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Gigabit Ethernet tester, Gigabit Ethernet testing, Gigabit Ethernet installation, Gigabit Ethernet maintenance, Gigabit Ethernet commissioning,

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Trends 3G Guide
Uu

Pocket Guide for UMTS testing

UTRAN
Uu

UE

Uu

UE

NodeB
Uu

NodeB
Uu

UE

NodeB
Iub

NodeB
UE

NodeB NodeB
Iub Iur

UE

RNS
RNC

Iub

NodeB
IMA nxE1

UE
IMA Iub

NodeB

RNC
sync

Control User Signaling Data AAL5 ATM SDH/PDH

IuPS

IuCS

Control User Signaling Voice AAL5 AAL2 ATM SDH/PDH

SSU SSU

Gs

GPRS

SGSN
AD M

MSC
Gn

GSM

Optical Core
AD M

M AD

VLR
ISDN

Intranet
M AD

DNS DHCP

Internet

Gr

NMC

OMC

AUC

HLR

Figure 1

UMTS/3G architecture

AuroraForte A powerful tool for testing the Physical, ATM and IP layer operation of ATM circuits. Provides IMA, E1, E3, DS1, DS3, ATM-25, STM-1/OC-3 and STM-4/OC-12 interfaces for unparalleled multi-circuit testing in ATM, xDSL and 3G networks. Physical and ATM BER testing. Advanced features, AAL5, OAM, QoS, SVC support and IP Ping over ATM, protocol decoding and remote testing, analysis of IP traffic composition.

VictoriaSDH/ATM/IP Family of testers that combine IP, ATM and SDH capabilities up to 2.5 Gbit/s. Transmission functions include TCM, APS, M/N alarms, G.783 sequences, frequency deviation and n x 64 and n x 56 kbit/s tests at E1 and DS1 levels. ATM features include generation and analysis of ATM flows, QoS, OAM flows, AAL1/2/5 generation/analysis. Analysis of IP traffic composition also included.

VictoriaJitter/Wander A cost-effective solution that provides complete loop fault management for control centres that support a large number of xDSL installations. Its remote testing capacities include: emulation of equipment at both central offices and customer premises, TDR, DMM, an extensive range of analogue measurements, spectrum analysis, ATM, PPP, IP and higher-layer protocol test.

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ADM

Gi

GGSN

MGW

PSTN

EIR

QoS enabled IP backbone

sync

PRC

Synchronization

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User Circuit-Switched Voice Services
Voice
Voice

