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Status of the gasification plants in Italy and the main experimental results carried out in
Status of the gasification plants in Italy and the main experimental results carried out in
Status of the gasification plants in Italy and the
main experimental results carried out in ENEA
Antonio Molino - ENEA
Task 33: Thermal Gasification of Biomass
1 st Semi-Annual Task Meeting, 2012
Istanbul, Turkey
Tue, April 17 to Thu, April 19
33: Thermal Gasification of Biomass 1 st Semi-Annual Task Meeting, 2012 Istanbul, Turkey Tue, April 17

National Distribution of the ENEA's activity regarding the biomass

Biomass combustion LCA – Anaerobic Digestion Biodiesel from algae Anaerobic Digestion WEB Geographic Information
Biomass combustion
LCA – Anaerobic Digestion
Biodiesel from algae
Anaerobic Digestion
WEB Geographic Information System
of biomass
Energy crops
Thermochemical processes
Biofuels of 2 nd generation

The development of renewable energy plants

National Electricity balance Year 2010 National demand electricity is 330,5 TWh, com posed by: •
National Electricity balance
Year 2010
National demand electricity is
330,5 TWh, com posed by:
• The 44,9% thermoelectric
plants fuelled with Natural
gas ;
• The 22,8% is the production
from Renewable Sources;
• The 13,4% is represented by
the Foreign Balance.
• The 10,8% is the production
from thermoelectric plants
fuelled with Coal .
the production from thermoelectric plants fuelled with Coal . Source: GSE National Manager of the Energy

Source: GSE National Manager of the Energy Services

the production from thermoelectric plants fuelled with Coal . Source: GSE National Manager of the Energy

NATIONAL ENERGY POTENTIAL:

Current Status of biomass gasification power plants

ONLY SOLID BIOMASS BIOMASS GASIFICATION PLANT THAT ARE OPERATIONAL IN ITALY Production in Italy: 2.828GWh
ONLY SOLID BIOMASS
BIOMASS GASIFICATION PLANT
THAT ARE OPERATIONAL IN ITALY
Production in Italy: 2.828GWh
Breakdown by percentage
of production-class
PLANT
POWER (kWe)
MANUFACTURER
OF THE SYSTEM
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PLANT
Belluno(BL)
1000
GAS‐1000 MODEL
The plant is fed with 8500t/a of wood
The plant produces 7 5 GWhee 15 GWht and
.
Parma
1000
it is powered with 9000 t/a of kenaf
The pyrogasificator is fed with chopped or
Gadesco Pieve(CR)
960
Agroenergia
chipped vegetable biomass
The system is experimental and the process
has been develo p ed b y poliTO; the p lant is
Alessandria
640
fed with 4100 t/a of biomass from forest
The plant produces 3.75GWhe and 7.5 GWht
and it is powered with 4100 t/a of wood
Vigevano(PV)
500
Modello GAS ‐500
chips
The plant is fed with residues of agricultural
production, forest biomass, leaves, waste of
Caluso(TO)
400
Autogas Nord
food industry
Oltrepo Pavese(PV)
300
Bio&Watt
The plant uses an endothermic motor
The pyrogasificator is fed with waste
Castel San Pietro(BO)
250
Bio&Watt
prunings, corn stalks, wood chips of poplar
The pyrogasificator is powered by biomass
Orzinuovi(BS)
250
Bio&Watt
from forests
Verbania
250
CoVer Energy
The plant is classified as experimental
4% OF RENEWABLE
SOURCES
is classified as experimental 4% OF RENEWABLE SOURCES Gasification is a technology that has great potential

Gasification is a technology that has great potential in terms of efficiency of conversion of biomass into electricity. During 2010 requests for qualification that have come to the GSE concern another 20 plants under construction with a total power over 20MWe

