Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 16

Unit Five -38- Chapter Twelve

Wave Particle Duality


Overview:

Studying physics can be divided into two branches:

Classical physics Quantum (Modern) physics

• Explain everything in our daily life • Explain some phenomena at which

and our common experiences. the classical physics can’t explain.

• It deals with atomic and subatomic

system.

• It explains all phenomena involved in

electronics.

Light:

• Light is electromagnetic waves, therefore it reflect, refract, interfere and

diffract.

• Visible light is a small part of the electromagnetic waves.

V Microwaves TV
γ rays x rays UV Infra red
L radio

10-12 10-9 10-6 10-3 1 103

Wavelength in meter

• Electromagnetic waves propagate in space at a constant speed (3x108 m/sec).

Summary 2007/2008
Unit Five -39- Chapter Twelve

• Electromagnetic waves differ in frequency and wavelength.

Planck’s distribution:

• Hot bodies emit light and heat.

• The light emitted from the hot bodies consists of all wavelengths, but in

different intensity.

• By drawing a graphical relation

between the wavelength and the

radiation intensity, we found that

the radiation intensity increase by

increasing the wavelength then it

decrease again.

• The wave length at with the

radiation intensity has its maximum

value is decrease by increase the

temperature of the source of radiation.

Wien’s law:

The wavelength at which the peak of

the (radiation intensity – wavelength) curve

occurs is inversely proportional to temperature.

Example one:

• Sun surface temperature is 6000ºK.

• The wavelength at the peak is 5000 A.

(visible range of light)

Summary 2007/2008
Unit Five -40- Chapter Twelve

• 40% of the total energy emitted by sun is in the radiation visible range, 50% is

heat (infra radiation), while the rest of energy is distributed over the remaining

spectrum.

Example two:

• Glowing incandescent lamp’s temperature is 3000ºK.

• The wavelength at the peak is 10000 A.

• 20% of the total energy emitted by the lamp is in the radiation visible range,

and most of the rest of energy is heat.

Explanation of Planck’s distribution:

Disadvantage of classical physics:

• Classical physics can’t explain the distribution.

• Where the energy is directly proportional to the frequency.

• Therefore by increase the frequency the radiation intensity will increase.

• Which mean by decrease the wavelength the radiation intensity will increase.

• That can explain the right part of the curve, but not the left part.

Modern physics (Planck’s explanation):

• Radiation made up of small units (packets) of energy, each called Quantum

(Photon).

• Electrons rotate in energy levels each has energy = n h ν

• The atom does not radiate as long as it remains in one energy level.

• If the atom shifts from a high energy level to a lower energy level, it emits a

photon whose energy = h ν

• Therefore, Photons are not equal in energy, but the energy of the photon is

directly proportional to its frequency.

Summary 2007/2008
Unit Five -41- Chapter Twelve

• At small wavelength of radiation (high frequency) the energy of each photon

is high, which lead to decrease the number of emitted photons to keep the

energy constant.

• The intensity of radiation is indicated by the number of photons, therefore, at

high frequency the intensity of radiation decrease, due to the decrease of

photons number and the curve of radiation intensity – wavelength becomes

directly proportional.

• Since the total number of photons are so huge therefore we can’t see separated

photons, but we observe the features of the stream of photons as a whole,

which represent the classical properties of radiation

Black body radiation:

• All non glowing bodies (even living

creatures) absorb the radiation and reemit

it.

• Bodies of black color absorb all radiation,

therefore it consider as perfect absorber.

• The black bodies emit the absorbed

radiation, therefore it consider as perfect

emitter.

• An enclosed cavity with a small hole, can

considered as black body, because all of the

radiation within the cavity remains trapped

due to multiple reflection.

• Small part of the radiation leaks out which is called black body radiation.

Application on Black body radiation:

• Earth absorbs the radiation from the sun, and reemits it.

Summary 2007/2008
Unit Five -42- Chapter Twelve

• The temperature of earth’s surface is low therefore the wavelength of emitted

radiation at the peak is high according to wien’s law.

• The peak wavelength is about 10 Micron, which is within the infrared region.

• Satellites, airborne and terrestrial equipment are mapping the earth surface by

using of all radiation regions including the visible region and the microwave

region in addition to the infrared radiation.

• Scientists analyze such images to determine possible natural earth resources.

• In military purposes, the same technique is also used as night vision system.

• In medicine, it is used to tumor detection.

• In criminology, where the heat radiation from a person lingers for a while even

after the person has left, which called remote sensing.

Photoelectric effect:

Surface potential barrier:

• A metal contains positive ions and free

electrons which can move around inside the

metal but cannot leave it, due to the

attractive forces of the surface which

known as surface potential barrier.

• Light energy or heat energy can overcome the surface potential barrier.

Photoelectric effect:

It is the emission of electrons when light falls on metal’s surface.

Disadvantage of classical physics:

• The emission of electrons (the electric current intensity) should be directly

proportional to the intensity of light, but it does not.

Summary 2007/2008
Unit Five -43- Chapter Twelve

• The energy of emitted electrons (its velocity) should be directly proportional

to the light intensity, but it does not.