Voice
Voice

AMR codec
AMR codec

AMR codec
AMR codec

RLC
RLC

RLC Channels
Channels

MAC
MAC

MAC WCDMA
WCDMA

RLC RLC

Channels
Channels

WCDMA
WCDMA

FP FP ATM AAL2 ATM AAL2 SDH SDH

FP FP ATM AAL2 ATM AAL2 ATM AAL2 ATM AAL2 SDH SDH SDH SDH

MAC MAC

Iu UP
Iu UP

Iu UP
Iu UP

ISDN
ISDN

ISDN
ISDN

PCM channel
channel

ATM AAL2
ATM AAL2

PDH
PDH

PDH
PDH

ISDN POTS UMTS GSM

PCM channel
channel

SDH
SDH

SDH
SDH

SDH
SDH

L1

L1

L1

L1

Uu

Iub

IuCS

UE

Node-B

RNC

MSC

GMSC

End user

User Packet-Switched Data Services


Applic
App

Applic
App

TCP/IP
IP

TCP/IP
IP

PDCP
PDCP

PDCP
PDCP

Iu UP
GTP

Iu UP
GTP UDP

GTP
GTP UDP

GTP
GTP

RLC
RLC

RLC
RLC MAC

GTP
UDP IP

GTP TCP/UDP UDP/IP


IP ATM AAL5

TCP/UDP
UDP

Li

Li

Li Internet Gi

Li

MAC
MAC

MAC UDP/IP Channels


Channels

IP

IP

IP

IP

Channels
Channels

WCDMA
WCDMA

WCDMA
WCDMA

FP FP ATM AAL2 ATM AAL2 SDH SDH

FP FP ATM AAL2 ATM AAL2 SDH SDH

ATM AAL5
ATM AAL5

ATM AAL5 ATM AAL5


ATM AAL5

ATM AAL5
ATM AAL5

L2
L2

L2
L2

SDH
SDH

SDH
SDH

SDH
SDH

SDH
SDH

L1
L1

L1
L1

UE

Uu

Node-B

Iub

RNC

IuPS

SGSN

Gn

GGSN

UE / Service

UMTS Control Plane


RNS
CC, SS, SM, SMS GSMS
CC, SS, SM, SMS GSMS

RNS
RRC RANAP
RRC RANAP

CC, SS, SM, SMS GSMS


CC, SS, SM, SMS GSMS

RRC
RRC

RANAP
RANAP

RLC
RLC

RLC
RLC MAC

SCCP
SCCP Signalling

SCCP
SCCP

MAC
MAC

MAC Signalling Channels ATM/AAL5


Channels ATM/AAL5

Signalling
Signalling

Channels
Channels

ATM/AAL5
ATM/AAL5

UA M3 P-3 SCO P MT S NI F-N SSC P IP D SSC

NB

AP

WCDMA
WCDMA

WCDMA
WCDMA

SDH
SDH

SDH
SDH

FP L2 AA TM H/A SD

P SSC P CO SS L5 AA

C RR R LC C MA FP AA

NB

AP

L2 TM H/A SD

P SSC P CO SS L5 AA

UE

Uu

IuPS

SGSN

Node-B

Iub

RNC

Figure 2

UMTS planes, protocols and interfaces

UE

Drift Node B

Serving Node B
Radio Link Setup Radio Link Setup Proceed

Drift RNC
RNSAP NBAP RNSAP Branch Addition

Serving RNC
RNSAP

NBAP Start Rx

Branch Add. Proceed RNSAP

ALCAP Iub Data Transport Bearer Setup / Iur Bearer Setup Synchronization Start Tx RRC Handover Complete NBAP Radio Link Release Radio Link Setup Release Proceed Handover RRC NBAP

Stop Rx & Tx ALCAP Iub Data Transport Bearer Release

Figure 3

UTRAN signaling sample: soft handover

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MTIE (ns)
10
4

10

Phase Offset 1.25 ms G.811 Mask 0,05 ppm Frequency Offset

10

10

10

10

-1

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

(s)

Figure 4

An MTIE mask for a Node-B synchronization source in a UMTS network

BGP

FTP

HTTP SMTP Telnet SNMP TCP UDP ICMP OSPF IP

Figure 5

Higher protocols

IPv4

bit 0

16

19

31

Version

IHL

Type of service Flags Source Address Protocol

Total length Fragment offset Header Checksum

Identification
20 bytes 20 bytes

Time to live

Destination Address Options (+padding) Data (variable size)

Figure 6

IP Format

bit 0

PPP encapsulation
8 16 31 0

PPP frame structure


8 16 31

Protocol

Flag

Address

Control

Encapsulated protocol

PPP packet

Padding Protocol: 0001h - Padding 0021h - IP C021h - LCP C023h - PAP C223h - CHAP FCS FCS (cont. if 32 bit) Flag: 7Eh Address: FFh Control: 03h Flag Padding

Figure 7

PPP encapsulation

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UNI Format
byte 1 2 3 4 5 6 53 GFC VPI VCI PTI HEC Payload CLP VPI VPI VCI PTI HEC Payload CLP

NNI Format
VPI

Figure 8

ATM Cell format

Function Unassigned Invalid Idle Metasignaling UNI Broadcast UNI Segment OAM F4 E2E OAM F4 P2P Signaling VP Management ILMI PNNI Segment OAM F5 E2E OAM F5 flow VC Resource mgt User data

VPI VCI 0 0 <> 0 0 0 0 *any 1 *any 2 any 3 any 4 *any 5 any 6 0 16 0 18 any not 0, 3, 4, 6 or 7 any not 0, 3, 4, 6 or 7 any not 0, 3, 4, 6 or 7 any > 31

PTI any any 0 0xx any 0xx 0x0 0xx 110 z 0 100 101 110 0xx

CLP 0 0 1 any any any any any any any any any any any any

Channel 1
CPS-SDU
3 m

Channel 2
CPS-SDU CPS-PDU

Channel 3
CPS-SDU CPS-PDU

Channel 4
CPS-SDU CPS-PDU Padding

CPS-PDU
48

53

Header

Payload Header Payload Header Payload

Figure 9

AAL2 format

bytes

1 to 65,535

0-47

CS-PDU:
header 5 48

User data

PAD

UU CPI

LI

CRC

SAR-PDU:

PT
BOM

Payload

PT
COM

Payload

...

...

PT
EOM

Payload

Figure 10

AAL5 format

payload

Header
bits

Type
4

Function
4

Function-Specific Field OAM structure


Fault type
1

Reserved
6

CRC 10
10 x 10+x9+x5+x4+x+1

OAM Type Code Function Code Fault management Performance management Activation & deactivation AIS 0001 RDI Continuity Loopback 0010 FPM BPM 1000 Performance Continuity 0000 0001 0100 1000 0000 0001 0000 0001