Source: GSE National Manager of the Energy Services

Combustion is by far the predominant energy conversion technology

Position Paper of the Italian government for the renewable sources

Final consumption ( Statistical data for 2008 and estimates to 2020 European directive 2009/28/EU 2008
Final consumption
( Statistical data for 2008 and estimates to 2020
European directive 2009/28/EU
2008
2020
Consumption
from
Renewable
Gross Final
RES/
Gross final
RES /
Ener gy
Cons m tion
u
p
Cons
u
m
p
ti
Consumptio
n from RES
cons m tion
u
p
Cons m tio
u
p
Sources
(GFC)
on
GFC
n
RES
[MTOE]
[MTOE]
[%]
[MTOE]
[MTOE]
[%]
Electricity
5,03
30,40
16,53%
8,50
32,23
26,39%
x
1,7
Heat
3 24
,
58 53
,
5
, 53%
10 46
,
61 19
,
17 09%
,
x
3 2
,
Transports
0,72
42,62
1,70%
2,53
39,63
6,38%
x 3,5
Transfers from other
states
-
-
-
1,13
-
-
End
consumption
Gross final consumption
8,99
131,55
6,83%
22,62
133,04
17,00%
Transport for the 10%
target
0,34
39,00
0,87%
3,44
33,97
10,13%

Position Paper of the Italian government for the renewable sources

POWER production from renewable energy sources: stati sti ca l d ata to 2009 an
POWER production from renewable energy sources:
stati sti ca l d ata to 2009 an d nati ona l target to th e 2020
45000
42.155 42.000
European directive 2009/28/EU
40000
35000
30000
x 3
x 2,5
25000
20.000
18.780
20000
x 17
15000
11.350
10000
7 631
.
6
.750
6 .830
5.342
5000
676
5
0
Biomass
Maree Tides e and moto Wave ondoso action
Idroelettrica Hydro (normalizzata
Geotermica Geothermal
Solare Solar
Eolica (normalizzata) Wind
Biomassa
[GWh]

2009Idroelettrica Hydro (normalizzata Geotermica Geothermal Solare Solar Eolica (normalizzata) Wind Biomassa [GWh] 2020

Hydro (normalizzata Geotermica Geothermal Solare Solar Eolica (normalizzata) Wind Biomassa [GWh] 2009 2020

2020

Position Paper of the Italian government for the renewable sources

THERMAL production from renewable energy sources: statistical data to 2009 and national tar et to
THERMAL production from renewable energy sources:
statistical data to 2009 and national tar et to the 2020
g
6000
5.670
European directive 2009/28/EU
x 3
5000
4000
x 2,7
2.900
3000
x 24
1.875
2000
1.586
1.083
1000
213
300
67
0
En. Renewable rinn. Da pompe energy from di calore heat pumps
Geotermica Geothermal (escluse PDC)
Solare Solar
Biomassa Biomass
2009
2020
tonn of oil equiv alent, kTO E
[ktep]

Position Paper of the Italian government for the renewable sources

Energy consumption from renewable energy sources in TRANSPORTS sector: statistical data to 2009 and national
Energy consumption from renewable energy sources in TRANSPORTS sector:
statistical data to 2009 and national target to the 2020
2000
1.880
x 3
European directive 2009/28/EU
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
x 10
800
665
600
x 2 , 4
600
369
400
200
155
58
50
0
0
Biodiesel
Others biofuel
Bi
oe ano o o ‐
Bioethanol ‐Bio ‐ETBE
t
l Bi ETBE
Bi di
o ese
l
Alt i bi
r
ocar uran
b
ti
Hydrogen from RES
Id
orgeno a
d FER
Electricity from RES
El tt i ità d FER
e
r c
a
tonn o f oil equiv alent,
kTOe
E
[kt
p]
a d FER Electricity from RES El tt i ità d FER e r c a

2009

a d FER Electricity from RES El tt i ità d FER e r c a

2020

National incentives for the power production from biomass

Electrical energy: FIXED RATE of 0.28 €/kWh for plants with size up to 1MWe for
Electrical energy:
FIXED RATE of 0.28 €/kWh for plants with size up to 1MWe for
15 years
GREEN CERTIFICATES for plants with size greater than 1MWe;
the last year the GC cost was about 87€/MWh depending to the
energy market
Thermal energy:
TAX DEDUCTION of 55% of the total cost plant in 10 years for
small systems (such as residential)
WHITE CERTIFICATES for the heating networks fuelled by
biomass. 1WC is about of 6€/MWh
biomass. 1WC is about of 6€/MWh

