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Conservation of Energy-1

Derivation
Conservation of mass and momentum are
complete and now the last conservation
equation i.e. energy is derived.
Again we start with the verbal form of the Again we start with the verbal form of the
equation and then express this in
mathematical terms
Net rate of influx of energy into the Control
Volume is equal to the rate of accumulation of
energy within the Control Volume.
Conservation of Energy-2
Derivation
Energy can enter the Control Volume in the
form of Conduction, Convection due to mass
entering the Control Volume or Work done on
the fluid in the Control Volume the fluid in the Control Volume
Energy(per unit mass) for fluid consists of
kinetic, potential and thermal components:
2


2
thermal kinetic potential
energy e e e
V
u gh
= + +
= + +
(12.1)
Conservation of Energy-3
Derivation
Consider first, the energy interaction due to
conduction and convection due to mass
entering a Control Volume of size dx X dy X dz
dxdz
y
T
k

dxdzdy
y
T
k
y
dxdz
y
T
k

vedxdz
dxdzdy ve
y
vedxdz ) (

+
Z
Y
X
Conservation of Energy-4
Derivation
The conduction term has been seen already
The rate of energy convected into the CV by
virtue of mass entering in the Y direction is
shown in the figure on the y=0 plane shown in the figure on the y=0 plane
On the y=dy plane the regular Taylor series
expansion has been used and only the leading
term has been retained, as usual, for the
conduction and convection terms
Conservation of Energy-5
Derivation
Net rate of heat conducted in:
Net rate of heat convected in:
T T T
k k k
y y x x z z

| |
| | | |
+ +
| | |

\ \
\

(12.2)
Net rate of heat convected in:
Rate of storage of energy:
( ) ( ) ( )
ue ve we
x y z

+ +



( )
e dxdydz
t

(12.2)
(12.3)
Conservation of Energy-6
Derivation
Add equ
n
(12.2) and equ
n
(12.3) and group the
appropriate terms to get:
e e e e
u v w e u v w
t x y z t x y z



+ + + + + + +



Now look at energy transfer due to work.
Positive work rate if the force and velocity
vectors are in the same direction
t x y z t x y z

continuity
0
(12.4)
v . F W =
(12.5)
Conservation of Energy-7
Derivation
Note that we use only surface forces for work
calculations. Body forces are not used since
the potential energy has already been
included in the energy per unit mass of fluid included in the energy per unit mass of fluid
term. Of course, this argument is valid only for
gravitational body force term. Need to
consider the work done if other types of body
forces exist and can be added to the gravity
contribution.
Conservation of Energy-8
Derivation
Consider now the work terms on the Control
Volume surfaces. Notice the signs of the work
terms on the different faces of the CV

Positive work
dxdzv
yy
) (
(
)( )
yy
yy
dxdzv
v
dxdzdy v dy
y y

+

+

( )( )
zy zy
v
dz v dz dxdy
z z


+ +

x
y
z
( )( )
xy xy
v
dx v dx dydz
x x


+ +

Positive work
Positive work
Positive work
Negative work
Conservation of Energy-9
Derivation
The net work rate on the y=0 and y=dy face due
to the force in the y direction is therefore:
( )( )
yy yy yy
v
dxdz dxdzdy v dy dxdz v
y y



+ +


Work rate done per unit volume is therefore:
( )
yy yy yy
yy yy
v v
dxdzdy v dxdz dy dxdzdy dy
y y y y
v
v dxdzdy dxdzdy dy
y y y



= + +





= +



( )
yy yy
W v
v dy
dxdydz y y y


= +



(12.6)
Conservation of Energy-10
Derivation
Now let the volume dxdydz be shrunk to zero
Equ
n
12.6 can be modified as:
( )
yy yy
W v
v dy
dxdydz y y y


= +



0
The last term is zero since it is explicitly
multiplied by dy which tends to zero.
There are two other terms due to forces in the
y direction on x=0,x=dx and z=0,z=dz planes:
(12.7)
= ( )
yy
v
y

0
( ), ( )
xy zy
v v
y y



Conservation of Energy-11
Derivation
The total rate of work done due to forces in
the y direction is therefore:
x y z
xy yy zy
W
v v v
dxdydz


= + +

(12.8)
Work is a scalar and therefore there is an
algebraic sum.
Similarly there will be three terms each for the
work due to forces in the x and z directions
which will all be added together to the total
work on the control volume.
x y z dxdydz
Conservation of Energy-12
Derivation
Total rate of work is therefore:
( ) ( ) ( )
x y
( ) ( ) ( )
xx yx zx
W
u u u
dxdydz z
v v v



= + +


+ + +
Each of the product terms in equ
n
(12.9) can
be split into two terms and therefore a total of
18 terms exist in equ
n
(12.9)
( ) ( ) ( )
x y z
( ) ( ) ( )
y z
xy yy zy
xz yz zz
v v v
w w w
x