Fault location
16

6Ah
28

AIS and RDI


6Ah
8

Loopback
1

Correlation
4

Location ID
16

Source ID
16

Loopback Performance management Act/Deactivation

MSCN TUC1 BIP16 TUC0 TST 6Ah TRC0 BLER TRC1


1 2 2 2 4 29 2 1 2

MID
6bits

Direction Correlation
2bits 8bits

PMA-B
4bits

PMB-A
4bits

6Ah
336bits

Figure 11

Format of OAM cells

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45 bytes

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40 Gbps 10 Gbps 2.5 Gbps 622 Mbps 155 Mbps STM-256 OC-768 STM-64 OC-192 STM-16 OC-48 STM-4 OC-12 STM-1 OC-3/STS-3
x1 x4

AUG-256 STS-768 AUG-64 STS-192


x4

x1

AU4-256c STS-768c AU4-64c STS-192c AU4-16c STS-48c AU4-4c STS-12c AU-4 STS-3c

VC4-256c STS-768c SPE VC4-64c STS-192c SPE VC4-16c STS-48c SPE VC4-4c STS-12c SPE VC-4 STS-3c SPE
x3

C-4-256c C-4-64c C-4-16c C-4-4c C-4 TUG-3


x1

x1

x1

ATM 10GE ATM ATM E4

x1 x4 x1 x4 x1

AUG-16 STS-48 AUG-4 STS-12 AUG-1 STS-3

x1

x1

x1

x3

TU-3

VC-3 C-3 ATM DS3 E3 ATM DS2 ATM E1 ATM DS1

52 Mbps

STM-0 OC-1/STS-1

x1

AU-3 STS-1

VC-3 STS-1 SPE


x7

x7

Frame transmission Aligning Multiplexing Mapping

Pointer processing SDH Container Group POH addition

TUG-2 VT-Group

x1 x3

TU-2 VT-6 TU-12 VT-2 TU-11 VT-1.5

VC-2 VT-6 SPE VC-12 VT-2 SPE VC-11 VT-1.5 SPE

C-2

x4

C-12 C-11

Figure 12

SDH and SONET Multiplexing map

1 1 A1 A2 J0 * * *
Transport Overhead

3 4 4

STS-1
J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 Z3 Z4 N1
ptr ptr

90 90 VT pointers

1 Section Overhead) pointer

VT POH V5

Virtual Tributary Path Overhead

B1 E1 F1 D1 D2 D3 H1 H2 H3 B2 K1 K2 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 D11 D12

SOH SPE ptr

J2

Z6

Z7

V5

Line Overhead 9

LOH

125 s 250 s V5 375 s 500 s

9 S1 M1 E2

VT SPE

VT SPE
MUX

STS POH HP POH


11

STS-1 SPE
(payload)

STS-1 STS-1 STS-1 TU pointers

STM-1
3:1

VC4 J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1
10 ptr ptr

x3

RSOH AU4 ptr

V5

LP POH
V5

V5

J2

N2

MSOH
9 1 9 10

VCn

VCn 270 270 125 s 250 s

K4

STM-1

375 s 500 s

Figure 13

STS-1 and STM-1 frames

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Lower-Order Path Overhead

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1 A1 A2 J0 * * *

STS-1/STM-0
B1 E1 F1 D1 D2 D3 H1 H2 H3 B2 K1 K2 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10D11D12

1 1

STM-1/STS-3/OC-3
* X ^ E1 ^ ^ D2 ^ Pointer (s) F1 X D3 K2 D6 D9 D12 M1 E2 X

* * * * * * * A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0 B1 ^ D1 ^

9 * X X

B2 B2 B2 K1 D4 D7 D10 9 S1 D5 D8 D11

9 S1 M1 E2

J0: Section Trace A1= 11110110 Frame Alignment A2= 00101000: Frame Alignment B1: Section Parity Code BIP8 B2: Multiplex Parity Code BIP-n x 24 D1-D3: 192 kbps OA&M data D4-D12: 576 kbps OA&M data E1, E2: 64 kbps orderwire channels F1: 64 kbps user channel H1, H2, H3: pointer bytes K1, K2: Request /answer APS channels F1: 64 kbps user channel M0, M1: Re-sending of B2 errors Z0: reserved * Non-scrambled bytes X bytes reserved for national use ^ Media-dependent bytes 36

STM-4/OC-4
1 13 25 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 J0 Z0 Z0 Z0 X B1 D1 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ E1 ^ D2 Pointer (s) B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 K1 D4 D7 D10 9 S1 D5 D8 D11 M1 K2 D6 D9 D12 E2 X X X X X X ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ F1 X D3 X X X

* X
X

* X
X

Figure 14

STM-n/OC-m frames

Nine bytes Path Overhead (POH)


SDH SONET

G1:

REI

RDI

E-RDI

Spare

J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1 C2:

J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 Z3 Z4

Path trace, message with CRC BIP-8 parity control Signal label (mapping) Path status Path user channel (voice or data) Position and sequence indicator Path user channel (voice or data) Automatic Protection Switching Tandem Connection Monitoring