NATIONAL ENERGY POTENTIAL: FORESTS Residual Biomass

LIMITATIONS ON POTENTIAL: The methodology is based on the use o f map d ata
LIMITATIONS ON POTENTIAL:
The methodology is based on the use
o
f
map
d
ata
an
d
i
nventory to
• Forests up 1500m;
produce a
geographically detailed
• Slope roads > 40%;
on provincial scale that we can use
o
plant with
t
es
ti
ma e
t
th
e
s ze
i
o
f
th
e power
• Accessibility Road;
a
WEB
Geographic
• Protected natural areas.
Information System.
WOOD FOREST
2180 ktonn
~1 MTOE
CONSIDERING ONLY THE

ROUTINE MAINTENANCE OF

FORESTS

WOOD FOREST 2180 ktonn ~1 MTOE CONSIDERING ONLY THE ROUTINE MAINTENANCE OF FORESTS www. atlantebiomasse .

www.atlantebiomasse.enea.it/

NATIONAL ENERGY POTENTIAL:

Agroindustrial residual Biomass

PRUNING: 4.900ktonn STRAWS: 15.700ktonn POMACES & MARC: 1.320ktonn 2MTOE 6MTOE 1MTOE Distribution of different
PRUNING: 4.900ktonn
STRAWS: 15.700ktonn
POMACES & MARC: 1.320ktonn
2MTOE
6MTOE
1MTOE
Distribution of different type of agro-industrial biomass
1320
AGROINDUSTRIAL BIOMASS:
4906
22.000 ktonn 9 MTOE
Staws(ktonn)
TOTAL BIOMASS 10MTOE
53 TWh
ktonn 9 MTOE Staws(ktonn) TOTAL BIOMASS 10MTOE 53 TWh 15711 Pruning Pomaces & Marc Italian electrical

15711

9 MTOE Staws(ktonn) TOTAL BIOMASS 10MTOE 53 TWh 15711 Pruning Pomaces & Marc Italian electrical consum

Pruning

Pomaces & MarcStaws(ktonn) TOTAL BIOMASS 10MTOE 53 TWh 15711 Pruning Italian electrical consum ption 330 TWh (from Terna

BIOMASS 10MTOE 53 TWh 15711 Pruning Pomaces & Marc Italian electrical consum ption 330 TWh (from

Italian electrical consumption 330 TWh (from Terna 2010)

www.atlantebiomasse.enea.it/

ENEA’s technological platform for the biomass gasification

compressed air criogenic gases hydrogen storage Interconnected fluidized bed gasifier 1 MW t Countercurrent fixed-
compressed
air
criogenic gases
hydrogen storage
Interconnected fluidized
bed gasifier
1 MW t
Countercurrent fixed-
bed gasifier
150 kW
t
Fixed bed
P= 30-80 kWe
Molten carbonate fuel
cell
125 kW e
Started:
2008
Finished: 2010
JOULE Plant – Fast
internally circulating
Fluidized bed gasifier
500 kW t
ENEA Trisaia from many years is working in the field of energy conversion of
biomass and thermochemical processes and it is equipped with different
technologies for the gasification and facility for the power generation.

