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Project report Submitted by: MOHD. IMRAN KHAN Enroll no. a7605411002 b.

tech (mae) 3 sem(A)


This is to certify that KHAN MOHD. IMRAN

Of B-TECH (MAE), 3RD SEMESTER(A) Enrollment no. A7605411002 has done bonafide work on the project

under my guidance superbly.



(Teacher In-charge)

Apart from the efforts of me, the success of any project depends largely on the encouragement and guidelines of many others. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this project.

I would like to show my greatest appreciation to the respected TEACHER IN-CHARGE. I cant say thank you enough for his tremendous support and help. Without his encouragement and guidance this project would not have materialized. The guidance and support received from my family and friends who helped me in making this project a success. I am grateful for their constant support and help.


1. Introduction 2. Gears: An Historical Note Importance of Clock Influence on Bicycles Industrial Revolution And Gears 3. Comparison with Drive Mechanism 4. Terminology in gear technology 5. Various types of gears External v/s Internal gears Spur Helical Skew gears Double helical Bevel Hypoid Crown Worm Non-circular Rack and pinion Epicyclic Sun and planet Cage gear 6. Sprockets

7. Backlash 8. Shifting of gears Manual transmission Automatic transmission 9. Derailleur gear 10. Hub gear 11. Tooth profile 12. Involute gears 13. Gear materials 14. Gear train 15. Gear box 16. Uses of gears 17. Gears applications

A gear is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or cogs, which mesh with another toothed part in order to transmit torque. Two or more gears working in tandem are called a transmission and can produce a mechanical advantage through a gear ratio and thus may be considered a simple machine. Geared devices can change the speed, torque, and direction of a power source. The most common situation is for a gear to mesh with another gear, however a gear can also mesh a non-rotating toothed part, called a rack, thereby producing translation instead of rotation. The gears in a transmission are analogous to the wheels in a pulley. An advantage of gears is that the teeth of a gear prevent slipping. When two gears of unequal number of teeth are combined a mechanical advantage is produced, with both the rotational speeds and the torques of the two gears differing in a simple relationship. In transmissions which offer multiple gear ratios, such as bicycles and cars, the term gear, as in first gear, refers to a gear ratio rather than an actual physical gear. The term is used to describe similar devices even when gear ratio is continuous rather than discrete, or when the device does not actually contain any gears, as in acontinuously variable transmission. The earliest known reference to gears was circa A.D. 50 by Hero of Alexandria but they can be traced back to the Greek mechanics of the Alexandrian school in the 3rd century B.C. and were greatly developed by the Greek polymath Archimedes (287212 B.C.). The Antikythera mechanism is an example of a very early and intricate geared device, designed to calculate astronomical positions. Its time of construction is now estimated between 150 and 100 BC.

Gears: An Historical Note

Gears have existed since the invention of rotating machinery. Because of their force-multiplying properties, early engineers used them for hoisting heavy loads such as building materials. The mechanical advantage of gears was also used for ship anchor hoists and catapult pre-tensioning. Early gears were made from wood with cylindrical pegs for cogs and were often lubricated with animal fat grease. Gears were also used in wind and water wheel machinery for decreasing or increasing the provided rotational speed for application to pumps and other powered machines. An early gear arrangement used to power textile machinery is illustrated in the following figure. The rotational speed of a water or horse drawn wheel was typically too slow to use, so a set of wooden gears needed to be used to increase the speed to a usable level.

An 18th Century Application of Gears for Powering Textile Machinery

The industrial revolution in Britain in the eighteenth century saw an explosion in the use of metal gearing. A science of gear design and manufacture rapidly developed through the nineteenth century. Today, the most significant new gear developments are in the area of materials. Modern metallurgy has greatly increased the useful life of industrial and automotive gears, and consumer electronics has driven plastic gearing to new levels of lubricant-free reliability and quiet operation.

Gears are about as old as any of the machinery of mankind. The oldest machine is the potter's wheel. At first time over 3000 years ago primitive gears first meshed with each other and transmitted rotary motion. In the fourth century, BC Aristole wrote about wheels using friction between smooth surfaces to transmit motion. The earliest gears were of wooden and had teeth of really engaging pins. The early Greeks made use of metal gears with wedge shaped teeth. The Romans made considerable use of gears in their mills. In middle age stone gears were used in Sweden.

Water wheels were used to convert energy of moving water into energy that would power machines. Wooden gears connected water wheels to machines that would grind wheat and hammer metals. Gears mesh with each other toothed machine parts, its mechanical transmission and the mechanical application of the field is extremely broad. Modern gear technology has been achieved: the gear module O.004 ~ 100 mm; gear diameter from 1 mm to 150 m; transmission power up to the 100 thousand kilowatts; speed up to hundreds of thousands of r / min; maximum peripheral speed of 300 m / sec. The composition generally gear teeth, alveolar, French side addendum circle, tooth root circle, base circle, pitch circle. Gear can be Classified by gear shape, tooth shapes, tooth surface. Such as gear tooth profile, including tooth profile curve, pressure angle, tooth height, and deflection. On the above mentioned involute gear, it is relatively easy to manufacture, so the modern use of gears, the involute gear absolute majority, while the cycloid gear and the circular gear is seldom used. Gear manufacturing gear materials and heat treatment process on the weight of the carrying capacity and size have significant influence. The quality of the material of the gear will directly affect the stability during use, more use of carbon steel in the early gears, As the development of science gear has slowly changed from metal gear plastic gear. Because the plastic gear more lubricity and wear resistance. It can reduce noise, lower costs, reduce the friction. Plastic gears are commonly used materials: POM, PTFE, Pa, etc. As the gears and other mechanical parts widely used, the network also appears more and more mechanical parts trading platform, the more famous may be Ecplaza, SeekPart, Commercial Place and so on .

