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Shamlu Dudeja

Contents

Table of contents ........................................................................................... iii Topic / unit objectives / skills learnt .......................................................... iv Using the guide ........................................................................................... xiv A. Introduction ......................................................................................1 B. Teaching Guide for Maths Wise 3, 4, and 5 ..................................2 1. Skills acquired by children .......................................................3 2. Maths laboratory ........................................................................5 C. Maths Wise Books 3, 4, and 5 .........................................................7 1. Numbers......................................................................................7 2. Number operations ................................................................. 10 3. Factors and multiples ............................................................. 14 4. Fractions .................................................................................. 16 5. Decimal fractions.................................................................... 20 6. Money....................................................................................... 23 7. Percentage ................................................................................ 24 8. Measurements ......................................................................... 28 a. Time................................................................................... 28 b. Length ............................................................................... 32 c. Weight ............................................................................... 32 d. Capacity ............................................................................ 33 e. Temperature...................................................................... 34 9. Graphs ...................................................................................... 34 10. Area and perimeter ................................................................ 37 11. Geometrical concepts ............................................................. 42 D. A suggested lesson plan ................................................................ 48 E. Answers to Book 3 ........................................................................ 50 F. Answers to Book 4 ........................................................................ 80 G. Answers to Book 5 ...................................................................... 107

Topics / Objectives / Skills learnt Book 3 Unit 1 Assess and review Unit Objectives: To reinforce lessons learnt in Maths Wise Book 2. Skills learnt: Reinforcement of some of the concepts taught in the preceding year Unit 2 Numbers Unit Objectives: To recognize, read, and write Roman numbers p10; to identify even/odd numbers within a given sequence p16; to work with place values up to 6-digits and numbers up to 100,000 p17; to work with place values and expanded form p21; to compare numbers and put them in a sequence p28 Skills learnt: To identify commonly used Roman numerals; to recognize even/odd numbers up to 99 in a given sequence; to understand place-value concept with 6-digit numbers; to use >, <, = symbols; to understand number orders and sequencing Unit 3 Number operations Unit Objectives: To learn horizontal and vertical addition p32; to learn addition without and with carrying over p32; to learn subtraction without p40 and with borrowing p42; to develop multiplication tables from 2 to 5 and the 10s table p46; to learn tables from 6 to 9 p50; to learn to multiply 2-digit numbers with 1-digit numbers p55; to learn long division p59 and short division p62; to solve word problems related to the four operations p63 Skills learnt: To work with the four number operations; to work out larger sums; to use multiplication tables up to 10; to carry out vertical and horizontal additions; to do mental sums; to solve word problems related to real-life 31 9 Book Pages 1

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Unit 4 Fractions Unit Objectives: To learn common fractions and match them with related figures p67; to solve equivalent fractions p71; to work with proper and improper fractions p75; to compare dierent fractions p75; to add and subtract fractions that have the same denominator p77 Skills learnt: To work with dierent types of fractions and relate them to everyday objects and situations; to compare dierent fractions and learn to add and subtract fractions Unit 5 Measurements Unit Objectives: To learn concepts of measurements and their units: length p82; addition/subtraction of length p87; weight p91; addition/subtraction of weight p95; capacity p98; addition/subtraction of capacity p99 Skills learnt: To use units of measurement for length, weight, and capacity; to solve real-life problems related to measurements Unit 6 Time Unit Objectives: To learn a.m. and p.m., and midnight to midday to midnight sequence p102; to read and write time from analogue and digital clocks p103; to add and subtract hours p106; to recall calendar months p109; to read and write dates from a calendar p110 Skills learnt: To dierentiate between a.m. and p.m. times; to calculate time, before or after a given hour, using simple sums and word problems; to be able to remember the calendar sequence; to read dates from a calendar and write dates correctly Unit 7 Geometry Unit Objectives: To learn concepts of points, line segments, and rays p114; to draw triangles and quadrilaterals p115; to draw a circle and to recognize its components p118;