Current state of the technological platform for the ENEA biomass gasification

JOULE Plant – Fast g Fluidized bed gasifier 500 kW t internall y circulatin PI.GA.
JOULE Plant – Fast
g
Fluidized bed gasifier
500 kW t
internall
y
circulatin
PI.GA. Plant
Fixed bed
P= 30-80 kWe
UNIQUE Plant
Interconnected
fluidized bed gasifier
1 MWt
Molten carbonate fuel
cell
125 kW e
125
kW e
PRAGA Plant Countercurrent fixed- bed gasifier 150 kWt
PRAGA Plant
Countercurrent fixed-
bed gasifier
150 kWt

The Gasification Technologies In ENEA Trisaia Research Center

SYNGAS COMPOSITION Syngas Fluidized bed gasifier with internal recirculation Enriched Air/Steam 1MWth Specie %Vol.
SYNGAS COMPOSITION
Syngas
Fluidized bed gasifier with internal
recirculation
Enriched Air/Steam 1MWth
Specie
%Vol.
H
32
2
CO
17
CH 4
6.2
0.
2
Biomass
Suitable for the power generation both
with ICE and fuel cells
N
9
CO 2
20.9
H
32
2 O
Steam
Oxigen
SYNGAS COMPOSITION
Syn gas
%Vol .
Flue gas
Internally Circulating Fluidized Bed
technologies
Specie
H
34.1
2
CO
25.1
Air/Steam 500kWth
Biomass
CH
10.4
4
Air
Steam
Suitable for the power production both with MCI and
fuel cells, or for biofuel production from Fischer Tropsch
process
N
9
. 6
2
CO
20.8
2
SYNGAS COMPOSITION
Biomass
Dirty
S n as
Fixed bed u draft
p
S
pecie
%Vol.
y g
H
20
2
CO
21
Steam
Air/Steam 150kWth
Suitable for the power generation with ICE
CH
4
4
N
40
2
CO
6
2
Ai r
only if there s a good syngas cleaning
H
9
2 O
COMPOSIZIONE SYNGAS
Syngas
Fixed bed downdraft
Specie
%Vol.
H
15
2
COMPOSIZIONE SYNGAS
Air / Steam 150‐ 450kWth
CO
22
CH
3
4
N
40
Air
2
Suitable for the power generation with ICE
CO
20
2
Combustion
zone

PI.GA – Downdraft gasifier

Downdraft gasifier of 150-450kWth Cleaning Section: The cleaning section is composed of four filtration stages:
Downdraft gasifier of 150-450kWth
Cleaning Section:
The cleaning section is composed of four filtration
stages:
- Cyclone
- Scrubber
- Disk filter
- Sawdust filter
Power Generation Section:
IVECOIVECO 8210082100 22002200 gg iirri/i/ mm iinn 40kW40kWee
The
power
generation
is
composed
of
a
Diesel
engine
Syngas composition
modified to Otto cycle with gas
feedin
g,
cou p led
with
an
Carbon dioxide
14,24
alternator.
Propane
0,78
Ethane
0,17
The load generated is dissipated
Hydrogen
12,11
b
y
means o f e l ec t r i c res i s t ances
Oxigen
1,70
and the total power dissipation is
approximately 30 kWe with the
possibility of adjusting the electric
Nitrogen
48,68
Methane
1,97
l oa
d
step o
f 1 kW
Carbon monoxide
20 35
,
LHV KJ/Nmc
5407,27
HHV KJ/Nmc
5794,34
D [kg/Nmc]
1,21

PRAGA PLANT - Updraft gasifier 150kWth

Funded by the Ministry of University and Research for 5.112.000€ – MIUR Finished: 2009 WGS
Funded by the Ministry of University and Research for 5.112.000€ – MIUR Finished: 2009
WGS reactor
Torch
CO 2 separator
Tests were carried out using almond shells as
feedstock and operating the gasification at the
following conditions: ER~0.20, steam/biomass ~0.4,
and atmospheric pressure.
Process Characteristics
Main feeding
Almond shells
Nominal flow rate
30-40 Kg/h
Gasifying medium
Mix Steam-Air
Nominal power
200 kW th
Gas Components
%vol. dry
H
21
2
CO
22,8
CO 2
13,4
CH 4
~1
Steam
Biodiesel
Coalescer filters
Feeding system
<1
C 3 H 8
Gasifier
g
enerator
O
<1
2
Scrubber
41
N 2
LHV (kJ/Nm 3 dry )
5,7
Removal
3
A
na
lit
yca
l
Total Tar content
(
g
/N
) a
m dry
efficiency
Technique
Gasifie
Scrubbe
(% wt )
r
r
Gravimetric
66.0
0.91 b)
98.6
Chromatographic
11.4
0.32 c)
97.4
d)

a) According to the CEN/TS 15439 procedure; standard dev: 5-10%

b) as sum of both tar and biodiesel.