Importance of clocks

Later metal clock gearing also became important. Clocks and watches were made that showed accurate time. Later mechanical clocks also started in Europe and were invented by monks. The first mechanical clock was made of escapement device and had a set of tooth gearing.

Influence of Bicycles in Gear Evolution

The history of cycling has had an immense influence on the technologies and industries. The story of bicycle starts in 1817 when Baron Won Drais of Baden invented a 'running machine' to help him move more quickly around his forests. Then after there were many changes that took place in improving the make up and usage of bicycles. Development of chain drive was an added advantage. Leonardo Da Vinci had developed an idea of chain and cog in the fifteenth century. It took years to implement on this idea and make it a practical aspect of bicycle design. Later gear was invented and was an added

advantage to the bicycle design. Gears allowed the cyclist to pedal at a comfortable and efficient rate especially while travelling uphill or downhill. Paul de Vivie of French was a passionate advocate of cycling. He rode his first high wheeler at the age of 28, sold his silk business and started a bike shop.

Industrial Revolution and Gears

Wooden gears were used all over the world by the eighteenth century. They were used in gristmills, textile mills and steel mills. The use of electric motors and steam engines created a considerable need of the gears. Few years later gears were widely used in all parts of the world in a wide number of industries. Gears were also preeminent for scientists who required more accurate clocks and using gears they made clocks with more accuracy, one of them was pendulum clock. The industrial revolution in Britain in the eighteen-century saw an explosion in the use of metal gearing. A science of gear design and manufacture rapidly developed through the nineteenth century. Today, the most significant new gear developments are in the area of materials. Modern metallurgy has greatly increased the useful life of industry and automotive gears. Along with this consumer electronics have driven plastic gearing to new levels of lubricant free reliability and quiet operation. Gears are also used in many machines that we use in our homes. The washing machines and electric drills are some of the machines that have gears.

Comparison with drive mechanisms

The definite velocity ratio which results from having teeth gives gears an advantage over other drives (such as traction drives and v-belt) in precision machines such as watches that depend upon an exact velocity ratio. In cases where driver and follower are in close proximity gears also have an advantage over other drives in the reduced number of parts required; the downside is that gears are more expensive to manufacture and their lubrication requirements may impose a higher operating cost.

Terminology in Gear Technology

Active Profile - Active profile refers to the part of the gear tooth that in actual comes in touch with the profile of its mating tooth somewhere along the line of action. Addendum - Addendum is radial or the perpendicular distance that is measured between the tip of the teeth and pitch circle. Arc of Action - Arc of action is the arc of a pitch circle via which the tooth moves from the time it first makes any contact with a mating teeth till the time the contact with mating tooth stops. Axial Pitch - Axial Pitch is referred to as the distance measured in an axial plane surface between two corresponding and adjacent tooth profiles.

Backlash - Backlash is the point of measure of the quantum of width

of a tooth space by which it exceeds the thickness of the engaging tooth on pitch circles. Base Circular Thickness - Base circular thickness is the length of arc on a base circle between two involute curves resulting in the profiles of a tooth. Base Radius - Base radius refers to the radius of the circle, the involute is generated from here only. Basic Rack - Basic Rack is there for every pair of a conjugate involute profile. This basic rack is essentially the profile of the conjugate gear that has infinite pitch radius.

Circular Pitch - Circular Pitch means the distance along the pitch circle or a pitch line, in between corresponding profiles of teeth that are placed adjacently. Circular Thickness - Circular thickness is the length of an arc on a pitch circle that is in between the two sides of the gear tooth. Contact Ratio - Contact ratio is the ratio formed by the arc of action to a circular pitch. Conjugate Action - Conjugate Action is a smooth type of driving action which produces a constant and uniform angular velocity in a driven member. (D) Dedendum - Dedendum refers to the perpendicular or radial distance covered between a pitch circle and the tooth space's bottom portion. Diametral Pitch - Diametral pitch refers to a ratio that is formed by the number of teeth to the number of inches in a pitch diameter. The relation is fixed between a diametral pitch (P) and a circular pitch (p), denoted by p=p/P.

Double-Helical Gear - Double Helical Gear is the gear of a cylindrical form that has two sections of teeth, one is at the right hand and the other is on the left hand, They engage in tandem with the teeth of an identically designed mating gear. (E) Effective or (Active) Face Width - This is in actual the width of a face which comes in touch with a mating gear. Equal-Addendum Teeth - This is the teeth of two Gears that are engaged and having similar addendum. External Gear - External Gear is the gear that has a teeth formed on a outer surface of a cylinder or even a cone. (F) Face Advance - Face advance refers to the distance on a pitch circle which a gear tooth travels from the time when at one end the pitch point contact is made till at the other end another pitch point contact is made. Face Contact Ratio - Face contact ratio refers to the contact ratio made in an axial plane. It also refers to the ratio of the face width to an axial pitch. In case of bevel and hypoid gears, it refers to the ratio of face advance to a circular pitch. Face Width - Face width is the length of a teeth in an axial plane. Fillet Curve - Fillet curve refers to a tooth profile's concave portion, where it is able to join the bottom of a tooth space. (G) Gear Blank - Gear Blank is the work piece which is applied for manufacturing a gear, before there is machining the gear teeth. Gear Center Gear center is the center of pitch circle.

