Constraint: Rotary Motion

Rotary motion bearings inner races are mounted to a shaft, and the outer races fit within a bore Thinking of constraints is the key (once again)

Sometimes the inner and outer races need to be constrained, and sometimes only the inner race

2000 Alexander Slocum



Constraint: Linear Motion

Every linear motion axis has one large degree of freedom, and five small error motions
5 degrees of freedom are typically constrained with various forms of bearing surfaces (bearing pads) Typical preloaded machine tool carriages have pairs of preloaded bearing pads in vertical and horizontal directions at each of 4 corners

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Constraint: Golden Rectangle

Sketch the geometry of the system (3D boxes) Use the Golden Rectangle as a starting point: This usually yields structurally stiff and aesthetically pleasing designs. You must watch the movie (available on video) Donald Duck in Mathemajicland! Spread the bearings out as much as possible
The greater the ratio of the longitudinal to latitudinal (length to width) spacing: The smoother the linear motion will be and the less the chance of walking (yaw error) First try to design the system so the ratio of the longitudinal to latitudinal spacing of bearing elements is about 2:1 For the space conscious, the bearing elements can lie on the perimeter of a golden rectangle (ratio about 1.618:1)

Make sure the length to width is greater than 1:1!





2000 Alexander Slocum



Constraint: Jamming
When will a drawer jam?
When (F 2+F4)>FA, the slide jams! To be safe and conservative, create designs where the L/D ratio is greater than 1, and ideally L/D =3 when there is sliding friction!

F=0= F F F
2 4 2 4

M = 0 = F a+ F a F b + F b F L F w
2 4 L A

F (L a + b) + F w) F = 2a F (L + a + b) + F w) F = 2a
L A 4 L A 2

F 4 b

F 4

Y F w A X F2 F

2 L

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Constraint: Rail Parallelism

Parallelism errors between bearing rails are one of the biggest sources of over-constraint
Strategy: Accurate rail placement ($) System compliance (loss of accuracy) Controlled compliance: Clearance in one of the bearings Flexure support of one of the bearings Abbe support The center of the flexure (or ball joint) is a distance H above the round shaft center Center distance errors () between the round shafts are accommodated by roll () of the bearing carriage. Vertical error motion () of the hemisphere is a second order effect Example: = 0.1, H = 4, = 1.4 degrees, and = 0.0012

= arcsin

( H)

= H (1 cos ) 2H
2000 Alexander Slocum 10-17 2/6/2002

Constraint: Structures
A bearing is only as good as the structure that supports it
Utilize symmetry whenever possible Asymmetric structures often have internal gradients, which are an indicator of potential problems

Start at the tool tip or workplace with estimates of forces and acceleration requirements
Work backward through the structural system and determine forces and moments on members Minimize the structural loop and use closed sections whenever possible Large plate sections should be stiffened with ribs or other means to keep them from vibrating like drumheads Bearings stiffness should be on the order of the structure: Use superposition!

2000 Alexander Slocum



Constraint: Forced Geometric Congruance

IF the axis of motion is misaligned from the axis of the bearing, the two will fight each other
Everything has finite stiffness! F=kx The resulting forces can overload and kill the bearing! Either more accurate components and assembly is required, or compliance, or clearance (pin in oversized hole) must be provided between the parts

2000 Alexander Slocum



Preload allows for bi-directional loading
If not careful, it can lead to over-constraint

Preload maximizes stiffness Preload deflection is small, so preload can be easily lost by manufacturing error or wear
Preload loss via wear is avoided with the use of spring loaded preload systems

Spring loaded preload systems accommodate rail thickness variations without a large change in preload force
Spring loaded preload systems have limited force and moment capability Springs can be disk washers, or the deformation of the structure

2000 Alexander Slocum



Preload: Mechanics
Sum of the forces:
Fload - ( Fpreload + Kupper pad ) + ( F preload - Klower pad ) = 0

From this and the relation Fload = Ktotal:

Ktotal = Kupper pad + Klower pad

Careful of preload forces not being overcome by load, or stiffness falls to Klower pad

No preload


Preloaded with force applied

2000 Alexander Slocum



Preload: Pitch Stiffness

Assume a preloaded bearing with translational stiffness K
The deflection of the carriage will be described by = x + end

