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# Unit Five -38- Chapter Twelve

Overview:

system.

electronics.

Light:

diffract.

## • Visible light is a small part of the electromagnetic waves.

V Microwaves TV
γ rays x rays UV Infra red

## 10-12 10-9 10-6 10-3 1 103

Wavelength in meter

## • Electromagnetic waves propagate in space at a constant speed (3x108 m/sec).

Summary 2007/2008
Unit Five -39- Chapter Twelve

## • Electromagnetic waves differ in frequency and wavelength.

Planck’s distribution:

## • Hot bodies emit light and heat.

• The light emitted from the hot bodies consists of all wavelengths, but in

different intensity.

decrease again.

Wien’s law:

Example one:

## (visible range of light)

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Unit Five -40- Chapter Twelve

• 40% of the total energy emitted by sun is in the radiation visible range, 50% is

heat (infra radiation), while the rest of energy is distributed over the remaining

spectrum.

Example two:

## • The wavelength at the peak is 10000 A.

• 20% of the total energy emitted by the lamp is in the radiation visible range,

## • Therefore by increase the frequency the radiation intensity will increase.

• Which mean by decrease the wavelength the radiation intensity will increase.

• That can explain the right part of the curve, but not the left part.

(Photon).

## • Electrons rotate in energy levels each has energy = n h ν

• The atom does not radiate as long as it remains in one energy level.

• If the atom shifts from a high energy level to a lower energy level, it emits a

## photon whose energy = h ν

• Therefore, Photons are not equal in energy, but the energy of the photon is

## directly proportional to its frequency.

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Unit Five -41- Chapter Twelve

## • At small wavelength of radiation (high frequency) the energy of each photon

is high, which lead to decrease the number of emitted photons to keep the

energy constant.

## photons number and the curve of radiation intensity – wavelength becomes

directly proportional.

• Since the total number of photons are so huge therefore we can’t see separated

it.

emitter.

## due to multiple reflection.

• Small part of the radiation leaks out which is called black body radiation.

## Application on Black body radiation:

• Earth absorbs the radiation from the sun, and reemits it.

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Unit Five -42- Chapter Twelve

## radiation at the peak is high according to wien’s law.

• The peak wavelength is about 10 Micron, which is within the infrared region.

• Satellites, airborne and terrestrial equipment are mapping the earth surface by

using of all radiation regions including the visible region and the microwave

## • Scientists analyze such images to determine possible natural earth resources.

• In military purposes, the same technique is also used as night vision system.

## • In medicine, it is used to tumor detection.

• In criminology, where the heat radiation from a person lingers for a while even

## after the person has left, which called remote sensing.

Photoelectric effect:

## known as surface potential barrier.

• Light energy or heat energy can overcome the surface potential barrier.

Photoelectric effect:

## proportional to the intensity of light, but it does not.

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Unit Five -43- Chapter Twelve

intensity.

## • The emission of electrons occurs instantly as

long as ν > νc, which means that the electrons do not need time to collect

(Ew).

## • Since energy of photon can be calculated according to the relation E = hν,

therefore the photon who is able to release electron must has energy equal
Ew=hνc.

• If the energy of the photon is greater than Ew, then the difference of energy is

gained by the electron as kinetic energy which increase the velocity of that

electron.

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Unit Five -44- Chapter Twelve

## • It does not depend on exposure time.

• It does not depend on the voltage difference between the anode and the

cathode.

## Cathode ray tube (CRT):

It consists of evacuated tube has narrow end called electronic gun (E-

gun) and wide end panted with fluorescent material called screen.

difference

## • The intensity of electron beam can be controlled by negative grid in

its way.

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Unit Five -45- Chapter Twelve

## • The direction of electron beam can be controlled by electric or magnetic field

in its way to sweep the screen point by point which called raster..

• When the electron beam fall on the screen it forms an illuminated point, and

## therefore the velocity of electrons will decrease, and at a certain potential

difference (Stopping voltage Vs). The flow of electrons will stop and no

## electron arrive to the anode.

• At the stopping voltage, the electric energy equals to the kinetic energy of the

electron

W = KEmax

Vs e = KEmax
1
Vs = KE max
e

## • Photons energy = work function + kinetic energy

hν = Ew + KEmax

KEmax = hν - Ew

• Which mean that the kinetic energy depends on the frequency of photon, what

N.B.:

## By drawing a graphical relation between the stopping potential for different

kind of metals as x-axis, and the kinetic energy of electrons as y-axis, then:

Summary 2007/2008
Unit Five -46- Chapter Twelve

## By drawing a graphical relation between the square

velocity of electrons as y-axis, and the potential difference of the cathode tube as x-

axis, then:
e
The mathematical relation: v = 2 VS
2

m

electrons.

