unit 5 chapter 12 egyptian thanawia ama in physics by adel khamis

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unit 5 chapter 12 egyptian thanawia ama in physics by adel khamis

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Overview:

system.

electronics.

Light:

diffract.

V Microwaves TV

γ rays x rays UV Infra red

L radio

Wavelength in meter

Summary 2007/2008

Unit Five -39- Chapter Twelve

Planck’s distribution:

• The light emitted from the hot bodies consists of all wavelengths, but in

different intensity.

decrease again.

Wien’s law:

Example one:

Summary 2007/2008

Unit Five -40- Chapter Twelve

• 40% of the total energy emitted by sun is in the radiation visible range, 50% is

heat (infra radiation), while the rest of energy is distributed over the remaining

spectrum.

Example two:

• 20% of the total energy emitted by the lamp is in the radiation visible range,

• Which mean by decrease the wavelength the radiation intensity will increase.

• That can explain the right part of the curve, but not the left part.

(Photon).

• The atom does not radiate as long as it remains in one energy level.

• If the atom shifts from a high energy level to a lower energy level, it emits a

• Therefore, Photons are not equal in energy, but the energy of the photon is

Summary 2007/2008

Unit Five -41- Chapter Twelve

is high, which lead to decrease the number of emitted photons to keep the

energy constant.

directly proportional.

• Since the total number of photons are so huge therefore we can’t see separated

it.

emitter.

• Small part of the radiation leaks out which is called black body radiation.

• Earth absorbs the radiation from the sun, and reemits it.

Summary 2007/2008

Unit Five -42- Chapter Twelve

• The peak wavelength is about 10 Micron, which is within the infrared region.

• Satellites, airborne and terrestrial equipment are mapping the earth surface by

using of all radiation regions including the visible region and the microwave

• In military purposes, the same technique is also used as night vision system.

• In criminology, where the heat radiation from a person lingers for a while even

Photoelectric effect:

• Light energy or heat energy can overcome the surface potential barrier.

Photoelectric effect:

Summary 2007/2008

Unit Five -43- Chapter Twelve

intensity.

long as ν > νc, which means that the electrons do not need time to collect

(Ew).

therefore the photon who is able to release electron must has energy equal

Ew=hνc.

• If the energy of the photon is greater than Ew, then the difference of energy is

gained by the electron as kinetic energy which increase the velocity of that

electron.

Summary 2007/2008

Unit Five -44- Chapter Twelve

• It does not depend on the voltage difference between the anode and the

cathode.

It consists of evacuated tube has narrow end called electronic gun (E-

gun) and wide end panted with fluorescent material called screen.

difference

its way.

Summary 2007/2008

Unit Five -45- Chapter Twelve

in its way to sweep the screen point by point which called raster..

• When the electron beam fall on the screen it forms an illuminated point, and

difference (Stopping voltage Vs). The flow of electrons will stop and no

• At the stopping voltage, the electric energy equals to the kinetic energy of the

electron

W = KEmax

Vs e = KEmax

1

Vs = KE max

e

hν = Ew + KEmax

KEmax = hν - Ew

• Which mean that the kinetic energy depends on the frequency of photon, what

N.B.:

kind of metals as x-axis, and the kinetic energy of electrons as y-axis, then:

Summary 2007/2008

Unit Five -46- Chapter Twelve

velocity of electrons as y-axis, and the potential difference of the cathode tube as x-

axis, then:

e

The mathematical relation: v = 2 VS

2

•

m

electrons.

Compton Effect:

When photon of high frequency (x ray or γ ray) collides with free electron

then:

Summary 2007/2008

Unit Five -47- Chapter Twelve

Photon:

Photon Properties:

• Therefore the mass of photon (m) can be calculated from the relation

hυ

m=

c2

• And the momentum of photon (p) can be calculated from the relation

hυ

PL =

c

PW = h υ Φ L

Where:

Summary 2007/2008

Unit Five -48- Chapter Twelve

F = 2mc Φ L

hυ

F = 2 Φ L

c

2PW

F=

c

• This force is so small, since the velocity of light is so large, therefore the

effect of that force, will not unless if affects small mass such as electron, and

N.B.:

By drawing a graphical relation between the mass of photon as y-axis, and its

hν

• The mathematical relation: m =

c2

h

• The slope means:

c2

h

• The mathematical relation: m =

cλ

h

• The slope means:

c

then:

hν

• The mathematical relation: PL =

c

h

• The slope means:

c

Summary 2007/2008

Unit Five -49- Chapter Twelve

h

• The mathematical relation: PL =

λ

fission is associated with a small loss of mass which is converted to large amount of

E = mc2

Coincident between microscopic and macroscopic models:

Microscopic model:

• The stream of photons collectively has a magnetic field and electric field.

• The two fields are perpendicular to each other and to the direction of

propagation.

• That means that the intensity of wave indicates the number of photons.

• N.B.: This model used when deal with very small objects such as atoms or

electrons.

Macroscopic model:

• N.B.: This model used when deal with larger object than the wavelength of

light.

Summary 2007/2008

Unit Five -50- Chapter Twelve

Tomography Scan:

X Rays:

• X rays are used to detect tumors, where the body placed on a movable bed,

while the source and the detector of x rays surrounding the body by different

angles.

• By changing the angle of both x rays and the detector together, many images

can be produced.

MRI:

• The strong magnet used to orients the spins of the nuclei of hydrogen.

• RF used to disturb the spin motion of the nuclei of hydrogen then the RF

stopped.

which can be received by a detector, and by using of the computer that can

produce tomography picture for the body, which can indicates the tumors.

C = λυ

C

λ=

ν

Summary 2007/2008

Unit Five -51- Chapter Twelve

hC

λ=

hν

h

λ=

hν

C

hν

• Linear momentum (PL) = mc =

C

h

λ=

PL

N.B.:

• If λ is greater than the inter-atomic distance, these photons sense the surface as

• When electron moves with velocity (v), it accompanied with wave, and

h

λ=

PL

• Electron wave is similar to photon wave where both refract, reflect, interfere

and diffract.

Summary 2007/2008

Unit Five -52- Chapter Twelve

where the location of electron can’t determined precisely, but the probability ψ

2

indicates its distance from the nucleus.

• The probability of being at distance zero is zero, or the electron will fall in the

nucleus.

• The probability of being at distance infinity from the nuclei is zero, or the

• Atom has lower energy than its ion by the ionization energy

wavelength.

Summary 2007/2008

Unit Five -53- Chapter Twelve

Electron Microscope:

microscope.

Quantum Mechanics:

• Electron energy has a certain value called energy levels, and the atoms does

not emit any energy unless it falls from a high level to a lower level.

• Excitation: Absorption of photon does not occur unless the photon has energy

• Ionization: If the photon has energy greater than ionization energy, then the

electron totally freed from the atom, and the atom becomes ionized.

• There is a function which is always positive that describes the electron in the

atom.

Summary 2007/2008

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