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to learn the concept of perimeter and to solve problems related to it p121 Skills learnt: To dierentiate between a line and line segments; to recognize the qualities of a point; to draw triangles and quadrilaterals; to recognize circles in nature; to work with the components of a circle; to learn the methods of drawing a circle; to measure perimeter; to work with related word problems Unit 8 Graphs Unit Objectives: To learn to make pictographs Skills learnt: To use symbols; to arrange and interpret data Unit 9 Assess and Review 2 Unit Objectives: To help children assess and review the lessons learnt in this book Skills learnt: To reinforce concepts by doing review exercises Book 4 Unit 1 Assess and Review 1 Unit Objectives: To reinforce lessons learnt in Maths Wise Book 3 Skills learnt: Reinforcement of some of the concepts learnt in the preceding year Unit 2 Numbers and Arithmetic Operations Unit Objectives: To revise 6-digit numbers and learn the Pakistani place value of numbers p8; to learn place value up to 9-digits p9; to compare and order big numbers p11; to learn addition of big numbers p12; to learn properties of addition p13; to learn subtraction of big numbers p15; to learn to multiply big numbers and properties of multiplication p17; to learn to divide p19; to learn properties of division p20 vi 7 Book Pages 1 129 125

Skills learnt: Students will be able to dierentiate between the International and the Pakistani place-value chart when writing bigger numbers; they will learn about millions and up to 9-digit numbers; they will learn to add, subtract, multiply, and divide big numbers and the properties of these number operations Unit 3 Factors and Multiples Unit Objectives: To learn divisibility tests and how they apply to numbers p24; to tell the dierence between prime and composite numbers p26; to learn factors p28 and multiples p29; to learn prime factorization by the Listing Method p31 and by the Tree Method and short division p32; to learn to calculate HCF by the Venn diagram and by prime factorization p33; to learn to calculate LCM by common multiples, prime factorization, and short division p37 Skills learnt: Learning divisibility rules helps when dividing by certain numbers; an understanding of prime numbers and composite numbers; important mathematical concepts of factors and multiples with a clear understanding of the methods to calculate these. Exercises that include both numerical and word problems will consolidate understanding Unit 4 Fractions Unit Objectives: To learn types of fractions: unit, mixed, proper, and improper fractions p44, equivalent fractions p46, comparing like and unlike fractions p49; to add p52 and subtract fractions p56 and some rules associated with them; to learn multiplication of fractions p59 and division of fractions p62 Skills learnt: In Maths Wise Book 3, the students were introduced to the types of fractions; in this book, they learn some more types. They should be able to perform number operations involving fractions 41 23

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Unit 5 Decimal Fractions Unit Objectives: To learn that decimal fractions are another way of writing fractions p66; to learn to add and subtract decimal fractions p73; to learn to multiply decimal fractions p75; to learn to divide decimal fractions p77 Skills learnt: The students should be able to work with decimal fractions using all the number operations Unit 6 Measurements: Length, Weight, and Capacity Unit Objectives: To learn conversion of units of length p80, units of weight p83, and units of capacity p85 Skills learnt: Students will learn to convert units of measurement using real-life examples Unit 7 Time Unit Objectives: To learn conversion of units of time p88; to learn addition and subtraction of hours p91 Skills learnt: By the end of this unit, students will be able to convert various units of time including days to hours, hours to seconds, months to years and vice versa. They will know how to add and subtract time Unit 8 Geometry Unit Objectives: To introduce the components of the geometry box and their uses p96; to learn to measure lines p98; to draw and measure lines in cms and mms p100; to measure a curved line p101; to dierentiate between horizontal and vertical lines p102; to draw a vertical line on a horizontal line using a ruler p103; to dierentiate between parallel and non-parallel lines, and intersecting lines p104; to learn to draw parallel lines using a set square and ruler p106; to draw angles using an angle ipper, learn angle components: arms, vertex, types of angles p110; to learn to use a protractor to measure angles p113; to use the protractor to draw angles p117; to recognize a circle and its components p121; to viii

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draw a circle using a compass and ruler p123; to measure the circumference p125; to learn some terms related to quadrilaterals and types of quadrilaterals p126; to construct squares and rectangles using a set square and ruler p128 Skills learnt: Students should be skilled in using the geometry box to draw geometrical shapesangles, circles, squares, and rectangles. They should be able to identify the components of these geometrical shapes Unit 9 Information Handling Unit Objectives: To learn the parts of a graph: label, X- and Y-axis, scale, and title p132; to be able to draw bar graphs p134 and line graphs p135, pictographs p136; to learn what a pie chart is p136; to understand the information given and derive data from it to make graphs using symbols Skills learnt: Students will be able to use symbols and arrange and interpret data to make pictographs Unit 10 Assess and Review 2 Unit Objectives: assess and review lessons learnt in the book p140 Skills learnt: Students recall what they have learnt; concepts are reinforced by doing review exercises Book 5 Unit 1 Assess and Review 1 Unit Objectives: To reinforce lessons learnt in Maths Wise Book 4 Skills learnt: Reinforcement of some of the concepts learnt in the preceding year Book Pages 1 139 131

