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AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design

Dr. Christos Drakos University of Florida

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 1. Introduction Empirical design based on the AASHO road test:

Over 200 test sections JPCP (15 spacing) and JRPC (40 spacing) Range of slab thickness: 2.5 to 12.5 inches Subbase type: untreated gravel/sand with plastic fines Subbase thickness; 0 to 9 inches Subgrade soil: silty-clay (A-6) Monitored PSI w/ load applications developed regression eqns Number of load applications: 1,114,000

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 2. General Design Variables Design Period Traffic what changes? (EALF Table 6.7) Reliability Performance criteria

Based on functional classification Overall standard deviation (S0=0.25 0.35)

PSI = PSI0 PSIt

3. Material Properties 3.1 Effective Modulus of Subgrade Reaction (k) Need to convert subgrade MR to k: 1. Without Subbase 2. With Subbase 3. Shallow bedrock

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 3.1.1 Pavement Without Subbase If there is no Subbase, AASHTO suggests:

M k= R 18.8

Correlation based on 30-in plate-load tests k value becomes too high because k=fnc(1/a) More accurate k if plate test was run w/ bigger plates; too expensive & impractical

3.1.2 Pavement With Subbase


PCC SUBBASE

SUBGRADE BEDROCK

If subbase exists, need to determine the composite modulus of subgrade reaction (k)

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 3.1.2 Pavement With Subbase (cont.)
Example:

Subbase thickness=10 Subbase modulus=30,000 psi Subgrade MR=10,000 psi

To get k:

Cut across the ESB Cut across MR to the TL Vertically meet other line Read k-value

k=600pci
Figure 12.18

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 3.1.3 Rigid Foundation @ Shallow Depth
If bedrock is within 10ft, it will confine the material (subgrade) and will produce a higher k. Example:
Rigid depth=5

Figure 12.19

From prev. page:

Subgrade MR=10,000 psi k = 600 pci

k = 800pci

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 3.1.4 Effective Modulus of Subgrade Reaction Keff Equivalent modulus that would result in the same damage if seasonal variations were taken into account (similar to flexible design)

u r = D 0.75 0.39k 0.25


Month
1 2 . . n

3.42

k
500 450 . . xxx

33.5 32.5 . . yy.y

ur

ur =

u
n

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 3.1.5 Keff Example


Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Subgrade Modulus, MR (psi) 12,000 12,000 7,000 7,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 Subbase Modulus, ESB (psi) 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000

Figure 12.18 Figure 12.19


Composite kvalue, k (pci) 700 700 400 400 550 550 550 550 550 550 550 550 Rigid Foundation, k (pci) ur Relative Damage, ur 31.84 31.84 43.45 43.45 36.73 36.73 36.73 36.73 36.73 36.73 36.73 36.73 444.41

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 3.1.5 Keff Example (cont.)


ur =
_

u
n

444.41 = 37.03 12

D = 8in

Figure 12.20
37

keff = 540pci

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 3.1.6 Loss of Support (LS)


Reduction of keff by a factor LS to account for erosion and/or differential soil movement Best case scenario, LS=0 (Slab is in full contact with subbase)

keff = 540pci LS = 1.0

Fig12.21

kactual = 170pci

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 3.1.7 Table for Estimating Keff
GRANULAR 6 0.5 (*) IF<10 THEN FILL IN (5) > 10 9 *

Fig. 12.18

Fig. 12.19

EQUATION

20,000

100,000

1,300

37

15,000

100,000 534 = 44.5 12


Fig. 12.21

1,000

43 534

945 480

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 3.2 Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Elastic Modulus of Concrete (Ec):
Correlated with compressive strength

Ec = 57,000 f c'
Modulus of Rupture (Sc):
Third-point loading @ 28 days
L/3 L/3 L/3

Sc

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 3.3 Pavement Structure Characteristics Drainage Coefficient (Cd):

Quality of drainage & percent time exposed to moisture (Table 12.20)

Load Transfer Coefficient (J):


Ability to transfer loads across joints and cracks (Table 12.19) Lower J better performance/less conservative

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 4. Thickness Design 4.1 Input Variables

Modulus of Subgrade Reaction, keff Traffic, W18 Design Reliability, R Overall Standard Deviation, S0 PSI Elastic Modulus, Ec Modulus of Rupture, Sc Load Transfer Coefficient, J Drainage Coefficient, Cd

=70 pci =5 million =95% =0.30 =1.7 =5,000,000 psi =650 psi =3.3 =1.0

Use Nomograph (Figures 12.17a&b) or solve equation

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 4.2 Nomograph

Ec=5E6

J=3.3

Cd=1.0

Sc=650 k=70

74

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 4.2 Nomograph

D=9.8

74

Use D=10

W18=5 millon

S0=0.3 R=95%

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 4.3 Equation


W18 := 5000000 Sc := 650 D := 4.5 Given log( W18) J := 3.3 ZR := 1.645 Cd := 1.0 S0 := 0.3 pt := 2.8 PSI := 1.7 Ec := 5000000 k := 70

(ZR S0) + 7.35 log( D + 1) 0.06 +

log
1+

PSI 4.5 1.5


1.624 10
7

+ ( 4.22 0.32 pt) log

( D + 1)

8.46

215.63 J D0.75 18.42 0.25 Ec k

Sc Cd ( D0.75 1.132)