REI (Remote Error Indication) RDI (Remote Defect Indication) E-RDI (Enhanced RDI information)

H4:

MFI2 (frames 0 and 1) SQ (frames 14 and 15)

Multiframe Indicator 1

VC-3/4-Xv sequence

K3:

APS

HODL

Spare

APS: Automatic Protection HODL: Higher-Order Data Link

00: unequipped 16: HDLC/PPP 18: HDLS/LAPS 13: ATM 04: E3, T3 1A: 10GEthernet

N1:

IEC

TC REI OEI

TC-API, TC-RDI
ODI, reserved

Four bytes Path Overhead (POH)


SDH SONET

IEC Incoming Error Count, TC-REI: TC Remote Error Indication OEI: Outgoing Error Indication

V5 J2 N2 K4 N2:

V5 J2 Z6 Z7
BIP-2

Path Overhead Path Trace Reserved or TCM Additional Path Overhead

V5:

BIP-2

REI

RFI

Signal Label

RDI

BIP-2: parity of the previous VC VC signal label (mapping)

K4:
1
I-AIS TC OEI REI TC-API, TC-RDI ODI, reserved

ESL

VC

APS

E-RDI

DL

BIP-2 for Tandem Connection

ESL (Extended Signal Label) VC (Lower Order Virtual Concatenation) DL: Lower Order Data Link

Figure 15

Nine bytes and Four bytes Path Overhead.

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End Device VP/VC Switch VP Switch VC-RDI VC-AIS VP-RDI VP-RDI VP-AIS VP-RDI VP/VC Switch End Device

Event detection OAM generation

Figure 16

Generating VP-AIS/RDI and VC-AIS/RDI type OAM cells

Transmission Line Signal A1/A2 J0 B1 LOF LOS RS-TIM / TIM-S RS-BIP / CV- S

Reg. Sect.

Multiplexer Section

Higher Order Path

Lower Order Path

AIS

OR (logical function) Event detection Event registration

B2 M12-8 M1 K26-8 K26-8 AU ptr AU ptr J1 C2 C2 G15-7 B3 G11-4 G11-4 H47-8 TU ptr TU ptr J2 V55-7 V55-7 V58 V55 V51-2 V53 V53

MS-BIP / CV- L MS-REI / REI- L MS-REI / REI- L MS-AIS / AIS-P MS-RDI / RDI-L AU-AIS / AIS- P AU-LOP / LOP-P HP-TIM / TIM-P HP-UNEQ / UNEQ- P HP-PLM / PLM-P HP-RDI / RDI-P HP-BIP / CV- P HP-REI / REI-P HP-REI / REI-P TU-LOM / LOM TU-AIS / AIS-V TU-LOP / LOP-V LP-TIM / TIM-V LP-UNEQ / UNEQ-V LP-PLM / PLM-V LP-RDI / RDI-V LP-RFI / RFI-V LP-BIP/ CV-V LP-REI / REI-V LP-REI / REI-V AIS AIS AIS Signal flow Error indication received Error indication sent Alarm indication sent

AIS

AIS

Figure 17

Events management. In Regular characters SDH, in Italic SONET.

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Acronyms
AAL ALCAP AMR AUC CC EIR FP GGSN GMSC GPRS GSMS GTP HLR ICMP IP lu M3UA MAC MSC MTIE MTP3
ATM Adaptation Layer

Ref: 700707 02 05.05

NBAP

Node-B Application Part Network Management Centre Operations & Maintenance Centre Open Shortest Path First Pulse Code Modulation Packet Data Convergence Protocol Radio Access Network Application Part Radio Link Control Radio Network Controller Radio Network Subsystem Radio Network Subsystem Appl Part Radio Resource Control Signaling Connection Control Part Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol Serving GPRS Support Node Short Message Service (Generic) Supplementary Service Universal Mobile Telecom System UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Net Visitor Location Register Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

Access Link Control Application Part NMC Adaptive Multi-Rate OMC Authentication Centre OSPF Country Code Equipment Identity Register Frame Protocol Gateway GPRS Support Node Gateway Mobile Switching Centre General Packet Radio Service GPRS Short Message Service GPRS Tunnelling Protocol Home Location Register Internet Control Message Protocol Internet Protocol UTRAN interface MTP3 User Adaptation Layer Medium Access Control Mobile Switching Centre Maximum Time Interval Error Message Transfer Part Level 3

PCM PDCP RANAP RLC RNC RNS RNSAP RRC SCCP SSCOP SGSN SMS SS UMTS UTRAN VLR WCDM

Trend Communications Ltd.


Whitebrook Park, Lower Cookham Road, Maidenhead, Berkshire, SL6 8XY, UK

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More information in: Installation and Maintenance of SDH/SONET, ATM, XDSL, and Synchronization Networks. 2003 (c) Artech House, ISBN:1580535259