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Unit 2 Numbers and Arithmetic Operations Unit Objectives: To revise large numbers, and the Pakistani place value of numbers p12; to learn place value up to 10-digits and introduce billion p13; comparing and ordering numbers up to 10-digits p15; to learn addition and subtraction of big numbers p16; to learn to multiply with 3-digit numbers p21; to learn to divide by 2- and 3-digit numbers p22 and by 10, 100, and 1000 p23; to learn to do BODMAS operations p25 Skills learnt: Students will be able to dierentiate between the International Place value Chart and the Pakistani system of writing bigger numbers; they will learn about billions and up to 10-digit numbers; they will learn to add, subtract, multiply, and divide big numbers and the properties of these number operations; they will learn to perform BODMAS operations Unit 3 HCF and LCM Unit Objectives: Remembering factors and multiples p28; to review prime and composite numbers HCF and LCM p29, and some divisibility tests p31; to learn to calculate HCF by prime factorization p34, by long-division p35; nding LCM of 4 numbers p36; to learn what square numbers are p38 Skills learnt: Students will recall some concepts learnt in the previous year and also learn some more rules of divisibility; they will learn about square numbers Unit 4 Fractions Unit Objectives: To recall various types of fractions p44; to learn to add and subtract unlike fractions p45; to learn to multiply fractions and whole numbers p50; to learn to multiply fractions with fractions p51; to learn to divide fractions by a whole number p55; to learn to divide a whole number by a fraction p56; to learn to divide a fraction by a fraction p56; to apply BODMAS on fractions problems p59; to learn properties related to fractions p60 x

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Skills learnt: By the end of this unit, students will have learnt to perform arithmetic operations involving fractions. They will also learn to solve word problems related to fractions Unit 5 Decimal Fractions and Percentages Unit Objectives: To learn about like and unlike decimal fractions p63; to learn to add decimal fractions p64, and subtract decimal fractions p65; to learn to multiply decimal fractions p67, and to divide decimal fractions p69; to learn to apply BODMAS on decimal fractions p72; to learn to convert decimal fractions to fractions p73, and fractions into decimal fractions p73; to learn to round o decimal fractions p74; to learn that percentage is a special kind of fraction p77; to learn to convert fractions and decimal fractions into percentage p80; to solve related word problems p81 Skills learnt: By the end of this unit, students will be able to perform arithmetic operations on decimal fractions and percentages. They will also be able to perform conversions related to these Unit 6 Measurements: Distance, Time, and Temperature Unit Objectives: To learn conversion of units of length p84; to learn to use smaller or bigger units p85; to learn to do addition and subtraction by converting unlike units into like units p86; to learn conversion related to time p91; to learn to add time p92 and to subtract time p93; to introduce the topic of temperature p98; to learn about the Celsius scale p99; to learn about the Fahrenheit scale and conversion between the two scales p101 Skills learnt: By the end of this unit, students will be able to convert units of measurements and be able to solve real-life problems related to these 83 61

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Unit 7 Unitary Method; Ratio and Proportion Unit Objectives: To learn the unitary method p104; to learn about ratio p105, and direct and inverse proportion p106 Skills learnt: By the end of this unit, students will know the concepts of ratio and proportion and be able to solve problems related to these topics Unit 8 Geometry Unit Objectives: To learn to use a protractor to construct a right angle p111, a straight angle, and a reex angle p112; to learn about angle pairsadjacent, complementary p113, and supplementary angles p114; to learn the definition of a triangle p116; to classify triangles according to their sides p116, and according to the measure of their angles p117; to learn to construct triangles p120; to learn that the measure of the angles of a quadrilateral add up to 360 p123; to learn about dierent kinds of quadrilaterals p124, and to construct squares and rectangles using a protractor or a set square and a ruler p125 Skills learnt: Students will be able to dierentiate between complementary and supplementary angles. They will know about adjacent angles and they will learn to construct triangles and quadrilaterals Unit 9 Perimeter and area Unit Objectives: To learn about perimeters and to solve related problems p128; to use a formula to calculate the perimeter of a rectangle and a square p130; to learn about area p132; to use a formula to calculate area p134; to learn the use of calculating area in real-life situations p136; to learn about perimeter and area of irregular shapes p138 Skills learnt: By the end of this unit, students will know the concepts of perimeter and area and will be able to solve related problems xii