• In case of low light intensity, giving sufficient

time should give some electrons enough energy

to be freed, but it does not

• The frequency of light has no effect on the

emission of electrons, but it has.

Properties of photoelectric effect:

• The emission of electrons depends primarily

on the frequency of the incident light not on its

intensity.

• No electrons emit if the frequency of light less

than a certain frequency νc, no matter the

intensity of light was.

• The emission of electrons occurs instantly as

long as ν > νc, which means that the electrons do not need time to collect

energy if the light intensity is low.

Modern physics (Einstein’s explanation):

• Releasing of electron required a certain amount of energy called work function

(Ew).

• Since energy of photon can be calculated according to the relation E = hν,

therefore the photon who is able to release electron must has energy equal
Ew=hνc.

• If the energy of the photon is greater than Ew, then the difference of energy is

gained by the electron as kinetic energy which increase the velocity of that

electron.

Summary 2007/2008
Unit Five -44- Chapter Twelve

• Work function (Ew) is a specific property of the metal.

Factor affects the emission:

• The emission of electrons depends on work function, which mean depends on

the kind of metal only.

• It does not depend on the light intensity.

• It does not depend on exposure time.

• It does not depend on the voltage difference between the anode and the

cathode.

Application on Black body radiation:

Cathode ray tube (CRT):

It consists of evacuated tube has narrow end called electronic gun (E-

gun) and wide end panted with fluorescent material called screen.

• The E-gun contains cathode and anode connected to high potential

difference

• The cathode is heated by filament heater, to estimate it to emit

electrons in form of electron beam.

• The intensity of electron beam can be controlled by negative grid in

its way.

Summary 2007/2008
Unit Five -45- Chapter Twelve

• The direction of electron beam can be controlled by electric or magnetic field

in its way to sweep the screen point by point which called raster..

• When the electron beam fall on the screen it forms an illuminated point, and

by raster the screen images can be formed.

Interpretation of the photoelectric effect:

• When the cathode of discharge tube affected by light, it emits electrons.

• By connecting negative potential difference between the anode and cathode,

therefore the velocity of electrons will decrease, and at a certain potential

difference (Stopping voltage Vs). The flow of electrons will stop and no

electron arrive to the anode.

• At the stopping voltage, the electric energy equals to the kinetic energy of the

electron

W = KEmax

Vs e = KEmax
1
Vs = KE max
e

Sine the electrons emits by the effect of photon’s energy, therefore:

• Photons energy = work function + kinetic energy

hν = Ew + KEmax

KEmax = hν - Ew

• Which mean that the kinetic energy depends on the frequency of photon, what

ever the intensity of light was.

N.B.:

By drawing a graphical relation between the stopping potential for different

kind of metals as x-axis, and the kinetic energy of electrons as y-axis, then:

Summary 2007/2008
Unit Five -46- Chapter Twelve

• The mathematical relation: Vs e = KEmax

• The slope means: electron charge.

By drawing a graphical relation between the square

velocity of electrons as y-axis, and the potential difference of the cathode tube as x-

axis, then:
e
The mathematical relation: v = 2 VS
2

m

• The slope means: double the specific charge of

electrons.

By drawing a graphical relation between the kinetic energy of emitted

electron as y-axis, and the frequency of fallen photon as x-axis, then:

• The mathematical relation: K.E = h ν - h υc

• The slope means: Planck’s constant.

• Intersection with Y-axis means: work function.

• Intersection with X-axis means: critical frequency.

Compton Effect:

When photon of high frequency (x ray or γ ray) collides with free electron

then:

• For photon: frequency decreases, and direction changes.

• For electron: velocity increase,

and direction changes.

This can’t explain by classical

physics, while the quantum physics can

explain that by using of the

conservation law of energy and conservation law of momentum.

Summary 2007/2008
Unit Five -47- Chapter Twelve

• (Energy of photon + Energy of electron) before collision = (Energy of photon

+ Energy of electron) after collision.

• (Momentum of photon + Momentum of electron) before collision =

(Momentum of photon + Momentum of electron) after collision.

Photon:

• It is a packet of energy which has mass, velocity and linear momentum.

Photon Properties:

• According to Planck equation E = h ν

• According to Einstein equation E = mc2

• Therefore the mass of photon (m) can be calculated from the relation

m=
c2

• And the momentum of photon (p) can be calculated from the relation

PL =
c

• Also, the momentum can be calculated from rate of energy

PW = rate of energy = energy of photon x ϕ L


PW = h υ Φ L
Where:

• ϕL: Rate of emitted photon

• If a beam of photons is incident on a certain surface at the rate of ϕL

photons/sec, therefore, the rate of change of momentum (force) can be

calculated from the relation:

Summary 2007/2008
Unit Five -48- Chapter Twelve

F = 2mc Φ L

 hυ 
F = 2 Φ L
 c 
2PW
F=
c

• This force is so small, since the velocity of light is so large, therefore the

effect of that force, will not unless if affects small mass such as electron, and

that can explain Compton effect.