+ + +


+ + +

(12.9)
Conservation of Energy-13
Derivation
From the 18 terms in equ
n
(12.9) there are 9
terms which also appear in the momentum
equation(see equ
n
(11.3) with X
z
=-g)
u u u u

x y

x y z

y z
xx yx zx
xy yy zy
xz yz zz
u u u u
u u u v w
z t x y z
v v v v
v v u v w
t x y z
w w w w
w w u v w
x t x y z




+ + = + + +




+ + + + + + +




+ + + + + + + +



gw
(12.10)
Conservation of Energy-14
Derivation
Simplify the RHS of equ
n
(12.10). Note each
coloured column adds to a single term below:
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2
u u u u u u u u
u u v w u v w
t x y z t x y z


+ + + + + +



2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
+
2 2 2 2

v v v v v v v v
v u v w u v w
t x y z t x y z
w w w
w u v
t x



+ + + + + + +




+ + +

2 2 2 2
2
1 1 1 1
+
2 2 2 2

1 1

2 2
w w w w w
w u v w
y z t x y z
gw gw
V
u
t


+ + + +



+ +

+

2 2 2
1 1
2 2

V V V
v w
x y z
gw


+ +



+
2 2 2 2
where V u v w = + +
(12.11)
Conservation of Energy-15
Derivation
9 of the eighteen stress work terms therefore
become:
2
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
2
2 2 2 2
V
d
V V V V
u v w gw gw
t x y z dt



+ + + + = +



The other 9 terms are:
2 2 2 2 t x y z dt

xx yx zx
xy yy zy
xz yz zz
u u u
x y z
v v v
x y z
w w w
x y z




+ +


+ + +


+ + +

(12.12)
(12.13)
Conservation of Energy-16
Derivation
Substitute the Stokes constitutive equ
n
(11.5)
in (12.13) gives:
2
( . ) 2
u u u v u w u u
P u


+ + + + +


2
( . ) 2
3
2
( . ) 2
3
2
( . ) 2
3
u u u v u w u u
P u
x x y x y x z z
v v u v v v w v
P u
y y y x x z y z
w w u w w v
P u
z z z x x z





+ + + + +






+ + + + + +





+ + + + + +



w w
y y




(12.14)
Conservation of Energy-17
Derivation
Consider terms marked in blue in equ
n
(12.14)
Red, green, yellow terms on LHS become the
corresponding colour terms on RHS purely
algebraic manipulation: algebraic manipulation:
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
3 3
2 2
2 2
3 3
u u v w u u u u v u u w
P P
x x y z x x x x y x x z
v u v w v v v v v u v w
P P
y x y z y y y y y x y z
w
P




| | | |
+ + +

| |

\ \



| | | |
+ + +
| |

\ \

2 2
2 2
2 2
3 3
u v w w w w w v w u w
P
z x y z z z z z y z x z



| | | |
+ + +

| |

\ \


(12.15)
Conservation of Energy-18
Derivation
Consider equ
n
(12.15). The terms with same
colour are grouped to together:
2 2 2
2 2
2
3 3
u u v w u u u u v u u w
P
x x y z x x x x y x x z



| | | | | |
+ + + +

| | |

\ \ \


2 2 2
3 3
2 2
2
3 3
x x y z x x x x y x x z
v u v w v v v v v u v w
P
y x y z y y y y y x y z

| | |

\ \ \



| | | | | |
+ + + +
| | |

\ \ \

2 2 2
2 2
2
2 2
2
3 3
2
Add together to get -P .u
3
w u v w w w w w v w u w
P
z x y z z z z z y z x z
u v u w w v
x y x z z y



| | | | | |
+ + + +

| | |

\ \ \



| | | |
| |
+ + +
| | |

\
\ \

Conservation of Energy-19
Derivation
Now consider the terms marked yellow in
equ
n
(12.14). They can be combined as:

u v u w u u
y x y x z z



+ + +





2 2
2
y x y x z z
u v v v w v
y x x z y z
u w w v w w
z x x z y y
u v w u v w
y x x z z y





+ + + +





+ + + +








= + + + + +






Conservation of Energy-20
Derivation
The total contribution from the equ
n
(12.14)

|
|

\
|

+
|

\
|

+
|
|

\
|

2
2
2
3
2
y
v
z
w
z
w
x
u
y
v
x
u

This term is always positive and is the viscous


dissipation we denote this as Q.

+
2
2
2
y
w
z
v
z
u
x
w
x
v
y
u

Conservation of Energy-21
Derivation
The energy equation therefore becomes:
Need to convert this into a more usable form
Q u P gw
V
Dt
D
z
T
k
z y
T
k
y x
T
k
x
+ + +

\
|

+
|
|

\
|

+
|

\
|

= .
2 Dt
De
2

Need to convert this into a more usable form
i.e. variables that are easily measurable.
Control volume manipulations are complete
and now we need some thermodynamic
manipulations to complete the derivation.