## • Intersection with X-axis means: critical frequency.

Compton Effect:

When photon of high frequency (x ray or γ ray) collides with free electron

then:

## conservation law of energy and conservation law of momentum.

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Unit Five -47- Chapter Twelve

Photon:

## • It is a packet of energy which has mass, velocity and linear momentum.

Photon Properties:

## • According to Einstein equation E = mc2

• Therefore the mass of photon (m) can be calculated from the relation

m=
c2

• And the momentum of photon (p) can be calculated from the relation

PL =
c

PW = h υ Φ L
Where:

## calculated from the relation:

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Unit Five -48- Chapter Twelve

F = 2mc Φ L

 hυ 
F = 2 Φ L
 c 
2PW
F=
c

• This force is so small, since the velocity of light is so large, therefore the

effect of that force, will not unless if affects small mass such as electron, and

## that can explain Compton effect.

N.B.:

By drawing a graphical relation between the mass of photon as y-axis, and its

## frequency as y-axis, then:

• The mathematical relation: m =
c2
h
• The slope means:
c2

## reciprocal of its wavelength as y-axis, then:

h
• The mathematical relation: m =

h
• The slope means:
c

## momentum of photon as y-axis, and its frequency as y-axis,

then:

• The mathematical relation: PL =
c
h
• The slope means:
c

## and reciprocal of its wavelength as y-axis, then:

Summary 2007/2008
Unit Five -49- Chapter Twelve

h
• The mathematical relation: PL =
λ

## The atomic bomb is an application of Einstein equation where the nuclear

fission is associated with a small loss of mass which is converted to large amount of

## energy due to the equation of Einstein:

E = mc2
Coincident between microscopic and macroscopic models:

Microscopic model:

## • Photon can be considered as a sphere of radius λ, vibrates with frequency ν.

• The stream of photons collectively has a magnetic field and electric field.

• The two fields are perpendicular to each other and to the direction of

propagation.

## magnetic field associated with the light wave.

• That means that the intensity of wave indicates the number of photons.

• N.B.: This model used when deal with very small objects such as atoms or

electrons.

Macroscopic model:

## • The wave motion accompanies the photon stream.

• N.B.: This model used when deal with larger object than the wavelength of

light.

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Unit Five -50- Chapter Twelve

Tomography Scan:

X Rays:

• X rays are used to detect tumors, where the body placed on a movable bed,

while the source and the detector of x rays surrounding the body by different

angles.

• By changing the angle of both x rays and the detector together, many images

can be produced.

MRI:

## and source of radio waves (RF) surrounded it.

• The strong magnet used to orients the spins of the nuclei of hydrogen.

• RF used to disturb the spin motion of the nuclei of hydrogen then the RF

stopped.

## • The hydrogen nuclei relaxing to their original state, producing RF waves

which can be received by a detector, and by using of the computer that can

produce tomography picture for the body, which can indicates the tumors.

C = λυ
C
λ=
ν

## • Multiply the fraction by h (Planck’s constant)

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Unit Five -51- Chapter Twelve

hC
λ=

h
λ=

C

• Linear momentum (PL) = mc =
C
h
λ=
PL

N.B.:

## and the inter-atomic distance of the surface:

• If λ is greater than the inter-atomic distance, these photons sense the surface as

## Wave properties of a particle:

• When electron moves with velocity (v), it accompanied with wave, and

h
λ=
PL

## The electron wave:

• Electron wave is similar to photon wave where both refract, reflect, interfere

and diffract.

## wave, while it has probabilistic nature.

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Unit Five -52- Chapter Twelve

## • According to Heisenberg the probability of electron waves denoted by ψ,

where the location of electron can’t determined precisely, but the probability ψ
2
indicates its distance from the nucleus.

• The probability of being at distance zero is zero, or the electron will fall in the

nucleus.

• The probability of being at distance infinity from the nuclei is zero, or the

## electron will escape and the atom ionized.

• Atom has lower energy than its ion by the ionization energy

## • Electron circulates the nuclei in a path which has integer number of

wavelength.

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Unit Five -53- Chapter Twelve

Electron Microscope:

microscope.

## very small objects.

Quantum Mechanics:

## object is tightly bounded in a limited size:

• Electron energy has a certain value called energy levels, and the atoms does

not emit any energy unless it falls from a high level to a lower level.

## equals to the difference between the two energy levels.

• Excitation: Absorption of photon does not occur unless the photon has energy

## exactly equal to the difference between two energy levels.

• Ionization: If the photon has energy greater than ionization energy, then the

electron totally freed from the atom, and the atom becomes ionized.

## • Relaxation and excitation are simultaneous processes.

• There is a function which is always positive that describes the electron in the

atom.

Summary 2007/2008