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Lecture 22: Conservation of Energy

v2 d v1 h

Review of Potential and Kinetic Energy


Potential energy is energy possessed by virtue of position or state Gravitational potential energy, U=mgh Energy stored in a spring, U= kx2 Kinetic energy is energy possessed by virtue of motion K = mv2 Conservative forces are those where there is no dissipation of energy during motion, no friction etc. E.g. gravity, springs No work done in going round a closed loop
S2

E = 1/2mv2 + mgy.
y

y=0 h1 v
Physics 1301: Lecture 22, Pg 1

U = U2 - U1 = -W = - Fdr r h2
S1

The location where U = 0 can be chosen anywhere convenient.


Physics 1301: Lecture 22, Pg 2

Conservation of Energy
If only conservative forces are present, the total kinetic plus potential energy of a system is conserved, the total mechanical energy is conserved. energy (note: E=Emechanical throughout this discussion) E=E Consider a system with Kinetic energy K and potential energy U. E=K+U Do work W on the system E=K+U E=W+U K=W E=W+(-W)=0 U=-W

ICQ: Potential Energy


All springs and masses are identical. (Gravity acts down). Which of the systems below has the most potential energy stored in its spring(s), relative to the relaxed position? (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) same

Both K and U can change, but E = K + U remains constant. But well see that if non-conservative forces act then
energy can be dissipated into other modes (thermal,sound)
Physics 1301: Lecture 22, Pg 3

E = K + U is constant!!!

(1)

(2)

PE=kx2
Physics 1301: Lecture 22, Pg 4

ICQ: Potential Energy


All springs and masses are identical. (Gravity acts down). Which of the systems below has the most potential energy stored in its spring(s), relative to the relaxed position? (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) same

ICQ: Potential Energy Solution


The displacement of (1) from equilibrium will be half of that of (2) (each spring exerts half of the force needed to balance mg). Hookes law F = -kx

0 d 2d (1) (2)
Physics 1301: Lecture 22, Pg 6

(1)

(2)

Physics 1301: Lecture 22, Pg 5

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ICQ: Potential Energy Solution


1 The potential energy stored in (1) is 2 kd2 = kd2 2 1 2 k (2d) = 2kd2 The potential energy stored in (2) is
2

Example: The simple pendulum


Suppose we release a mass m, hanging on a massless inextensible string, from rest a distance h1 above its lowest possible point. What is the maximum speed of the mass and where does this happen? To what height h2 does it rise on the other side?

The spring P.E. is twice as big in (2) ! Another way: PE lost in gravity in (2) is twice that lost in (1) Equals PE stored in the springs by Conservation of Energy 0 d 2d

h1 (1) (2)
Physics 1301: Lecture 22, Pg 7

h2 v
Physics 1301: Lecture 22, Pg 8

Example: The simple pendulum


Kinetic+potential energy is conserved since gravity is a conservative force (E = K + U is constant) Remember, the tension in the string does no work (=90o) Choose y = 0 at the bottom of the swing, and U = 0 at y = 0 (arbitrary choice)

Example: The simple pendulum


E = 1/2mv2 + mgy. Initially, y = h1 and v = 0, so E = mgh1. Since E = mgh1 initially, E = mgh1 always since energy is conserved.

E = 1/2mv2 + mgy
y y

y=0

h1 v

h2

y=0
Physics 1301: Lecture 22, Pg 9

h1

Physics 1301: Lecture 22, Pg 10

Example: The simple pendulum


KE will be maximum at the bottom of the swing where the PE is minimum (at y=0 and U=0). 1/ mv2+0 = mgh So at y = 0 v2 = 2gh1 2 1

Example: The simple pendulum


Since E = mgh1 = 1/2mv2 + mgy it is clear that the maximum height on the other side will be when v=0 and y = h2 = h1. The ball returns to its original height.

v =
y

2 gh1
y

y = h1 y=0

h1 v

Remember v2=v02+2gy

y = h1 = h2 y=0

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Physics 1301: Lecture 22, Pg 12

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Example: The simple pendulum


The ball will oscillate back and forth. The limits on its height and speed are a consequence of the sharing of energy between K and U. E = 1/2mv2 + mgy = K + U = constant.