The equilibrium equations are:


K x + end dx = K L + end L 2

F =

K x + end xdx = K L2 + endL L 3 2

Using the above to substitute first for end and then , the slope of the carriage and the deflection end at the end are respectively:
= 12F( - L/2) L K

6 - L/2 end = F 1 K L

The translational stiffness of the carriage at its centroid is:

Ktranslational @ centroid K =

The moment applied to the carriage about its centroid is simply F( - L/2), so the rotational stiffness of the carriage about its centroid is:
2 Krotational @ centroid = KL 12

2000 Alexander Slocum



Preload: Pitch Stiffness

For four discrete bearings (e.g., linear motion guides' blocks) are mounted at the corners of a carriage
It will be assumed that the carriage and structure the rails are mounted to behave like a rigid body Assume each bearing block has stiffness of KbY and KbZ, and the moment stiffness is insignificant Assume the X and Z distances between the bearing blocks are LX and LZ respectively

The translational stiffness of the system at the center of stiffness will be:

KY = 4KbY KZ = 4KbZ
The moment stiffness at the bearing center of stiffness will be:

KX = KY =

x 4, 0, z 4

x 3, 0, z 3

FY x FY y FY z FY , , FX x FX y FX z FX , ,

x i,j, 0, z i,j

FZ xFZ, y FZ, z FZ

For generic model

x 2, 0, z 2

KZ = KbYL2 X
2000 Alexander Slocum 10-23

Z (j direction) x 1, 0, z 1

X (i direction)


Preload: Rolling Elements

In order to maximize stiffness and resistance to impact loads, rolling element bearings must be preloaded
To be preloaded, all the rolling elements must be under load, often one element loaded against another When preloaded, even the rolling elements in tension act as springs to provide stiffness

2000 Alexander Slocum



Preload: Angular Contact Bearings

Angular contact bearings are the mainstay of industry
They are preloaded in a back-to-back configuration to prevent thermal growth overload

Constraint management is the key!

2000 Alexander Slocum



Your machines will have to withstand at most 6 actual runs on the contest table, BUT dozens and dozens of trial runs You need to design and engineer the components for long life
Structural fatigue Bearing wear

Sketch the component to be supported by the bearings

Estimate and sketch the direct loads applied to the component Sketch the bearing contact points Calculate the loads THEN Estimate and sketch the indirect (unintentional) loads applied to the component Calculate the loads THEN Calculate L10 or PV life/load limits

2000 Alexander Slocum



Load/Life: PV for Sliding Contact Bearings

The PV value is the product of the force and the velocity Sliding contact bearings have a maximum allowable pressure and a maximum PV value`
The allowable product of pressure (F/(D*L)) and velocity to have acceptable wear rates For a typical Delrin bearing used as a bushing (Nylon has these values)
Maximum Pressure (N/mm^2, psi) PV continuous (N/mm^2-m/s, psi-ips) PV short periods (N/mm^2-m/s, psi-ips) Compressive Modulus (GPa, psi) 140 19,895 1.8 9,791 3.5 19,581 4 579,710

http://www.dupont.com/enggpolymers/americas/products/deldata.html The maximum tensile stress we should be putting on the material is 10ksi The maximum contact pressure for a material is typically sqrt(3) times the yield strength (Von Mises criteria) Perform calculations and if in doubt, do a Bench Level Experiment

2000 Alexander Slocum



Load/Life: Moment Loading

Pitch occurs about the center of stiffness
Each bearing surface has a linearly increasing contact pressure from the center of stiffness to the edge For both top and bottom pressure triangles:

dM = 2 xdF =



Integrating from 0 to L and solving for dP:

2L The maximum pressure is just LdP


dP =

Bearing_Pitch_PV By Alex Slocum 3/8/98 To determine bearing contact pressure in a slider loaded by a moment Dimensions in inches and pounds Enter numbers in bold Total slider length 1.5 Slider contact width 0.25 Pivot point height above center of stiffness 1 Force 150 Max PV (psi-ips) 4000 Moment 150 Maximum contact pressure 1600 Speed (inchs/sec) 1 PV (psi-inch/sec) 1600