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Unit 10 Information Handling Unit Objectives: To learn about averages p142; to learn about bar / column graphs p148; to learn to construct pie charts p154 Skills learnt: By the end of this unit, students will know about the concept of average and how to calculate it. Students will be able to read and interpret data presented in bar graphs and pie charts Unit 11 Assess and review 2 Unit Objectives: Assess and review lessons learnt in the book p156 Skills learnt: Students recall what they have learnt; concepts are reinforced by doing review exercises

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Using the Guide This Teaching Guide combines suggestions for lessons from Maths Wise Books 3, 4, and 5 for primary classes. Teachers from dierent schools can easily adapt the suggestions given in the Guide to their existing teaching methods. Teaching at this level changes according to the requirements of individual schools and the kinds of students in each class. Be prepared with a lesson plan each day, but keep teaching open-ended is the best motto. Objectives for each topic and skills learnt are given at the beginning of each book in the Table of Contents. These are also reproduced in this Guide to help teachers plan lessons. They can also assess the level of skills each child has acquired after each topic is completed. In the Guide, each topic is explained in detail. Additional work, in the form of activities using the objects listed in the Maths laboratory, is also suggested. The answer key for each book is given at the end. A sample lesson plan is suggested which can form a base for similar lesson plans on other topics. Shamlu Dudeja

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A. Introduction Mathematics has always been the best food for the enquiring mind, of a growing child. In todays world of changing lifestyles, where IT, electronic gadgetry, and nding logical solutions to problems in daily life have become the needs of the day, employers are increasingly looking for thinking minds. It has become imperative that mathematics plays a signicant role in education, right from the very beginning. Teachers of pre-primary levels and classes 1 and 2 have already laid a foundation for open and active minds in children. Maths Wise 3, 4, and 5 continue to use similar informal teaching methods, in order to imbue in children, keener mathematical skills. The transition from a child to a pupil becomes easy and smooth. It is recommended that pupils (up to class 5) are not put through rigid examinations. The teacher should be able to assess the progress of pupils with the help of a regular, weekly record of their work. IMPORTANT The ideal pupil-to-teacher ratio is around 8 children to 1 teacher. This is rarely possible. In a situation where a teacher may have a large class, there are 2 strategies, which may help: 1. Willing mothers may be invited to help during classes, as Buddy Teachers (instead of assistant teachers). Many mothers will be willing to help, as they enjoy this activity. Some may wish to remain with the class, even after their children have moved on. It will require a weeks orientation before a mother is able to come in as a Buddy teacher. 2. Divide students into small groups so that they can work cooperatively; they will not require constant teacher attention. The class starts with a review of previous days lesson using a fun activity. It could be a short quiz or a round of mental maths. It is useful to revise tables every day. A game involving the use of hands to nd answers makes tables interesting! Teachers of Maths Wise Introductory Books 1, 2, and 3 may also nd this useful.

B. Teaching Guide for Maths Wise 3, 4, and 5 Maths Wise 3, 4, and 5 are for 8, 9, and 10 year old children, and have been written fully in line with the requirements of the National Mathematics Curriculum, and childrens levels of understanding and capability. As they grow older, children must be encouraged to think independently, explore their surroundings more boldly, and ask questions. Maths Wise 3, 4, and 5 provide children to use opportunities to explore, relate numbers to daily life situations and letters of the alphabet, use arithmetic operations (+, , and ), look for patterns in numbers and number formations, and other objects in their environment, and nd answers for themselves whenever possible. New vocabulary, new topics, and new concepts are introduced by means of pre-topic discussions (or story-telling) and practical activities. At every step, concepts are developed using examples that smoothly ow into a series of relevant exercises. Hands-on work, in addition to exercises in the books, further consolidates these concepts and encourages independent thinking. The books provide a range of activities including puzzles, crosswords, coded message, brainteasers, and fun pages to guarantee the retention of interest and involvement of every child. There is sucient drill for the students and challenging sums at the end of each topic and sub topic to extend the students. Samples of maze paths and blank cross number grids are given, which a child may use to create a puzzle for class fellows to solve. One of the greater needs for a teacher, as children grow older, is to recognize diering abilities, and to address them separately in each class. The minds of some children need to be stretched and, their capabilities exercised to the full, often independently of the teacher. The less mathematically able children need greater direction and support to ensure that they do not feel left out. The activities and problems in these books are of varied levels of diculty, to meet these requirements. The Teaching Guide for Maths Wise books 3, 4, and 5 contains lot of suggestions for activities which lead to lateral thinking within the connes of a school syllabus. The activities and challenges are exciting for children who have learnt to enjoy maths. It is still not too late to develop in most children a liking for the subject by encouraging them to think just a little 2