c) calculated as sum of all molecules quantified by chromatographic analysis

JOULE PLANT:

Steam Gasification Pilot Plant of 500kWt

Exhausted gas Gasifier developed in collaboration with Vienna y University of L'Aquila, Louis Univ Filter
Exhausted gas
Gasifier developed in
collaboration with Vienna
y
University of L'Aquila,
Louis Univ
Filter system
Universit
of Technolo
gy,
COMBUSTOR
Syngas
Entrained gas
GASIFICATION
ZONE
Fast
Internally
Steam
Circulating Fluidized
input
Bed
technologies
Char recirculation
FICFB
Auxiliary fuel
FLUIDIZATION
Biomass
AGENT
Input
Primary Air General Features
of the Olivine
Origin
Austria
Composition Olivine sand
Density
3400‐3500 kg/m3
%SiO 2
41.9
Bulk Density
2050‐1900 kg/m3
%MgO
49.5
Medium Diameter
344 µm

%Fe 2 O 3

7.1

%Al 2 O 3

1

%H 2 O+%CO 2

0.5

Thermal Expansion (1100°C) 1.3%
Thermal Expansion
(1100°C) 1.3%

Mohs Hardness

6.57

Specific Heat 0.95‐ 1.05 kJ/kg °C
Specific Heat
0.95‐ 1.05 kJ/kg °C
%H 2 O+%CO 2 0.5 Thermal Expansion (1100°C) 1.3% Mohs Hardness 6.5 ‐ 7 Specific Heat
%H 2 O+%CO 2 0.5 Thermal Expansion (1100°C) 1.3% Mohs Hardness 6.5 ‐ 7 Specific Heat

HOT GAS CLEANING : Experimental Results

Performance of the Hot gas cleaning section Purified Syngas output Nitrogen input for the filter
Performance of the Hot gas cleaning section
Purified Syngas
output
Nitrogen input for
the filter regeneration
Outlet H 2 S concentration
~ 40 ppmv
Sulphur removal efficiency
84%
CERAMIC
T=400°C
Outlet HCl concentration
~ 30 ppmv
FILTERS
Chlorine removal efficiency
70%
PALL
Syngas Input
CORPORATION
Cyclone removal efficiency (d=2
µm)
95 %
Tars(g/Nm 3 )
10
Tin [ °C]
508
Particle out
2,1 mg/Nm ³
Tout [ °C]
476
CaO [kg/h]
0.57
Ca/(Cl+S) [molar]
4.3
Solid Recovery
H 2 Sin [ppmv]
250
T=476°C
HClin [ppmv]
105
H 2 Sout [ppmv]
40
HClout [ppmv]
36
SR [%]
84
ClR [%]
66
ADSORBING
TOWER
Raw Syngas
CYCLONE
105 H 2 Sout [ppmv] 40 HClout [ppmv] 36 SR [%] 84 ClR [%] 66 ADSORBING

T=508°C

105 H 2 Sout [ppmv] 40 HClout [ppmv] 36 SR [%] 84 ClR [%] 66 ADSORBING

UNIQUE PLANT

Funded by 7°FP Finished: 2011 Financing of 3.715.503 € Fluidized bed gasifier with internal o
Funded by 7°FP
Finished: 2011
Financing of 3.715.503 €
Fluidized bed gasifier with internal
o
r
ec
ir
cu a
l
ti
o
n
f 1MWth
Enriched Air/Steam
Patent
RM2008U000022
Main advantages of the UNIQUE plant:
• Higher hot gas cleaning;
• System more compact;
• Reducing both the investment costs and the
operative costs
Syngas composition
Specie
%Vol.
32
H 2
CO
17
CH 4
6.2
0.9
N 2
CO 2
20.9
H O
32
2
Specie %Vol. 32 H 2 CO 17 CH 4 6.2 0.9 N 2 CO 2 20.9

