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Ngoc-Tung Nguyen*, Hong-Hee Lee** School of Electrical Engineering, University of Ulsan, South Korea * nngoctungbk@gmail.com **hhlee@mail.ulsan.ac.kr

researchers have been interested in how to eliminate these harmonic components. For aircraft applications, a design method of LC filter which plays a role of a low pass filter to reject these harmonics is introduced in detail [7]. Unfortunately, the power drop on internal resistance and the I. INTRODUCTION resonance problem may reduce the efficiency and stability of In recent years, the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator system. In addition, the control strategies based on either (DFIG) has been widely applied to wind energy conversion RSC or LSC have been investigated to deal with the harmonic systems. The most important benefit of the DFIG is the small problem. [8] has introduced how to improve the quality of rate of power converter compared to the nominal power of stator current using the current controller in LSC which machine (around 30%), so it can be used in high power operates as an active power filter. In this method, the applications in both grid and stand-alone mode [1]. harmonics of line current are generated following the In grid operation, most of literatures are focused on the harmonics of load current by using only PI controllers, so the modeling of DFIG, active and reactive power control under steady-state error for magnitude and phase is not guaranteed. either normal or unbalanced grid voltage with different In order to avoid this inconvenience, a resonant controller is targets and low voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability [2], employed to eliminate the steady-state error at the selective [3]. On the other hand, in the rural areas or remote villages frequencies for RSC current controller in [9]. In [9], only one where the grid is not provided, it is necessary to use DFIG in single resonant compensator (PI-R) is capable for eliminating the stand-alone operation [4]. One of the most serious one pair of stator voltage harmonics. The harmonics of rotor disadvantages of this operation is the strong influence of current is produced to eliminate both fifth and seventh unbalanced and non-linear loads to the stator voltage of DFIG. voltage at the point of common coupling (PCC). However, Therefore, the suitable control strategies for DFIG in standthe induced harmonics of rotor current and stator current alone operation should be developed under these abnormal effect seriously to the rotor as mentioned in [5]. conditions. Based on the previous study, this paper proposes a new In case of the unbalanced load, the balanced stator voltage control algorithm to reject the harmonics of stator current by can be obtained by producing the negative sequence line the LSC control in case non-linear loads are connected to current of LSC, which has the same magnitude and opposite stator side of DFIG. In this control method, the stator current phase with the corresponding component of load current [5]. is applied as a feedback signal to the current controller Another compensating method for this case is based on the instead of the load current. Thus, the additional current rotor side control (RSC) which generates the harmonic sensors at load side are not needed, so that, the number of components for the rotor current [6]. current sensors that are installed in system is reduced Taking into account the non-linear load condition, the compared to the previous method in [8]. In the current configuration of stand-alone DFIG system that feeds the regulator, one proportional integral and two resonant three-phase diode rectifier is shown in Fig. 1. Due to the controllers at six and twelve multiples of synchronous effect of non-linear load, the stator voltage and current are frequency are applied in the fundamental reference frame to polluted by the positive (6n+1) and negative (6n1) order eliminate four harmonics, i.e. the fifth, seventh, eleventh and harmonics as analyzed in [10], so that the other loads thirteenth harmonic of stator current. The proposed control connected to DFIG are impacted seriously. Therefore, many

Abstract-This paper presents a new control method to compensate the harmonic components in case non-linear loads are connected to the stand-alone Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG). The load side converter (LSC) operates as an active filter to compensate the harmonics caused by the nonlinear loads, and the controller for the active filter is developed by employing a proportional-integral and two resonant controllers in the fundamental reference frame. And also, the stator current is used as the feedback signal for the compensator instead of the load current. In addition, only low pass filter (LPF) is applied in control scheme, so that the control structure becomes simple with easy computation. The effectiveness of proposed compensator is validated by the simulation and experiment.

method is explained in detail and verified by simulation and experiment. II. HARMONIC PROBLEMS OF DFIG SYSTEM In this paper, only mathematical descriptions of DFIG components under non-linear load condition are briefly reviewed, the full harmonic analysis of DFIG system can be searched in [10]. Under non-linear load condition, the harmonics of stator current are generated at the negative (6n 1) and positive (6n + 1) multiples of synchronous frequency. These harmonic components can be described in corresponding different reference frames which are shown in Fig. 2. From the full model of DFIG introduced in [10], the harmonics of current/voltage/flux in both stator and rotor are produced. In the stationary reference frame, these vectors can be decomposed into the fundamental and harmonic components:

A. Proposed LSC Control In normal condition, the main function of LSC control is to produce the dc-link voltage and to adjust the input power factor of the front-end converter. The fundamental component of d-axis of line current is responsible for the former whereas the q-axis of line current is applied for the latter. These components are adjusted by the PI controller, which are given by

* KI * id 0 = K P + s (VDC VDC ) * i = 0 q0

(3)

Under non-linear load condition, the LSC control is also responsible to produce the sinusoidal stator current. For this purpose, the LSC is controlled as an active power filter to generate the harmonics of line current to eliminate the harmonics of stator current. The stator current is the sum of load current and line current, as illustrated in Fig. 3. These current can be expressed in fundamental reference frame as

i sdq =

iLdq + idq k

(4)

F ( t ) = F 1 ( t ) + F ( 6 n 1) ( t ) + F ( 6n +1) + ( t )

n =1

where k is the ratio of transformer. Decomposing into fundamental and harmonic components, (4) can be rewritten as

1 1 1 1 Fdq = Fdq1 + Fdq(6 n 1) + Fdq(6 n +1)+ n =1 n =1

idq 0 idqh

k k

(5) (6)

As can be seen from (6), the harmonic components of stator current can be eliminated by producing the harmonic line current of LSC. The overall method to achieve the zero harmonic stator current is to generate the line current which has same magnitude but opposite phase to the load current for each harmonic component. Therefore, the reference line current is given as below:

6 n 1 n =1

j 6 ns t

( + Fdq(6 n +)1)+ e

6 n +1 n =1

j 6 ns t

(2)

It can be inferred from (2) that both negative and positive harmonic components are presented by the ac components that oscillate at the same frequencies of 6ns in fundamental reference frame. It is evident that one resonant controller can be used to control each pair of harmonics. III. SYSTEM CONTROL

(7)

( kisd 0 id 0 ) and ( kisq 0 iq 0 ) can be achieved ( kisd id ) and ( kisq iq ) , respectively. Only

In order to apply (7) to the practical controller, the load current must be measured, and the additional current sensors increase the cost of system. To avoid this inconvenience, it is necessary to remove the load current from the controller. For this purpose, the reference value for harmonics of line current is inferred from (6) and (7):

* idh = k iLdh = idh kisdh * iqh = k iLqh = iqh kisqh

(8)

Next, the errors between total component value of line current and its measured value are expressed from (6) and (8):

* * * id _ err = id id = ( id 0 + idh ) id

* = id 0 kisd + ( kisd 0 id 0 )

* = id 0 + ( idh kisdh ) id

(9)

= kisq + ( kisq 0 iq 0 )

(10)

fundamental component of line current in d- and q- axis, respectively. These values are evaluated by using (3). The dc

one LPF is used for each term to minimize the impact of the filters such as error and delay time, so that, the accuracy of the controller is guaranteed. In addition, the LPF is designed for not only rejecting high frequency components but also reducing errors and delay time at the transient time. Thus, the cut-off frequency is assigned at 20Hz. The discrete transfer function of this LPF is given by 0.0009278 (1 + 2 z 1 + z 2 ) (11) G ( z) = 1 1.87816 z 1 + 0.88187 z 2 As can be seen from (10), the inputs of current controller consist of two aforementioned dc components and the stator current which contains its harmonic components. From (2), these components have the frequencies of 6n multiples of synchronous frequency (n = 1, 2, 3 ). Therefore, the current controller for line current given in (9) and (10) should be designed to assure the zero error at steady-state of both dc and harmonic components. The dc component is regulated by the PI controller, whereas each harmonic component can be rejected by the resonant controller with the corresponding resonant frequency. Because the total component of stator current is employed directly to the regulator, so the higher order harmonic frequencies can be adjusted without error extraction process. In this method, the 6th and 12th order harmonic components (n = 1, n = 2) are chosen to be regulated by the resonant controllers. Thus, the proportional