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Load/Life: Pinned Joints

Select a bearing that can handle the stresses:
Ffulcrum/Abearings projected area < allowable bearing surface pressure

Be very careful to make the bearings robust enough to handle side loads (prevent wobble)! Make sure the actuator is mounted using clevis so bending moments are not transmitted to the actuator! Sloppy pin joints are often sufficient to function as clevises Also check the PV value: Load*Velocity<Bearing Max value

2000 Alexander Slocum



Load/Life: L10
Rolling element bearings have an L10 life
The allowable load for a given number of revolutions where only 10% of the bearings will fail La: millions of revolutions.
a1: 1.0 for a 10% probability of failure a2: a materials factor, which is typically 3.0 for steel bearings . a3: lubrication factor, which typically is 1.0 for oil mist. C: basic dynamic load rating from a table of available bearings. Fe: the applied equivalent radial load, determined by bearing type. : 3 for balls and 10/3 for rollers. Precision life is about 90% of the L10 life

For high speed applications, the operating speed must be taken into account when calculating the equivalent radial load Fe K: rotation factor = 1 for rotating inner ring and 2 for a rotating outer ring Kr: radial load factor = 1 (almost always) KA: axial load factor

Fe = K Kr Fr + KA FA
L a = a1 a2 a3 (C/ F e)
10-30 2000 Alexander Slocum 2/6/2002

Load/Life: Ball Bearing Speed Limits

Bearing speed is limited by its DN value, where D is the diameter in mm and N is the allowable rpm Shear power is the product of velocity (Rw) and force (RA/h) or (R)2A/h Centrifugal load is proportional to r 2
Bearing Type Single row, non-filling slot type Single row filling slot type Radial and angular -contact single row Angular-contact single and double row Single row angular-contact Type of Cage ABEC-1 Grease Oil (1) (2) ABEC-3 Grease Oil (1) (2) ABEC-7 Grease Circulating (selected) oil Oil mist 250,000 250,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 400,000 -

Molded nylon PRB 200,000 250,000 200,000 250,000 pressed-steel 250,000 300,000 250,000 300,000 Molded nylon PRB 200,000 200,000 pressed-steel 200,000 250,000 -

Molded nylon PRC composite CR (ring piloted) 300,000 350,000 300,000 400,000 Molded nylon PRB 200,000 250,000 pressed-steel 200,000 250,000 Metallic (ring-piloted) 250,000 300,000 -

400,000 600,000 750,000 -

(1) Grease filled to 30 to 50% of capacity. Type of grease must be carefully chosen to achieve the above speed values. Consult Fafnir for complete recommendations. (2) For oil bath lubrication, oil level should be maintained between 1/3 to 1/2 from the bottom of the lowest ball.

2000 Alexander Slocum



Separates the structural materials, and prevents chemical bonding. Allows for viscous shear of a fluid thereby reducing material wear Tribology is the study of lubrication and wear Oil is the most common lubricant Grease is just a soap that holds oil and releases it as it gets hot LESS IS BETTER! Lubricants attract dirt, and thus cleanliness (via seals) it of extreme importance! E.g., porous bronze bushings E.g., Teflon, Rulon, Delrin.

Most bearings require lubrication

Some bearings are impregnated with solid lubricants which are released as they get hot

Some bearings are inherently lubricious and can function dry In general, these bearings do even better when also lubcricated Measure coefficient of friction by an incline plane: =tan
Sliding contact (e.g., plastic on metal) with modest friction (=0.1-0.05) Rolling elements (e.g., ball bearings) with very low friction (=0.01-.005)

2000 Alexander Slocum



Lubrication: Surface Finish

Peak Valley

Surfaces with positive (left) and negative (right) skewness

Both surfaces have the same average roughness Ra value:

Ra = 1 L


Sliding contact bearings tend to average out surface finish errors and wear less when the skewness is negative
Negative skewness holds the lubricant As the system heats up, the lubricant flows and the friction drops The larger the positive skewness, the greater the wear-in period