Find( D) = 9.9

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 5. Other Design Features What does this (length) depend on? 5.1 Slab Length 5.1.1 Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement (JPCP) Governed by joint opening
= C L ( t T + )
Where: = Joint opening t = Coefficient of thermal contraction = Drying shrinkage coefficient L = Slab length C = adjustment factor for subgrade friction

Remember (?): If 0.05 then USE dowels

For NO dowels, determine L for =0.05 L 0.05 L= = = 179" 6 C( t T + ) 0.65(5.5 10 60 + 1.0 10 4 )


L 15ft
IF SLAB > 15 ft USE DOWELS

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 5.1.2 Jointed Reinforced Concrete Pavement (JRPC) Always doweled
Remember (?): 0.25 to LIMIT bearing stress

Use same typical values from before: L 0.25 = = 894 L= C( t T + ) 0.65 5.5 10 6 60 + 1.0 10 4

L 75ft

Lengths typically between 30-100

Guideline 40 slab length has been found to be OPTIMAL for JRCP

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 5.1.3 JRCP Reinforcement If (when) concrete cracks, steel picks up stress
As = fa cLh 2fs

Where: As = Area of required steel per unit width fs = Allowable stress in steel fa = Average friction coefficient between slab and foundation
40
tie bars

Example

Longitudinal:

24

As =

in 2 0.0868 480 10 1.5 = 0.00727 in 2 43000 in2 ft in 2 ft

A s = 0.0872
c = 0.0868 pci h = 10 in fa = 1.5 fs = 43,000
Transverse:

Table 4.3 select welded wire fabric

A s = 0.0523

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 5.1.3 JRCP Reinforcement (cont)


Longitudinal:

A s = 0.0872
Transverse:

in2 ft in 2 ft

A s = 0.0523

Select: 6x12 W4.5 x W5.5

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 5. Design Example


Given the following information: Roadbed soil MR:

20,000 psi (December January) 8,000 psi (February March) 15,000 psi (April November) Loss of Support Friction factor Thickness Elastic Modulus =0.5 =1.5 =6 inches =100,000 psi =90% =0.40 =1.5 =37.9 million ESAL =1.0 =10-ft wide PCC =55 oF

Subbase Information:

Design Factors:

Design Reliability, R Overall Standard Deviation, S0 PSI Traffic Drainage coefficient Shoulders Temperature drop

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 5. Design Example (cont)


PCC:
Elastic Modulus, Ec Modulus of Rupture, Sc Limestone rock Indirect Tensile Strength = 4,500,000 psi = 725 psi = 500 psi

Design a JPCP (w/o dowels) and a JRCP (35-ft, w/ dowels). For each pavement determine the slab thickness, joint spacing (for the JCPC), and reinforcement (mesh designation for the JRCP)

5.1 Effective modulus of subgrade reaction Next page

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 5.2 JPCP Design 5.2.1 Slab Length for no Dowels (<0.05)
= C L ( t T + )

L=

C( t T + )

= 0.05 t = 3.8 x 10-6 /oF (Table 12.23, Limestone) = 0.00045 (Table 12.22, Indirect Tensile Strength = 500 psi) C = 0.65 (Cement Treated)

L=

0.05 = = 116.7" 6 C( t T + ) 0.65(3.8 10 55 + 4.5 10 4 )

L 9.7ft

Use SLAB LENGTH= 9 ft

GRANULAR 6 0.5

> 10 10

20,000 20,000 8,000 8,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 1,739 12

100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 144.9

1,200 1,200 600 600 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000

1,200 1,200 600 600 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000

130.2 130.2 173.6 173.6 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 1,739

946 480

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 5.2.2 Slab Thickness


Declare the variables:

W18 := Cd := J :=

37900000

Ec :=
3

4500000

PSI :=

1.5

k :=

480

Sc :=

725

1.0

pt :=

ZR := 1.282 S0 :=

0.4

3.9

Table 12.19, No Dowels

Give an initial estimate:

D :=

4.5

Solver iteration:

Given

log W18

) (ZR S0) + 7.35 log( D + 1) 0.06 +

log
1

PSI 4.5 1.5


1.624 107

( 4.22 0.32 pt) log

( D + 1) 8.46

D0.75 18.42 215.63 J 0.25 Ec k

Sc Cd ( D0.75 1.132)

Find( D) =

13.195

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 5.3 JRCP Design 5.3.1 Slab Thickness
Declare the variables: W18 := 37900000 Cd := 1.0 J := 2.8 pt := 3.0 Ec := 4500000 ZR := 1.282 PSI := 1.5 k := 480 S0 := 0.4 Sc := 725

(Table 12.19, With Dowels)

Give an initial estimate: D := 4.5 Solver iteration: Given

log W18

( ZR S0) + 7.35 log( D + 1) 0.06 +

PSI 0.75 Sc C d D 1.132 4.5 1.5 + 4.22 0.32 p log ( t) 7 18.42 0.75 1.624 10 215.63 J D 1+ 0.25 Ec ( D + 1) 8.46 k
log

Find( D) = 11.11

Topic 10 AASHTO Rigid Pavement Design 5.3.2 Reinforcement


Longitudinal:

As =

in2 (0.0868)(11)(35 12)(1.5) = 0.0070 in 2 43000 in2 (0.0868)(11)(34 12)(1.5) = 0.0068 in 2 43000

A s = 0.0839

in2 ft

Transverse: 12(lane)+12(lane)+10(shoulder)

As =

A s = 0.0816

in2 ft

Fabric: 6 x 12 W4.5 x W8.5