Gear Ratio - Gear ratio is the ratio of the number of tooth in mating gears. Groove Depth - Groove depth is the depth of clearance groove between the helices of two helical gears. Groove Width - Groove width refers to clearance groove between the helices of two helical gears. (H) Helical Gear - A type of cylindrical gear that has helical teeth. Helical Rack - A type of rack that has teeth obliquely placed to the direction of motion. Helix Angle - It refers to the angle formed between a tangent to a helix and the element of a cylinder. Herringbone Gears - Herringbone is a type double helical gear, with no clearance groove. Hub Diameter - Hub diameter refers to the diameter of a central part of the gear body that encloses the bore and extends the web, spokes, or the body. (I) Inside Cylinder - Inside cylinder is the surface which coincides with the top of a of teeth of an gear of the nature internal cylindrical. Interference - It refers to any type of contact made between the mating teeth at any other point than that made along the line of action.

Internal Diameter - It is basically the diameter of a circle that consists of the top of teeth of internal gears. Involute Curve - This is very important term and is referred to as the curve described by the end of a line which is unwound from a circle's circumference. Base circle is the circle from where the said line is unwound. (L) Lead - Lead is the axial advance made by the helix for one complete turn. This is typified in the threads of a cylindrical worm or in teeth of helical gears. Lead Angle - The angle formed between a tangent to a pitch helix and the rotational plane. Length of Action - It is the distance measured on an involute line of action via which the point of contact travels during the action of tooth profiles. Line of Action - It is the path of contact in case of involute gears. A straight line that passes via the pitch point and tangent to the base circles of two mating gears. (M) Modified Addendum Teeth - It refers to teeth of two engaging gears, one or sometimes both of which have addendum that are nonstandard. Modified Contact Ratio - It is the contact ratio of improvised tooth surfaces. (N) Normal Helix - It refers a helix on a pitch cylinder which is normal to a pitch helix.

Normal Plane - The plane that is perpendicular to a straight line or that forms a tangent to the curved line. Normal Pressure Angle - It is the pressure angle in a plane which is normal to the pitch line element. Normal Tooth Profile - Normal tooth profile is the outline taking place by the intersection of a tooth surface and a plane which is perpendicular to a pitch line element. (O) Outside Diameter of Gear - It is essentially the diameter of a circle, comprising the top of the teeth of an external type of gear. Operating Pitch Diameters - It is the diameter of the circle on a gear. It is proportional to the gear ratio and the center distance(actual) at which there will be operation of the gear pair. Operating Pressure Angle - Operating pressure angle is ascertained by the center distance at which the gears operate. Outside Helix Angle - This is the helix angle formed on the outside cylinder. (P) Pinion - Pinion is a gear where number of teeth is small. In two gears that mesh together one with that has the smaller number of teeth is known as pinion. Pitch, Circular - It is the distance measured on the circumference of a pitch circle between the corresponding points of teeth that are placed adjacently. Pitch Circle - It is the circle via which the pitch point have its center on axis of a gear.

Pitch Cylinder - Pitch cylinder is an imaginary cylinder drawn in a in a gear which rolls without any slip on a pitch cylinder or a pitch plane of the other gear. Pitch Helix - Pitch helix is formed as a result of the intersection of the thread or surface of a helical tooth with a pitch cylinder. (R) Rack, General - A gear that has its teeth spaced along a straight line. It is perfect for straight-line motion. Root Circle - The circle comprising the bottom of tooth spaces. Root Cylinder - An imaginary cylinder which is tangent to the bottom of tooth spaces in a cylindrical type of gear. Root Radius Refers to the radius of a root circle.

(S) Single-Helical Gears - Helical gears that has teeth of on one hand on each of the gear. Spur Rack - A rack that has a straight teeth and at 90 degree to the direction of motion. Surface of Action - An imaginary surface where a contact takes place between two of the engaging tooth surfaces. (T) Tangent Plane - It refers to the plane tangent formed at the tooth surface at the line of contact. Tolerance, Tooth Alignment - It is the maximum permissible amount of variation in tooth alignment. Values are normal to the surface of tooth. Tooth Bearing - The part of the tooth surface that actually comes in

touch. Transverse Circular Thickness - It refers to the thickness of the circular tooth in the plane of rotation. (U) Undercut - A sort of condition that is generated in gear teeth when a part of the fillet curve is lying inside of a line. It is drawn as a tangent to a true involute form at its lowest point. Undercut may be introduced for facilitating the process of finishing. (W) Whole Depth (total depth) - It is the radial distance between an outside circle and a root circle. Working Depth - It is the extent of greatest depth to which a tooth of a gear can move into the tooth space of the mating gear. (Z) Zone of Action - It the area (rectangular) in a plane of action. It is restricted by the length of action or the face width.