outside the textbooks. This can be great fun both for the teacher and pupils. 1. SKILLS ACQUIRED BY CHILDREN The activities undertaken in Classes 1 and 2 will help children to achieve higher levels of comprehension and higher standards of work in Classes 3, 4, and 5. 1. Concentration becomes automatic when children participate in practical work using objects from daily life. This helps them to relate their school work to the world around them. 2. Memory is honed and new concepts are stored into quick-recall memory, through work such as tables and sequences. Mnemonics have been suggested to help memorize sequences of objects/activities. For example: BODMAS and work with 5 or 6digit numbers which draw on recall of work done with 2 and 3digit numbers. 3. Recognition increases as children are exposed to more ideas, such as number patterns, fractions, factors, and shapes (including animals and cartoons). Later, there are situations where they need to recall these. 4. Association occurs when children apply knowledge gained in earlier years to newer concepts. Memory and recognition are used to associate one object with another through a common characteristic. For example: a hexagon has 6 sides, a beehive has hexagonal cells. 5. The study of mathematics depends upon logic and it comes from concentration, memory, recognition, and association. a. Bees use hexagonal cells and not circular ones to make a hive, because in hexagonal tessellate, there is no wastage of space. b. Use of comparative language such as long, longer, longest, comes from logic. As Mathematics gets more formal, it is mandatory that the interest of the children is kept alive by continuing with outdoor / indoor activities, colourful charts, making up a story to introduce a new topic and practical demonstrations, whenever possible. If the interest is kept alive, success will follow. Not only does learning become fun for children, the teachers will enjoy their teaching as well. Three painful Ps which should not exist in a teachers vocabulary are: 1. Partiality to one child kills initiative in 10. So, please no partiality to any child. 3

2. Pointing out mistakes in front of others is a denite no. It is best to look out for the best traits using positive language. Coming up from Class 2, children are still very sensitive as they settle in to a more formal style of schooling. 3. Punishment is ruled out. There are no children who are beyond gentle cajoling, a smile or a hug of a teacher. Punishment, like a slap on the hand, only makes matters worse, and children tend to become stubborn. Milder punishment like standing outside the classroom may become necessary for the unruly student and can be very eective. The positive Ps which must exist in a teachers vocabulary are: 1. Praise is positive: employ a yes attitude as often as possible. Praising good work and good behaviour will encourage other children to follow suit. 2. Patience: there is no virtue like patience, especially in a teacher. This means not losing ones temper. 3. Parent-like attitude is very warming. Teachers should know when to respond to attention-seeking behaviour and when to ignore it; the bottom line is the underlying sense of security a child feels. The height of tables and chairs must be correct for the students. Emphasis needs to be laid on correct posture, when children write. If attention is not paid to this now, it can lead to a bad posture permanently and back problems. A little exercise to relax those load-carrying shoulders helps muscles relax, and motor control improves. With straight backs, hands on hips, forward and backward bending is helpful. Then, the same posture, children put both hands straight ahead and start writing numbers 0 to 9 with their hands in air, rst both hands going in the same direction and then the two hands going in opposite directions, one clockwise and the other anticlockwise. (Here is an excellent opportunity to introduce these new words into their vocabulary. Does the tap open in a clockwise or an anticlockwise direction? The screwdriver and the lock on the door are further examples.