Product Stream

Syngas

385Nmc/h

Specie %Vol. 32 H 2 CO 17 CH 4 6.2 0.9 N 2 CO 2 20.9

Current activity lines: Production of bio-SNG from syngas

Cold gas cleaning section H 2 O H 2 SO 4 WGS reactor H 2
Cold gas cleaning section
H 2 O
H 2 SO 4
WGS reactor
H 2 S
adsorption
w t
i h
act vate
i
d
carbon
Fluidized Bed of 1MWth
BioDiesel
scrubber
Water
scrubber
for NH 3
removal
Impurities
30bar
Patent
compression
Syngas
T
A
R &
RM2008U000022
biodiesel
NH 3 purge
H 2 O Heat recovery
MP line
CH 4 > 95%volume
Methanation
Selexol
Methanation
reactor III
WGS reactor
Methanation
reactor II
Selexol process
process
reactor I
for
the
CO 2
CH 4 & CO 2
capture
Water
se aration
p
Selexol & CO 2
Water
Section of Methanation
with thermal recovery
Selexol recovery
Chemical Yield about of 60-75%
INTERMEDIA STAGES FOR PRODUCTION OF THE SYNTETIC NATURAL GAS
• Cold gas tars cleaning;
• Water scrubber for ammonia absorbing;
S YNGAS COMPOSITION
• Neutralization of acidic substances by use of low cost sorbents;
Specie
%Vol.
32
H 2
• CO-shift reactor for increase the H 2 /CO ratio necessary for the methanation stages:
CO
17
CO+3H 2 =CH 4 +H 2 O
ΔH° Reaz = -206,28 kJ/mol
CH
6 2
.
4
• Compression stage for improve the thermodynamic conditions and for obtain a bio-SNG
0.9
N 2
to high pressure suitable for the grid injection;
CO 2
20.9
32
H 2 O

Selexol process for CO 2 split-up from the syngas

An example of Synthetic Natural Gas production from lignocellulosic biomass

The ENERPARK Project

GALLIPOLI COGNATO PARK Natural Park near Matera The project was funded by Basilicata Region with
GALLIPOLI
COGNATO PARK
Natural Park near Matera
The project was funded by Basilicata Region
with the EU Structural Funds PO FERS 2007-
2013 through which the EU aims to streng then
economic and social cohesion of its territory by
correcting imbalances between the regions.
The project provides the construction of a
gasification plant coupling with a methanation
plant for increase the biomethane content in
the syngas.
The biomass used for the process derive from
the routine maintenance of the Gallipoli
Cognato's foresty
Started: Dicember 2011
Term: 2 Years
Funded: 500k€
ENERGET INPUT max 800tonn/year
pPRUNINGS
PLANTS OLD AND DISEASED
A second step of the project provides the use of
biomethane for the service cars for the workers in
the park
ENERGETIC OUTPUT
the service cars for the workers in the park ENERGETIC OUTPUT BIOMETHANE for the AUTOMOTIVE sector

BIOMETHANE for the AUTOMOTIVE sector

Min 300.000km/anno

Current activity lines: Supercritical water gasification SCWG

Advantages of the SCWG process: • The presence of water in supercritical form promotes the
Advantages of the SCWG process:
• The presence of water in supercritical form promotes the
reactions of hydrolysis, facilitating the ability to attack
polymeric structures such as reducing the lignin to more easily
processable oligomers;
• The SCW is a reagent, in fact up to 50% of the hydrogen
product comes from the water;
• Never pretreatment processes for biomass, indeed its presence
facilitates the process;
Adiabatic catalyst stages reactor
for liquid biofuels production
fuelled by CO 2 /H 2
• It
promotes
the
reactions
of
the
water
gas
shift
further
enriching hydrogen in the syngas product;
• Produces a syngas TARS free;
• It can be use also for sewage sludge.
End-uses of the syngas produced by the process SCW
• Easily
removal
of
CO 2
into
syngas
being
already
pressurized;
• Highest hydrogen content in the syngas;
Heat & Power
• Cleaning of the syngas more efficiently and with lower
processing costs
• Using the syngas such (H 2 /CO 2 ) in catalytic processes for
the production of liquid biofuels;