2000 Alexander Slocum



Lubrication: Regions
There are three regions of lubrication as shown by the Stribeck curve Boundary, or sliding contact, where there is sliding contact between bodies, or the lubricant layer is very thin and the relative velocity is very low Coefficients of friction are on the order of 0.05-0.15 for bearing materials Surface speeds are less than 3 m/min Mixed, where there is partial separation of the sliding surfaces by hydrodynamic action of the lubricant film, but there is still some solid rubbing Coefficients of friction are on the order of 0.02-0.1 for bearing materials Full Film (hydrodynamic), where there is separation of the sliding surfaces by hydrodynamic action of the lubricant film Coefficients of friction are on the order of 0.001-0.005 Friction also depends on velocity and lubricant viscosity George Gabriel Stokes (1819-1903) Surface speeds are greater than 5 m/min Stiction: when static is greater than dynamic , cause stick-slip which causes position errors Static friction never equals dynamic friction.
Boundary Mixed Full film (Hydrodynamic) Friction
Osborne Reynolds (1842 - 1912) Claude Louis Marie Henri Navier (1785-1836)

2000 Alexander Slocum




Lubrication: Rolling Contact

Hertz contact creates a contact footprint
Body is rolling with one center and multiple diameters There has to be some slip

Still, static friction approximately equals dynamic friction at low speeds, so stick slip is often minimized For heavily loaded tables, static friction is still significantly greater than dynamic friction Effect of stick-slip in a machine used to cut a hole using circular interpolation:
Errors will appear at velocity crossovers: 10-20 microns for sliding contact bearings 5 microns for rolling element bearings

2000 Alexander Slocum



Lubrication: Hertz Effects

Rolling contacts have friction because the elements deform under load and cause rolling across different effective diameters (slip)

The rolling bearing pulls in lubricant, whose viscosity increases with pressure, to form an elastohydrodynamic lubrication layer between the ball and the race The EHD layer accommodates the differential slip, but generates heat via viscous shear

The geometry of the rolling contact interface also plays a significant role

2000 Alexander Slocum



Error Motions
Bearings are not perfect, and when they move, errors in their motion can affect system performance
Accuracy standards are known as (ABEC) classes as set by the Annular Bearing Engineers Committee of the Anti-Friction Bearing Manufacturers Association, Inc. (AFBMA) ABEC 3 rotary motion ball bearings are common and low cost ABEC 9 rotary ball bearings are used in the highest precision machines

Remember Abbe errors!

Manufacturers often provide repeatability data

2000 Alexander Slocum



Error Motions: Rotary Bearings

Disc drives exist because of accurate repeatable rotary motion bearings
Radial, Axial, and Tilt error motions are of concern

Precision Machine Designers measure error motions and use FFTs to determine what is causing the errors
MRS center error motion value PC center error motion value PC center

Inner motion

Outer motion MRS center

Displacement (nanometers)


Displacement due to machine deformation

Total Error Motion




0 0 50 100 150 Frequency (Hz) 200 250

Average Error Motion

Fundamental Error Motion

2000 Alexander Slocum



Error Motions: Linear Bearings

Semiconductor circuits are created on machines called steppers, whose linear motion accuracy must be 10x more accurate than the VLSI line width!
Horizontal, vertical, roll, pitch, and yaw errors are of concern Once again, the FFT is your friend!

2.50E-07 Amplitude (m) 2.00E-07 1.50E-07 1.00E-07 5.00E-08 0.00E+00 1.00E-03

Peaks likely due to rolling elements (ball and cam roller surface errors) Surface finish effects Overall bow in rail

1.00E-02 Wavelength (m)


2000 Alexander Slocum



Error Motions: Horizontal Straightness

Assume all bearings move horizontally

2000 Alexander Slocum



Error Motions: Vertical Straightness

Assume all bearings move vertically

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Error Motions: Roll

Assume all bearings on each rail move vertically in an opposite direction

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Error Motions: Pitch

Assume front and rear bearing pairs move in opposite vertical directions

2000 Alexander Slocum



Error Motions: Yaw

Assume front and rear bearing pairs move in opposite horizontal directions

2000 Alexander Slocum



Conclusions: Fundamentals Rule

All the fundamental principles discussed in Topic 3 come to bear when designing bearing systems

2000 Alexander Slocum