N.B.:

By drawing a graphical relation between the mass of photon as y-axis, and its

frequency as y-axis, then:



• The mathematical relation: m =
c2
h
• The slope means:
c2

By drawing a graphical relation between the mass of photon as y-axis, and

reciprocal of its wavelength as y-axis, then:


h
• The mathematical relation: m =

h
• The slope means:
c

By drawing a graphical relation between the

momentum of photon as y-axis, and its frequency as y-axis,

then:

• The mathematical relation: PL =
c
h
• The slope means:
c

By drawing a graphical relation between the momentum of photon as y-axis,

and reciprocal of its wavelength as y-axis, then:

Summary 2007/2008
Unit Five -49- Chapter Twelve

h
• The mathematical relation: PL =
λ

• The slope means: Planck’s constant.

Application of Einstein equation:

The atomic bomb is an application of Einstein equation where the nuclear

fission is associated with a small loss of mass which is converted to large amount of

energy due to the equation of Einstein:

E = mc2
Coincident between microscopic and macroscopic models:

Microscopic model:

• Photon can be considered as a sphere of radius λ, vibrates with frequency ν.

• The stream of photons collectively has a magnetic field and electric field.

• The two fields are perpendicular to each other and to the direction of

propagation.

• The photon stream (flux) carries the energy of the wave.

• The wave intensity measured by measuring the magnitude of the electric or

magnetic field associated with the light wave.

• That means that the intensity of wave indicates the number of photons.

• N.B.: This model used when deal with very small objects such as atoms or

electrons.

Macroscopic model:

• The wave motion accompanies the photon stream.

• N.B.: This model used when deal with larger object than the wavelength of

light.

Summary 2007/2008
Unit Five -50- Chapter Twelve

Tomography Scan:

X Rays:

• X rays are used to detect tumors, where the body placed on a movable bed,

while the source and the detector of x rays surrounding the body by different

angles.

• By changing the angle of both x rays and the detector together, many images

can be produced.

• By using of computer, the images can be collected to produce tomography

picture for the body, which can indicates the tumors.

MRI:

• Magnetic resonance imaging is preferred to x ray in producing tomography

scan, where the x ray has possibly harmful side effects.

• A body placed on a movable bed, where a strong (superconductive) magnet

and source of radio waves (RF) surrounded it.

• The strong magnet used to orients the spins of the nuclei of hydrogen.

• RF used to disturb the spin motion of the nuclei of hydrogen then the RF

stopped.

• The hydrogen nuclei relaxing to their original state, producing RF waves

which can be received by a detector, and by using of the computer that can

produce tomography picture for the body, which can indicates the tumors.

Relation between photon wavelength and its linear momentum:

C = λυ
C
λ=
ν

• Multiply the fraction by h (Planck’s constant)

Summary 2007/2008
Unit Five -51- Chapter Twelve

hC
λ=

h
λ=

C

• Linear momentum (PL) = mc =
C
h
λ=
PL

N.B.:

• When photons fall on a surface, a comparison is made between the wavelength

and the inter-atomic distance of the surface:

• If λ is greater than the inter-atomic distance, these photons sense the surface as

a continuous surface, and refract from it

• If λ is smaller than the inter-atomic distance, photons penetrate through the

surface, such as what happens in case of X-Rays.

Wave properties of a particle:

• When electron moves with velocity (v), it accompanied with wave, and

wavelength can be determined by using of De Broglie equation:


h
λ=
PL

The electron wave:

• Electron wave is similar to photon wave where both refract, reflect, interfere

and diffract.

• Electron wave differ than photon wave, where it is not an electromagnetic

wave, while it has probabilistic nature.

Summary 2007/2008
Unit Five -52- Chapter Twelve

• According to Heisenberg the probability of electron waves denoted by ψ,

where the location of electron can’t determined precisely, but the probability ψ
2
indicates its distance from the nucleus.

• The probability of being at distance zero is zero, or the electron will fall in the

nucleus.

• The probability of being at distance infinity from the nuclei is zero, or the

electron will escape and the atom ionized.

• Atom has lower energy than its ion by the ionization energy

• Electron circulates the nuclei in a path which has integer number of

wavelength.

Summary 2007/2008
Unit Five -53- Chapter Twelve

Electron Microscope:

• Electron microscope has higher

resolving power that optical

microscope.

• Electron microscope use electron

waves, and magnetic lenses.

• Due to the short wavelength of

electron waves, so it can detect

very small objects.

Quantum Mechanics:

Schrodinger stat the assumptions

of quantum mechanics which used

instead of the classical mechanics if the

object is tightly bounded in a limited size:

• Electron energy has a certain value called energy levels, and the atoms does

not emit any energy unless it falls from a high level to a lower level.

• Relaxation: The emission of atom is in form of photon whose energy (hυ)

equals to the difference between the two energy levels.

• Excitation: Absorption of photon does not occur unless the photon has energy

exactly equal to the difference between two energy levels.

• Ionization: If the photon has energy greater than ionization energy, then the

electron totally freed from the atom, and the atom becomes ionized.

• Relaxation and excitation are simultaneous processes.

• There is a function which is always positive that describes the electron in the

atom.

Summary 2007/2008