2. MATHS LAB A maths lab for classes 3 to 5 must contain some of the items included in the earlier classes. Some extra items are suggested here: some soft-drink bottle caps, strings of 10 bottle caps strung together and a group of 10 strings knotted together to represent one hundred. Sets of such strings can be used for explaining numbers, addition, and subtraction. strings for measuring lengths of objects or a childs height weighing scales of 4 dierent types: a spring scale, an ordinary balance, a regular scale with a vertical circular dial, and a ground level weighing scale on which children can weigh themselves. Children can be taken on a eld trip to the station to observe weighing scales on which cars and other heavy objects are weighed. tape measures and rulers of dierent sizes a trundle wheel shells, small stones, beads in groups of 10s, 100s and 1000s, 10000s wrapped securely in cloth bags Several sets of 4 almost identical objects, one with a very slight dierence, to improve observation activities colourful pictures or charts of shops displaying fruit and vegetables, toys, and a rack of clothes, all with price tags sudoku puzzles of diering levels fabrics or strong paper, to make dierent objects solid shapes in the form of wooden blocks, balls (spheres), eggshapes, dice shapes (cubes), box shapes (cuboids), cans (cylinders) and cones cubes, cuboids, cylinders, and cones made from thick card, which can be opened out and laid at at shapes cut out from thick card or wood, such as circles, squares, and triangles, so the students can feel the at surface and count the corners and the edges. It will be useful to have at shapes which are equal to the sides of the solids, so that children can explore the relationship between solids and their faces. rolls of cords and ribbon plastic or steel tins, jars, bowls of dierent sizes for comparing capacity. Bowls made of halves of dried coconut shells or bamboo segments split in halves may be used. pencils and crayons of dierent colours and lengths 5

charts corresponding to dierent concepts studied solids made from play dough which have 2 (or more) lines of symmetry, so that they can be cut into halves along 2 axes squares of reecting plastic surfaces (avoid keeping glass mirrors) 3-piece jigsaw cards with a number and corresponding multiplication 24 and division sums; e.g. 8, 3 and 4 2, domino and ashcards a giant number square 1 to 100 on the wall and several sheets with blank squares for children to work on a horizontal wooden rod with several pegs, wooden numbers hang from these number tabs, up to 4, 5, 6, and 7 digit gures analogue and digital clocks abacus and calculators 12 pages to make up a calendar; sunshine, rain and cold weather to be depicted by symbols on each day. Reinforces counting, association between weather and appropriate symbols, clothes which people wear and food that people eat during these seasons plastic baskets or trays to keep assorted objects a fraction wall, with fractions such as 1/2s, 1/3s, 1/4s, and 1/5s plastic cakes / pizzas / fruits / jars of water to demonstrate fraction and percentage gem clips, rubber bands a stopwatch a set of geometrical instruments waste bins marked PLASTICS, GLASS, and PAPER attractive charts and other child-friendly displays on walls for use as learning aids a soft board covered with chamois leather on which children can stick numbers or pictures to make learning enjoyable, a patch of garden in the school yard, with dierent shrubs and pets such as rabbits, white mice, and tortoises, a sh aquarium and an aviary, would be useful. These also help create awareness of the environment.

Each Maths Wise book begins with a detailed review of the previous years work. It is important to check that each child has mastered concepts learnt in the previous year and is handling these independently, with condence. An interesting way to do it may be to conduct a quiz following the pattern 6

C. Maths Wise 3, 4, and 5 1. NUMBERS Step-by-step, numbers up to hundreds of thousands are introduced. The concept has been introduced based on the students prior knowledge. The comparison of place values has been done pictorially to aid the visual learning. It must be emphasized here that if a student is working well with 3-digit numbers, going further to 5-, 6-, or 7-digit numbers would be easy. The language used, the methodology, and the techniques are the same for carry over and grouping or borrowing. The concept of 4-, 5-, and 6-digit numbers is best explained by using the terms house of thousands and house of tens, with a comma between the houses. Less than (<), greater than (>) A crocodiles mouth drawn on the board, always ready to grab the bigger number, can be used. Similarly, the left hand with the thumb held horizontally and the forenger held straight up, makes an angle to show less than. Similarly, the right hand can be used to show greater than. Students are introduced to Pakistani and international numbering systems. Activity Team games are an excellent way to present problems involving large numbers in expanded form, ascending/descending orders, identify before and after a given number and skip counting. One half of the class collects statistics with large numbers, such as populations of various countries, heights of mountains, and distances of stars from the Earth. For example, they nd that the population of a country is 4,56,890 (456,890) and write the number on the board. The other half reads the numbers aloud: Four lakh fty-six thousand, eight hundred and ninety, or Four hundred and fty-six thousand, eight hundred and ninety.