Economical process also for sewage sludge

Other project working in ENEA

BRISK is funded by the BRISK - Biofuels Research European Commission Seventh Infrastructure for Sharing
BRISK
is
funded
by
the
BRISK - Biofuels Research
European
Commission
Seventh
Infrastructure
for Sharing
Framework
Programme
Knowledge
(Capacities)
The initiative runs from 1 st October 2011 to September 2015. 8.98M€ funded
BRISK aims to develop a European Research Infrastructure for Thermochemical Biomass Conversion, supporting R&D on
innovative processes to convert sustainable feedstocks (agricultural/forestry wastes and energy crops) into liquid, gaseous or
solid fuels. The specific aim of BRISK is to overcome fragmentation in R&D facilities for thermochemical technologies, by
enabling researchers to have access to high-level experimental facilities and services across Europe. The BRISK network will
encourage and facilitate cooperative research in the specialised laboratories of project partners. The facilities are also open to
researchers outside the project
Industry 2015: HY-Tractor project HY-Tractor project is funded by the
Ministry of Economic Development
Tractor-powered with a Fuel Cell
fuelled to syngas
4.51M€ funded
The initiative runs from 1 st October 2010 to September 2014.
The project involves the construction of an innovative and ecological sub-surface seeder provided with electrical rather than
pneumatic or hydraulic actuators. Electric actuators guarantee for higher level of control, which enable the development of
advanced planting techniques, i.e. techniques including the use of GPS.
“The“The bestbest wayway toto predictpredict thethe futurefuture isis toto buildbuild it”it” (Peter(Peter
“The“The bestbest wayway toto predictpredict thethe futurefuture isis toto buildbuild it”it” (Peter(Peter
“The“The bestbest wayway toto predictpredict thethe futurefuture isis toto buildbuild it”it”
(Peter(Peter Drucker)Drucker)
Thanks for your attention

Antonio Molino ENEA antonio.molino@enea.it +39 0835974736

Main experimental results: Effect of SBR and temperature

Feed: Almond Shell N° 1 N° 2 N° 3 N° 4 Biomass [kg/h] SBR(steam biomass
Feed: Almond Shell
N° 1
N° 2
N° 3
N° 4
Biomass [kg/h]
SBR(steam biomass ratio)
Temperature [° C]
57
57
87
92
1.7
1.4
1
0.9
JOULE
Gasificator
795
816
839
835
CO [% vol.]
CO 2
19.0
20.6
23.6
25.1
Storage
Cryogenic tanks
20.6
20.8
21.6
19.3
Control room
26.0
33.4
32.7
33.1
H 2
CH
9 2
.
9 1
.
9 6
.
10 4
.
4
MCFC
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.2
C 2 H 6
C 3 H 8
N 2
2.2
2.1
2.4
2.3
22.8
13.9
9.9
9.6
PCI [MJ/Nm 3 ]
Syngas[kg/h](dry basis)
Efficiency
10.62
11.44
12.21
12.71
GC-MS Analysis: Tar High Temperature
74
55
122
119
Naftalene
45
39
70
72
Experimental tests
N° 1
N° 2
N° 3
N° 4
Acenaftilene
Biomass[kg/h]
57
57
87
92
Indene
Process Temperature [° C]
795
816
839
835
Fluorantene
Fenantrene
SBR
1.7
1.4
1
0.9
Antracene
Fluorene
T
ar exper men a g
i
t
l(
/N
m
3 )
10 6
.
11 4
.
12 7
.
12 2
.
Pirene
PCI [MJ/Nm 3 ]
10.62 11.44
12.21 12.71
Syngas[kg/h](dry basis)
74 55
122 119