The automobile transmission allows selection between gears to give various mechanical advantages.

[1.] External v/s internal gears

An external gear is one with the teeth formed on the outer surface of a cylinder or cone. Conversely, an internal gear is one with the teeth formed on the inner surface of a cylinder or cone. For bevel gears, an internal gear is one with the pitch angle exceeding 90 degrees. Internal gears do not cause direction reversal

[2.] Spur

Spur gears or straight-cut gears are the simplest type of gear. They consist of a cylinder or disk with the teeth projecting radially and although they are not straight-sided in form, the edge of each tooth is straight and aligned parallel to the axis of rotation. These gears can be meshed together correctly only if they are fitted to parallel shafts.

[3] Helical

Helical or "dry fixed" gears offer a refinement over spur gears. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle. Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations. The former refers to when the shafts are parallel to each other; this is the most common orientation. In the latter, the shafts are non-parallel, and in this configuration are sometimes known as "skew gears". The angled teeth engage more gradually than do spur gear teeth causing them to run more smoothly and quietly. With parallel helical gears, each pair of teeth first make contact at a single point at one side of the gear wheel; a moving curve of contact then grows gradually across the tooth face to a maximum then recedes until the teeth break contact at a single point on the opposite side. In spur gears teeth suddenly meet at a line contact across their entire width causing stress and noise. Spur gears make a characteristic whine at high speeds. Whereas spur gears are used for low speed applications and those situations where noise control is not a problem, the use of helical gears is indicated when the application involves high speeds, large power transmission, or where noise abatement is important.

The speed is considered to be high when the pitch line velocity exceeds 25 m/s. A disadvantage of helical gears is a resultant thrust along the axis of the gear, which needs to be accommodated by appropriate thrust bearing and a greater degree of sliding friction between the meshing teeth, often addressed with additives in the lubricant.

[4] Skew gears

For a 'crossed' or 'skew' configuration the gears must have the same pressure angle and normal pitch, however the helix angle and handedness can be different. The relationship between the two shafts is actually defined by the helix angle(s) of the two shafts and the handedness, as defined E = 1 + 2 for gears of the same handedness E = 1 2 for gears of opposite handedness Where is the helix angle for the gear. The crossed configuration is less mechanically sound because there is only a point contact between the gears, whereas in the parallel configuration there is a line contact. Quite commonly helical gears are used with the helix angle of one having the negative of the helix angle of the other; such a pair might also be referred to as having a right-handed helix and a left-handed helix of equal angles. The two equal but opposite angles add to zero: the angle between shafts is zero that is, the shafts are parallel. Where the sum or the difference (as described in the equations above) is not zero the shafts are crossed. For shafts crossed at right angles the helix angles are of the same hand because they must add to 90 degrees.

[5] Double helical

Double helical gears, or herringbone gear, overcome the problem of axial thrust presented by "single" helical gears by having two sets of teeth that are set in a V shape. Each gear in a double helical gear can be thought of as two standard mirror image helical gears stacked. This cancels out the thrust since each half of the gear thrusts in the opposite direction. Double helical gears are more difficult to manufacture due to their more complicated shape. For each possible direction of rotation, there are two possible arrangements of two oppositely-oriented helical gears or gear faces. In one possible orientation, the helical gear faces are oriented so that the axial force generated by each is in the axial direction away from the center of the gear; this arrangement is unstable. In the second possible orientation, which is stable, the helical gear faces are

oriented so that each axial force is toward the mid-line of the gear. In both arrangements, when the gears are aligned correctly, the total (or net) axial force on each gear is zero. If the gears become misaligned in the axial direction, the unstable arrangement generates a net force for disassembly of the gear train, while the stable arrangement generates a net corrective force. If the direction of rotation is reversed, the direction of the axial thrusts is reversed, a stable configuration becomes unstable, and vice versa. Stable double helical gears can be directly interchanged with spur gears without any need for different bearings.

[6] Bevel

A bevel gear is shaped like a right circular cone with most of its tip cut off. When two bevel gears mesh their imaginary vertices must occupy the same point. Their shaft axes also intersect at this point, forming an arbitrary non-straight angle between the shafts. The angle between the shafts can be anything except zero or 180 degrees. Bevel gears with equal numbers of teeth and shaft axes at 90 degrees are called miter gears. The teeth of a bevel gear may be straight-cut as with spur gears, or they may be cut in a variety of other shapes. Spiral bevel gear teeth are curved along the tooth's length and set at an angle, analogously to the way helical gear teeth are set at an angle compared to spur gear teeth. Zerol bevel gears have teeth which are curved along their length, but not angled. Spiral bevel gears have the same advantages and disadvantages relative to their straight-cut cousins as helical

gears do to spur gears. Straight bevel gears are generally used only at speeds below 5 m/s (1000 ft/min), or, for small gears, 1000 r.p.m

[7] Hypoid

Hypoid gears resemble spiral bevel gears except the shaft axes do not intersect. The pitch surfaces appear conical but, to compensate for the offset shaft, are in fact hyperboloids of revolution. Hypoid gears are almost always designed to operate with shafts at 90 degrees. Depending on which side the shaft is offset to, relative to the angling of the teeth, contact between hypoid gear teeth may be even smoother and more gradual than with spiral bevel gear teeth. Also, the pinion can be designed with fewer teeth than a spiral bevel pinion, with the result that gear ratios of 60:1 and higher are feasible using a single set of hypoid gears. This style of gear is most commonly found driving mechanical differentials; which are normally straight cut bevel gears; in motor vehicle axles.