Another topic on everyones lips is global warming. Statistics say 2 trillion tonnes of ice melted into the seas between 2003 and 2008. These are international issues and the numeration is international. This is a good chance to talk about conservation, to reduce the greenhouse eect in 10 years time; to slow down the global warming and its hazardous eects on the lives of the students, who will be adults in 10 years. Activity The board has a list of the numerical value of the letters of the alphabet. A B C D E F G H I =1 =2 =3 =4 =5 =6 =7 =8 =9 J = 10 (1) K = 11 (2) L = 12 (3) M = 13 (4) N = 14 (5) O = 15 (6) P = 16 (7) Q = 17 (8) R = 18 (9) S = 19 (1) T = 20 (2) U = 21 (3) V = 22 (4) W = 23 (5) X = 24 (6) Y = 25 (7) Z = 26 (8)

Words formed have dierent values, according to the position of the numbers. For example, CAB = 312 or three hundred and twelve. Write the following words: 1. 1-letter words with the highest and the lowest number values. (I is 9, A is1) 2. 2-letter words with the highest and the lowest number values (IF 96, AS 11) and values in between (AT = 12, SO = 16, BE = 25, PI = 79 and so on) It is quite a challenge to work with 4, 5, and 6digit numbers. Teachers need to identify some words before putting this activity to the class. SOME NUMBER PUZZLES Puzzle 1 Which 1-digit number, when multiplied by itself, gives a number which is the reverse of the number, doubled. 8

Answer 9 9 9 = 81; 9 + 9 = 18 Puzzle 2 a. b. c. d. If 9358 stands for SINK, what does 358 stand for? If 456789 stands for SAMPLE, what does 56789 stand for? If 4321 stands for LAMP, what does 1342 stand for? If 7531 stands for GOLF, what does 1357 stand for?

2. NUMBER OPERATIONS The four operations +, , , and have been handled up to 3-digit numbers. Working with larger numbers will not be dicult as long as students have understood their work with 3-digit numbers. Discuss the phrases sum of 2 or more numbers for addition, dierence between 2 numbers, subtract the smaller number from the bigger one for subtraction, product of 2 or more numbers for multiplication and quotient and divide the bigger number by the smaller one for division. Once again, it is emphasized that addition and multiplication are associative but subtraction and division are not. 45 396 = 396 45 34 + 598 + 213 = 598 + 213 + 34 109 98 is not the same as 98 109 98 7 is not the same as 7 98 This requires a lot of practice. Additional worksheets must be prepared to supplement the exercises given in the book. Once again, emphasis must be laid on setting out the sums in neat straight columns. Maths exercise copies with squares may be used for this purpose. Some children have diculty in setting out the sums involving large numbers. They may set out digits in the wrong columns if not guided. Plenty of addition / subtraction sums are horizontally set out on the board. The students are required to set them out vertically in their exercise copies and nd the answers. The teacher must ensure that the digits are placed in the correct columns.

Example 3897 26 Students may write this as: This is incorrect. 10 3897 26

In the initial stages, it is worthwhile writing out problems like the one given below: Find the dierence between: Th H T U 3 8 9 7 T U 2 6

Th H T U 3 8 9 7 2 6 This is the correct way to write the sum. 3 8 7 1 Remember that children often forget to carry the 1 from Units to Tens or Tens to Hundreds columns.

Example Th H T U

1 1 1

3 12 14 1

4 3 5 6 2 7 8 9 1 5 6 7 Here, 9 cannot be taken away from 6, so 5 (Tens) is regrouped into 10 Units and 4 Tens (or 1 is borrowed from the 5 in the Tens column). This gives 16 Units, and 4 Tens. (16 9 = 7). Similar regrouping is done in the other columns, and subtraction is carried out easily. This can be displayed, practically, in bundles of 10 in every column and one group of 10 is opened when necessary as shown in the textbook. 11