Example: The simple pendulum


We can also solve this by choosing y = 0 to be at the original position of the mass, and U = 0 at y = 0. E = 1/2mv2 + mgy.

y=0 h1 v
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h2

Example: The simple pendulum


E = 1/2mv2 + mgy. Initially, y = 0 and v = 0, so E = 0. Since E = 0 initially, E = 0 always since energy is conserved.

Example: The simple pendulum


1/ 2 2mv will be maximum at the bottom of the swing. 1/ mv2 = mgh So at y = -h1 mv2 - mgh=0 2 1

v =

2 gh1

y Same as before!

y=0

y=0 y = -h1
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h1 v
Physics 1301: Lecture 22, Pg 16

Example: The simple pendulum


Since 1/2mv2 - mgh = 0 it is clear that the maximum height on the other side will be at y = 0 and v = 0. The ball returns to its original height.
a) b)

Stopped pendulum
If we add an obstacle to the string at the vertical position as in the diagram, will the bob, (assuming no loss of energy in the collision with the obstacle); Rise to below the height of the obstacle Rise to the height of the obstacle Rise to above the height of the obstacle but below the original height Rise to the original height Rise above the original height

c)

y=0 Same as before!


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d) e)

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Stopped pendulum
If we add an obstacle to the string at the vertical position as in the diagram, will the bob (assuming no loss of energy in the collision with the obstacle); Rise to below the height of the obstacle Rise to the height of the obstacle Rise to above the height of the obstacle but below the original height Rise to the original height Rise above the original height

Example: Airtrack & Glider


A glider of mass M is initially at rest on a horizontal frictionless track. A mass m is attached to it with a massless string hung over a massless pulley as shown. What is the speed v of M after m has fallen a distance d ?

a) b) c)

d) e)

Conservation of energy says at the top of its swing when v=0 the potential energy equals its original potential energy Rises to its original height
Physics 1301: Lecture 22, Pg 19

m d v

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Example: Airtrack & Glider


Kinetic+potential energy is conserved since all forces are conservative. Choose initial configuration to have U=0. We solved this before with forces and equations of motion Much easier this way

Problem: Hotwheel
A toy car slides on the frictionless track shown below. It starts at rest, drops a distance d, moves horizontally at speed v1, rises a distance h, and ends up moving horizontally with speed v2. Find v1 and v2.

K = - U
M

1 ( m + M ) v 2 = mgd 2
v

m d d v1

v2 h

Physics 1301: Lecture 22, Pg 21

Physics 1301: Lecture 22, Pg 22

Problem: Hotwheel... Hotwheel...


K+U energy is conserved, so E = 0 K = - U Moving down a distance d, U = -mgd, K = 1/2mv12 Solving for the speed:
v1 = 2 gd

Problem: Hotwheel... Hotwheel...


At the end, we are a distance (d h) below our starting point. U = -mg(d - h), K = 1/2mv22 Solving for the speed:
v 2 = 2 g (d h )

d-h d v1 h d

v2 h

Physics 1301: Lecture 22, Pg 23

Physics 1301: Lecture 22, Pg 24

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Problem: Hotwheel... Hotwheel...


Alternatively; taking the origin of potential energy at the lowest point; Original PE = mgd Final PE = mgh Original KE = 0 Final KE = 1/2mv22 Gain in KE = loss in PE 1/ mv 2 = mgd-mgh 2 2 v 2 = 2 g (d h )

Problem: Sling Shot


A sling shot is made from a pair of springs (elastic bands, with relaxed length of each band xr) each having spring constant k. The initial length of each band is x0. A mass m is placed at the point connecting the two bands and pulled back so that the length of each band is x1. The mass is released. What is its speed v after leaving the sling shot?

x0 m

x1 m m

xr

v2 d h

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Sling Shot
Calculate initial energy x1 m

Homework
x0 Make sure you have read and understood Chapter 7 Homework: do textbook problems Chapter 7: 11,26,36

1 2 Ei = 2 k ( x1 xr ) 2
Calculate final energy

1 1 2 E f = mv 2 + 2 k ( x0 xr ) 2 2
By conservation of energy Ei=Ef

1 2 2 2 mv = k( x1 xr ) k( x0 xr ) 2 2k v= ( x1 xr )2 ( x0 xr )2 m

Physics 1301: Lecture 22, Pg 27

Physics 1301: Lecture 22, Pg 28

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