[8] Crown

Crown gears or contrate gears are a particular form of bevel gear whose teeth project at right angles to the plane of the wheel; in their orientation the teeth resemble the points on a crown. A crown gear can only mesh accurately with another bevel gear, although crown gears are sometimes seen meshing with spur gears. A crown gear is also sometimes meshed with an escapement such as found in mechanical clocks.

[9] Worm

Worm gears resemble screws. A worm gear is usually meshed with a spur gear or a helical gear, which is called the gear, wheel, or worm wheel. Worm-and-gear sets are a simple and compact way to achieve a high torque, low speed gear ratio. For example, helical gears are normally limited to gear ratios of less than 10:1 while worm-and-gear sets vary from 10:1 to 500:1. A disadvantage is the potential for considerable sliding action, leading to low efficiency.

Worm gears can be considered a species of helical gear, but its helix angle is usually somewhat large (close to 90 degrees) and its

body is usually fairly long in the axial direction; and it is these attributes which give it screw like qualities. The distinction between a worm and a helical gear is made when at least one tooth persists for a full rotation around the helix. If this occurs, it is a 'worm'; if not, it is a 'helical gear'. A worm may have as few as one tooth. If that tooth persists for several turns around the helix, the worm will appear, superficially, to have more than one tooth, but what one in fact sees is the same tooth reappearing at intervals along the length of the worm. The usual screw nomenclature applies: a one-toothed worm is called single thread or single start; a worm with more than one tooth is called multiple thread or multiple start. The helix angle of a worm is not usually specified. Instead, the lead angle, which is equal to 90 degrees minus the helix angle, is given. In a worm-and-gear set, the worm can always drive the gear. However, if the gear attempts to drive the worm, it may or may not succeed. Particularly if the lead angle is small, the gear's teeth may simply lock against the worm's teeth, because the force component circumferential to the worm is not sufficient to overcome friction. Worm-and-gear sets that do lock are called self locking, which can be used to advantage, as for instance when it is desired to set the position of a mechanism by turning the worm and then have the mechanism hold that position. An example is the machine head found on some types of stringed instruments. If the gear in a worm-and-gear set is an ordinary helical gear only a single point of contact will be achieved. If medium to high power transmission is desired, the tooth shape of the gear is modified to achieve more intimate contact by making both gears partially envelop each other. This is done by making both concave and joining them at a saddle point, this is called a cone-drive. Worm gears can be right or left-handed following the long established practice for screw threads.

[10] Non-circular

Non-circular gears are designed for special purposes. While a regular gear is optimized to transmit torque to another engaged member with minimum noise and wear and maximum efficiency, a non-circular gear's main objective might be ratio variations, axle displacement oscillations and more. Common applications include textile machines, potentiometer and continuously variable transmission.

[11] Rack and pinion

A rack is a toothed bar or rod that can be thought of as a sector gear with an infinitely large radius of curvature. Torque can be converted to linear force by meshing a rack with a pinion: the pinion turns; the rack moves in a straight line. Such a mechanism is used in automobiles to convert the rotation of the steering wheel into the leftto-right motion of the tie rod(s). Racks also feature in the theory of gear geometry, where, for instance, the tooth shape of an interchangeable set of gears may be specified for the rack (infinite radius), and the tooth shapes for gears of particular actual radii then derived from that. The rack and pinion gear type is employed in a rack railway.

[12] Epicyclic

In epicyclic gearing one or more of the gear axes moves. Examples are sun and planet gearing (see below) and mechanical differentials.

[13] Sun and planet

Sun and planet gearing was a method of converting reciprocal motion into rotatary motion in steam engines. It played an important role in the Industrial revolution. The Sun is yellow, the planet red, the reciprocating crank is blue, the flywheel is green and the driveshaft is grey.

[14] Harmonic drive

A harmonic drive is a specialized gearing mechanism often used in industrial motion control, robotics and aerospace for its advantages over traditional gearing systems, including lack of backlash, compactness and high gear ratios.

[14] Cage gear

A cage gear, also called a lantern gear or lantern pinion has cylindrical rods for teeth, parallel to the axle and arranged in a circle around it, much as the bars on a round bird cage or lantern. The assembly is held together by disks at either end into which the tooth rods and axle are set.

A sprocket is a profiled wheel with teeth that mesh with a chain, track or other perforated or indented material. The name 'sprocket' applies generally to any wheel upon which are radial projections that engage a chain passing over it. It is distinguished from a gear in that sprockets are never meshed together directly, and differs from a pulley in that sprockets have teeth and pulleys are smooth. Sprockets are used in bicycles, motorcycles, cars, tracked vehicles, and other machinery either to transmit rotary motion between two shafts where gears are unsuitable or to impart linear motion to a track, tape etc. Perhaps the commonest form of sprocket is found in

the bicycle, in which the pedal shaft carries a large sprocket-wheel which drives a chain which in turn drives a small sprocket on the axle of the rear wheel. Early automobiles were also largely driven by sprocket and chain mechanism, a practice largely copied from bicycles. Sprockets are of various designs, a maximum of efficiency being claimed for each by its originator. Sprockets typically do not have a flange. Some sprockets used with timings belts have flanges to keep the timing belt centered. Sprockets and chains are also used for power transmission from one shaft to another where slippage is not admissible, sprocket chains being used instead of belts or ropes and sprocket-wheels instead of pulleys. They can be run at high speed and some forms of chain are so constructed as to be noiseless even at high speed.