integral plus two resonant controllers (PI-2R) which is shown in Fig. 4 are used in the regulator. The proposed LSC control method is totally shown in Fig. 5. In this control scheme, one PI-2R controller is used for dand q- axis to control the dc-link voltage as well as power factor and the induced harmonics of line current. Only one LPF is applied to control each component, so the control structure becomes simple with easy computation. B. RSC Control In stand-alone application, the main role of RSC control is to regulate the magnitude of stator voltage as desired value and the active power delivered to loads. In this paper, the compensation for harmonic problem is done by the LSC, so the control of RSC is generally same as the conventional control method presented in [4]. In this control method, the d- axis rotor current is responsible for directly controlling the magnitude of stator voltage to follow the command value. Because the stator voltage is polluted with high order harmonic components under non-linear load condition, it is necessary to reject all of high frequency components included in stator voltage to improve the accuracy of rotor current control loop. In this paper, two low-pass filters (LPF) with a proper cut-off frequency are used for d- and q- axis of stator voltage to get their dc components. Finally, the magnitude of stator voltage is expressed by

vs =

(v1sd ) +(v1sq )

2

(12)

In order to verify the effectiveness of proposed control method, both simulation and experiment are carried out. The simulation is conducted with the configuration given in Fig.1. A dc motor is used as the wind turbine emulator to force the DFIG rotate around the synchronous speed. A three-phase diode rectifier which is used to supply for a resistance load is connected to stator side through SW1; another three phase resistance load is connected directly to stator. In simulations, the dc-link voltage and magnitude of stator voltage are kept constant at 200V; the stator frequency is controlled at 50Hz. At first, the impact of non-linear load is tested without the compensating method. As seen in Fig. 7 from top to bottom, the stator current is distorted with high THD factors because of the non-linear load current whereas the line current is nearly sinusoidal, and hence, the stator voltage is also polluted. The steady-state performances of the proposed compensating method with the same sequential order with those in Fig. 7 are illustrated in Fig. 8. By clear comparison between these waveforms, the proposed method performs the better results with lower THD factor in both stator current and voltage. For the purpose of further comparison, the FFT analysis of stator current and voltage in fundamental reference frame without and with developed algorithm are given in Figs. 9 and 10. It can be apparently seen that the magnitude of both stator current and voltage at 300Hz (6th order) and 600Hz (12th order) are significantly reduced. It is evident that the introduced strategy has ability to eliminate the harmonic components at 6th and 12th order under nonlinear load condition. V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Fig. 6 shows the RSC control algorithm with the modified magnitude stator voltage for the non-linear load compensator. IV. SIMULATION RESULTS

Fig. 7. System performance without compensating method. (a) Stator current (b) Load- side current (c) Line current (d) Stator voltage

Fig. 8. System performance with proposed compensating method. (a) Stator current (b) Load- side current (c) Line current (d) Stator voltage

Fig. 9. FFT of (a) Stator current (b) Stator voltage without compensation.

Fig. 10. FFT of (a) Stator current (b) Stator voltage with proposed method.

The waveforms of stator voltage without and with the proposed method are illustrated in Figs. 12(b) and 13(b), respectively. From these figures, it is reasonable to say that the quality of stator voltage is improved due to the stator current compensator. In order to further analyze the quality of system response, the FFT analysis of stator current and stator voltage without and with the proposed method are shown in Figs. 14 and 15, respectively. With the proposed compensating method, the magnitude of stator current and voltage at 5th, 7th, 11th and 13th harmonics are significantly reduced as compared to those without eliminating method. VI.

Fig. 11. Experimental setup

CONCLUSIONS

To confirm the effectiveness of proposed control method, the experiment implementation is also carried out with the hardware setup shown in Fig. 11. The LSC and RSC are fed by an IGBT-based PWM front-end converter and inverter, respectively. Both of them are controlled by a control board of DSP TMS320F28335 of Texas Instruments with the switching frequency at 5 kHz. In addition, another DSP board is tuned to regulate the speed of DC motor which plays the role of a prime mover. Figs. 12(a) and 13(a) show the waveforms of stator current, non-linear load current and line current from top to bottom without and with compensating method, respectively. As shown in Fig. 12(a), because no elimination method is operated, the stator current is seriously distorted by receiving the harmonics of load current, and the line current is almost sinusoidal. In contrast, as shown in Fig. 13 (a), the harmonics of line current are generated to compensate those of load currents, so the stator current becomes nearly sinusoidal with low distorted components.