Backlash is the error in motion that occurs when gears change direction. It exists because there is always some gap between the trailing face of the driving tooth and the leading face of the tooth behind it on the driven gear, and that gap must be closed before force can be transferred in the new direction. The term "backlash" can also be used to refer to the size of the gap, not just the phenomenon it causes; thus, one could speak of a pair of gears as having, for example, "0.1 mm of backlash." A pair of gears could be designed to have zero backlash, but this would presuppose perfection in manufacturing, uniform thermal expansion characteristics throughout the system, and no lubricant. Therefore, gear pairs are designed to have some backlash. It is usually provided by reducing the tooth thickness of each gear by half the desired gap distance. In the case of a large gear and a small pinion, however, the backlash is usually taken entirely off the gear and the pinion is given full sized teeth. Backlash can also be provided by moving the gears farther apart. The backlash of a gear train equals the sum of the backlash of each pair of gears, so in long trains backlash can become a problem. For situations in which precision is important, such as instrumentation and control, backlash can be minimised through one of several

techniques. For instance, the gear can be split along a plane perpendicular to the axis, one half fixed to the shaft in the usual manner, the other half placed alongside it, free to rotate about the shaft, but with springs between the two halves providing relative torque between them, so that one achieves, in effect, a single gear with expanding teeth. Another method involves tapering the teeth in the axial direction and providing for the gear to be slid in the axial direction to take up slack.

Shifting of gears
In some machines (e.g., automobiles) it is necessary to alter the gear ratio to suit the task. There are several methods of accomplishing this. For example: 1. Manual Transmission 2. Automatic Transmission 3. Derailleur gear which are actually sprockets in combination with a roller chain 4. Hub gears (also called epicyclic gearing or sun-and-planet gears)

A manual transmission, also known as a manual gearbox or standard transmission (informally, a manual; standard, straight shift; stick (shift), (US); or straight drive) is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications. It generally uses a driver-operated clutch, typically operated by a foot pedal(car) or hand lever(motorcycle), for regulating torque transfer from the internal combustion engine to the transmission, and a gear stick, either operated by foot (as on a motorcycle) or by hand (as in a car). A conventional manual transmission is frequently the base equipment in a car; other options include automated transmissions such as an automatic transmission (often amanumatic), a semi-automatic transmission, or a continuously variable transmission (CVT).


An automatic transmission (also called automatic gearbox) is one type of motor vehicle transmission that can automatically change gear ratios as the vehicle moves, freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually. Most automatic transmissions have a defined set of gear ranges, often with a parking pawl feature that locks the output shaft of the transmission.

Similar but larger devices are also used for heavy-duty commercial and industrial vehicles and equipment. Some machines with limited speed ranges or fixed engine speeds, such as some forklifts and lawn mowers, only use a torque converter to provide a variable gearing of the engine to the wheels. Besides automatics, there are also other types of automated transmissions such as continuous variable transmissions (CVTs) and semi-automatic transmissions, that free the driver from having to shift gears manually, by using the transmission's computer to change gear, if for example the driver were redlining the engine. Despite superficial similarity to other transmissions, automatic transmissions differ significantly in internal operation and driver's feel from semiautomatics and CVTs. An automatic uses a torque converter instead of clutch to manage the connection between the transmission gearing and the engine. In contrast, a CVT uses a belt or other torque transmission schema to allow an "infinite" number of gear ratios instead of a fixed number of gear ratios. A semi-automatic retains a clutch like a manual transmission, but controls the clutch through electro hydraulic means.

Derailleur gears are a variable-ratio transmission system commonly used on bicycles, consisting of a chain, multiple sprockets of different sizes, and a mechanism to move the chain from one sprocket to another. Although referred to as gears in the bike world, these bicycle gears are technically sprockets since they drive or are driven by a chain, and are not driven by one another. Modern front and rear derailleurs typically consist of a moveable chain-guide that is operated remotely by a Bowden cable attached to a shifter mounted on the down tube, handlebar stem, or handlebar. When a rider operates the lever while pedalling, the change in cable tension moves the chain-guide from side to side, "derailing" the chain onto different sprockets.

Hub gears or internal-gear hubs are gear ratio changing systems commonly used on bicycles. Hub gear systems generally have a long and largely maintenance-free life though some are not suitable for high-stress use in competitions or hilly, off-road conditions. Many commuter or urban cycles such as European city bikes are now commonly fitted with 7-speed gear-hubs and 8-speed systems are becoming increasingly available. Older or less costly utility bicycles often use 3-speed gear-hubs, such as in bicycle sharing systems. Many folding bicycles use 3-speed gear-hubs. Modern developments with up to 14 gear ratios are available.

Gear-hubs use internal planetary or epicyclic gearing. Unlike derailleur gears, where the gears and mechanism are exposed to the elements, hub gears and lubricants are sealed within the hubshell of the bicycle's rear wheel.

Tooth profile

Profile of a spur gear

Undercut A profile is one side of a tooth in a cross section between the outside circle and the root circle. Usually a profile is the curve of intersection of a tooth surface and a plane or surface normal to the pitch surface, such as the transverse, normal, or axial plane. The fillet curve (root fillet) is the concave portion of the tooth profile where it joins the bottom of the tooth space. As mentioned near the beginning of the article, the attainment of a non fluctuating velocity ratio is dependent on the profile of the teeth. Friction and wear between two gears is also dependent on the tooth profile. There are a great many tooth profiles that will give a constant velocity ratio, and in many cases, given an arbitrary tooth shape, it is possible to develop a tooth profile for the mating gear that will give a constant velocity ratio. However, two constant velocity tooth profiles have been by far the most commonly used in modern times. They are the cycloid and the involute. The cycloid was more common until the late 1800s; since then the involute has largely superseded it, particularly in drive train applications. The cycloid is in some ways the more interesting and flexible shape; however the involute has two advantages: it is easier to manufacture, and it permits the center to center spacing of the gears to vary over some range without ruining the constancy of the velocity ratio. Cycloidal

gears only work properly if the center spacing is exactly right. Cycloidal gears are still used in mechanical clocks. An undercut is a condition in generated gear teeth when any part of the fillet curve lies inside of a line drawn tangent to the working profile at its point of juncture with the fillet. Undercut may be deliberately introduced to facilitate finishing operations. With undercut the fillet curve intersects the working profile. Without undercut the fillet curve and the working profile have a common tangent.

Involute Gear
The involute gear profile is the most commonly used system for gearing today. In an involute gear, the profiles of the teeth are involutes of a circle.(The involute of a circle is the spiraling curve traced by the end of an imaginary taut string unwinding itself from that stationary circle called the base circle.) In involute gear design contact between a pair of gear teeth occurs at a single instantaneous point (see figure at right). Rotation of the gears causes the location of this contact point to move across the respective tooth surfaces. The path traced by this contact point is known as the Line of Action (also called Pressure Line or Line of Contact). A property of the involute tooth form is that if the gears are meshed properly, the line of action is straight and passes through the Pitch Point of the gears. When this is true, the gears obey the Fundamental Law of Gearing: The angular velocity ratio between two gears of a gearset must remain constant throughout the mesh. This property results in smooth transmission of power without speed or torque variations as pairs of teeth go into or come out of mesh. The Pressure Angle is the acute angle between the line of action and a normal to the line connecting the gear centers. The pressure angle of the gear is a function of the involute tooth shape and pairs of gears must have the same pressure angle in order for the teeth to mesh properly.

While any pressure angle can be manufactured, the most common stock gears have a 20 pressure angle, with 14 and 25 pressure angle gears being much less common.[2] Increasing the pressure angle increases the width of the base of the gear tooth, leading to greater strength and load carrying capacity. Decreasing the pressure angle provides lower backlash, smoother operation and less sensitivity to manufacturing errors.[3]

Gear materials

Wooden gears of a historic windmill Numerous nonferrous alloys, cast irons, powder-metallurgy and plastics are used in the manufacture of gears. However steels are most commonly used because of their high strength to weight ratio

and low cost. Plastic is commonly used where cost or weight is a concern. A properly designed plastic gear can replace steel in many cases because it has many desirable properties, including dirt tolerance, low speed meshing, and the ability to "skip" quite well.[19] Manufacturers have employed plastic gears to make consumer items affordable in items like copy machines, optical storage devices, VCRs, cheap dynamos, consumer audio equipment, servo motors, and printers. The module system Countries which have adopted the metric system generally use the module system. As a result, the term module is usually understood to mean the pitch diameter in millimeters divided by the number of teeth. When the module is based upon inch measurements, it is known as the English module to avoid confusion with the metric module. Module is a direct dimension, whereas diametral pitch is an inverse dimension (like "threads per inch"). Thus, if the pitch diameter of a gear is 40 mm and the number of teeth 20, the module is 2, which means that there are 2 mm of pitch diameter for each tooth.

Gear Train
A gear train is formed by mounting gears on a frame so that the teeth of the gears engage. Gear teeth are designed to ensure the pitch circles of engaging gears roll on each other without slipping, this provides a smooth transmission of rotation from one gear to the next.[1] The transmission of rotation between contacting toothed wheels can be traced back to the Antikythera mechanism of Greece and the South Pointing Chariot of China. Illustrations by the renaissance scientist Georgius Agricola show gear trains with cylindrical teeth. The implementation of the involute tooth yielded a standard gear design that provides a constant speed ratio.

Some important features of gears and gear trains are:

The ratio of the pitch circles of mating gears defines the speed ratio and the mechanical advantage of the gear set. A planetary gear train provides high gear reduction in a compact package. It is possible to design gear teeth for gears that are non-circular, yet still transmit torque smoothly. The speed ratios of chain and belt drives are computed in the same way as gear ratios. See bicycle gearing.