This paper has presented a new control approach for standalone DFIG system under non-linear load condition. In this method, the stator current is directly employed for the controller to remove the additional current sensors in load side in case non-linear loads are connected to stator of DFIG. The control method is simplified by applying the LPF to the current regulator. Thus, higher order harmonics can be eliminated without any extra filter. In addition, two resonant controllers are used as current regulator to eliminate effectively four harmonics at the 5th, 7th, 11th and 13th order of stator currents. As a result, the quality of stator voltage and current is improved much better. The simulation and experimental results are matched each other and evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed compensating method. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work was partly supported by the NRF grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 2010-0025483) and the Network-based Automation Research Center (NARC) funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy.

Fig. 12. System performance without any compensation. (a) From top to bottom: Stator current. Scale 5A/div, 10ms/div Load current. Scale 2A/div, 10ms/div Line current. Scale 5A/div, 10ms/div (b) Stator voltage Scale 40V/div, 10ms/div

Fig. 13. System performance with proposed compensation method. (a) From top to bottom: Stator current. Scale 5A/div, 10ms/div Load current. Scale 2A/div, 10ms/div Line current. Scale 5A/div, 10ms/div (b) Stator voltage. Scale 40V/div, 10ms/div

Fig. 14. FFT of a) Stator current (b) Stator voltage without compensation

Fig. 15. FFT of a) Stator current (b) Stator voltage with proposed method non-linear loads for aircraft applications," Industrial Electronics, 2004 IEEE Int Sym on , vol.2, no., pp. 1093- 1098 vol. 2, 4-7 May 2004. [8] Jain, A.K.; Ranganathan, V.T.; "Wound Rotor Induction Generator With Sensorless Control and Integrated Active Filter for Feeding Nonlinear Loads in a Stand-Alone Grid," Industrial Electronics, IEEE Trans. on , vol.55, no.1, pp.218-228, Jan. 2008. [9] Van-Tung Phan; Hong-Hee Lee; "Control Strategy for Harmonic Elimination in Stand-Alone DFIG Applications With Nonlinear Loads," Power Electronics, IEEE Trans. on , vol.26, no.9, pp.2662-. [10] Lingling Fan; Yuvarajan, S.; Kavasseri, R.; , "Harmonic Analysis of a DFIG for a Wind Energy Conversion System," , IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, vol.25, no.1, pp.181-190, March 2010

REFERENCES

[1] [2] [3] Li, H.; Chen, Z.; "Overview of different wind generator systems and their comparisons," Renewable Power Generation, IET , vol.2, no.2, pp.123-138, June 2008. Lie Xu; Yi Wang; "Dynamic Modeling and Control of DFIG-Based Wind Turbines Under Unbalanced Network Conditions," Power Systems, IEEE Trans. on , vol.22, no.1, pp.314-323, Feb. 2007. Ibrahim, A.O.; Thanh Hai Nguyen; Dong-Choon Lee; Su-Chang Kim; , "A Fault Ride-Through Technique of DFIG Wind Turbine Systems Using Dynamic Voltage Restorers," Energy Conversion, IEEE Trans. on , vol.26, no.3, pp.871-882, Sept. Pena, R.; Clare, J.C.; Asher, G.M.; , "A doubly fed induction generator using back-to-back PWM converters supplying an isolated load from a variable speed wind turbine", Electric Power Applications, IEE Proceedings - , vol.143, no.5, pp.380-387, Sep 1996 Pena, R.; Cardenas, R.; Escobar, E.; Clare, J.; Wheeler, P.; , "Control System for Unbalanced Operation of Stand-Alone Doubly Fed Induction Generators", IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, vol.22, no.2, pp.544-545, June 2007. Van-Tung Phan, Hong-Hee Lee, and Tae-Won Chun, An Effective Rotor Current An Effective Rotor Current Controller for Unbalanced Stand-Alone DFIG Systems in the Rotor Reference Frame, Journal of Power Electronics, vol.10, no.6, pp.724-732, Mar. 2010. Khatounian, F.; Monmasson, E.; Berthereau, F.; Louis, J.P.; , "Design of an output LC filter for a doubly fed induction generator supplying

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