A machine consists of a power source and a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. MerriamWebster defines transmission as: an assembly of parts including the speed-changing gears and the propeller shaft by which the power is transmitted from an engine to a live axle. Often transmission refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device. In British English the term transmission refers to the whole drive train, including gearbox, clutch, prop shaft (for rear-wheel drive), differential and final drive shafts. In American English, however, the distinction is made that a gearbox is any device which converts speed and torque, whereas a transmission is a type of gearbox that can be "shifted" to dynamically change the speed: torque ratio, such as in a vehicle. The most common use is in motor vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a relatively high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping, and slower travel. The transmission reduces the higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the process. Transmissions are

also used on pedal bicycles, fixed machines, and anywhere else rotational speed and torque needs to be adapted. Often, a transmission will have multiple gear ratios (or simply "gears"), with the ability to switch between them as speed varies. This switching may be done manually (by the operator), or automatically. Directional (forward and reverse) control may also be provided. Single-ratio transmissions also exist, which simply change the speed and torque (and sometimes direction) of motor output. In motor vehicle applications, the transmission will generally be connected to the crankshaft of the engine. The output of the transmission is transmitted via driveshaft to one or more differentials, which in turn drive the wheels. While a differential may also provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to change the direction of rotation.

Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, milling, and hoisting.

Most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft (e.g. a motor crankshaft). This means that the output shaft of a gearbox will rotate at a slower rate than the input shaft, and this reduction in speed will produce a mechanical advantage, causing an increase in torque. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in shaft speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the physical direction in which power is transmitted. Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several different gear ratios. In this case, most of the gear ratios (often simply called "gears") are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque. However, the highest gears may be "overdrive" types that increase the output speed.

Functions of the Gearbox Casing

It provides structural support for the shaft bearings. This in turn helps in gear loading. It transfers the reaction of mechanical rotation (torque) to the other supporting structure of the gearbox or drive elements. It prevents the lubricant from spreading and also prevents the unwanted particals from coming inside. It provides the safety provision and reduce the noise intensity. It also reduces the amount of heat that generates due to the internal friction. It increases the external and visual qualities of the gearbox.

Gearboxes have found use in a wide variety of different often stationaryapplications, such as wind turbines. Transmissions are also used in agricultural, industrial, construction, mining and automotive equipm ent. In addition to ordinary transmission equipped with gears, such equipment makes extensive use of the hydrostatic drive and electrical adjustable-speed drives.

Gears Application
Today there is vast application of gears in every industry. It is the most common device for transmitting power in mechanical engineering. Gears are an important component of small but complicated machines like clock to large kiln and mill drive system. The gears form an essential part in running of various machines and automobile. There are variety of gears available that are used in different industries according to the specific requirements. These gears can be classified under automotive gears, mining gears, marine gears, wind turbines, bicycle gears, mill heads, instrumentation gears, conveyor system and more. The basic function of the gear is to alter the rotational speed, power or torque and direction between input and output shaft. Torque is the measure of force required to produce torsion and rotation about an axis. When a large gear drive is coupled with a smaller gear drive, the torque is reduced and the speed of the rotation is increased. Different arrangement of the gears can also be used for enhancement of positioning system.

Automotive Gears
Automotive Industry require automotive gears for high torque capacity and to convert mechanical energy smoothly and noiselessly. The type of automotive gears used are Manual transmission, Semi automatic transmission and Automatic transmission.

Marine Gears
Marine uses gears in various vessels like fast ferry boats, luxury yachts, frigates and work boats etc. These marine gears are usually more powerful and they meet critical applications. Types of marine gears used are Planetary Gears, Worm Reduction Gears and Helical Gears.

Agricultural Gears Agricultural Gears are widely used in the agro industry. Agricultural Automotive Gears are used in processes like tilling, seeding, ploughing, irrigation, pest and insect control etc. The agriculture vehicle, tractor also make use of these agricultural gears in its mechanism. Usually Spur Gears, Helical Gears, Worm Gears and Sprockets are used. Conveyor Systems Gears are also used in Conveyor Systems for optimizational of mechanical energy. With the help of gears, goods are transported from one place to another through belts.

Mill Heads Few of the gears are used for mill heads in cement plants, sugar mills, sag mills, tube mills, coal mills, sponge iron plants, gold mine sand many more. These gears are Girth Gears, Spur Gears, Face Gears, Spiral Bevel Gears and Helical Gears.

Mining Gears Different types of gears are used in mining industry to keep the machines run efficiently by power transmission in both above and underground operations. Types of gearboxes used are Bevel Gear , Helical Gear, Right Angle Gear, Parallel Shaft Gear, Planetary Gear and Worm Gear.

Power Station Power Station make use of high quality and high precision gears for the use in power generation equipment and machines. They are used for for high speed application. The gears that are usually used are Parallel Shaft Gears and Planetary Gears.

Wind Turbine The wind turbine makes use of gears to make the slow blades rotate faster. Types of gearbox used are Planetary Gearbox, Helical Gearbox and Worm Gearbox.

I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. www.geartechnology.com/ www.gear-tech.com/ www.zakgear.com/ gltrs.grc.nasa.gov www.qtcgears.com www.sdp-si.com/d785/html www.gearinfo.com/Gear-Technology.html www.geartechnology.in/ metalgear.wikia.com/wiki/Solid_Eye_(technology) en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gears