When a number is multiplied by 10, 100 or 1000, the same digits appear in the product but the place value of each number changes. The number has shifted, so to speak, 1 place to the left, when multiplied by 10 (1 zero) or 2 places to the left for 100 (2 zeroes). Example Th H T U TThTh H T U 4 5 7 10= 4 5 7 0 4 5 7 100= 4 5 7 0 0 When multiplied by 10: 7 in U, shifts 1 place to the left to T. 5 in T, shifts 1 place to the left to H. 4 in H, shifts 1 place to the left to Th. The entire number, 457 when multiplied by 10, shifts 1 place left (10 has 1 zero), and 2 places to the left when multiplied by 100 (100 has 2 zeroes). This simple but important rule will help students master the tricks of mental multiplication by 10, 100, and 1000. Multiplicands of 2-digits are introduced as a 2-part multiplication, noting down the products at both stages, as shown in the book, in 2 dierent lines (with correct shift to the left). The sum of the 2 products gives the nal product. Activity Students work in groups of 8. Students have circular cardboard discs of about 4 cm diameter. Alternatively, children can draw circles in their exercise copies. Each circle is divided into parts, like a clock, but with only 9 parts, with numbers written from 1 to 9 around the circumference. Students write down tables from 2s to 15s as follows: 13=3 23=6 33=9 4 3 = 12 (1 +2 = 3) 12 18=8 2 8 = 16 (7) 3 8 = 24 (6) 4 8 = 32 (5)

Students join the numbers on separate discs, in the order of the numbers: for the 3s tables: 3, 6, 9, 3, 6, 9, and for the 8s tables: 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 13, Each group of 8 has 16 separate discs with the patterns formed by dierent tables. It is interesting to look at tables for 1 and 10; 2, 7, and 11; 9 and 18; 3, 6, and 15, 4, 5 and 13; and so on. These activities help students to learn tables. For division by 10, 100, and 1000, the concept of shift remains the same. The number shifts to the right, according to the number of zeroes in the divisor. Short-division or long-division, with or without remainder is handled practically, through repeated subtractions. As in multiplication, so also in division, practical work with beads, marbles, and buttons is necessary. Division as repeated subtraction (also with a remainder) becomes clearer with practical examples. Long-division can be easily mastered if the child understands that he must record each stage of the operation carefully in the appropriate column. The process should be started with known multiplication facts without remainders, slowly moving on to more complicated divisions, with remainders. BODMAS is the accepted method to simplify a sequence of numbers with dierent operations. Example I must pay Club bill of Rs 2000 on Monday 2000 I have Rs 500 in my wallet + 500 My 3 friends each give me Rs 1000 at the end of the week (3 1000) + 3000 The money I have after paying my bill is Rs 1500 13

Presenting problems with two operations would be better explained on the board. Pupils point out the part that is to be solved rst. Moving on to 3rd and 4th operations (i.e. simplication). Discuss the order of operations, rst. Brackets are introduced as helpers which simplify the job of solving problems. 3. FACTORS AND MULTIPLES The concepts of factors and multiples start with multiplication tables. The beginning of factors can be shown as intersections of sticks or as a branch (of a tree) bearing new leaves. Activity Students start with prime factors. They go back to the tables; they see that in 3 5 = 15, or 5 3 = 15, 5 and 3 are factors of 15. On the board, number 15 is shown with 3 and 5 as leaves; similarly 35 is written with 7 and 5 shown as leaves. It is important that students use phrases, such as, 1, 2, 3, and 6 are factors of 6 and 6 is a multiple of 1, 2, 3, and 6. Later, with larger numbers, such as 12, the rst step could be 2 branches, showing 6 and 2, and the next step shows 6 dividing into 2 further branches of 3 and 2. Students work with dierent numbers in their exercise copies. IMPORTANT Each number is a multiple of 1 and each number has 1 as a factor. Also, each number is a multiple of the number itself, and the number is a factor of itself. Activity A Venn diagram is introduced to groups of students. The teacher calls out names of children who have sports and art as extra curricular activities. There are bound to be some who take both. Draw two intersecting circles on the oor, to explain how to show students who take part in both activities. Later, a Venn diagram helps students visualize the idea of common multiples. First, the teacher reproduces this exercise on the board and then the students work on Venn diagrams of their own in their exercise copies. 14

Activity Working with sticks, 5 horizontally and 3 vertically, intersecting at 15 points, also shows that factors of 15 are 3 and 5 or for a number like 12, formations of 3 and 4, 2 and 6 are possible. This presents many interesting possibilities.

3 5 = 15

2 6 = 12

3 4 = 12

5=15=51

3=13=31

2=12 =21 15

Once the concept of factors is clear, students will have little trouble in distinguishing prime and composite numbers. Team games will help the class learn the divisibility test. The class can be divided into 4 teams. Each team stands for divisibility of a number, such as 2, 3, 5, 7 or 11. The teacher reads out random numbers; the relevant team, which stands for a factor, responds with the correct answer. 4. FRACTIONS Students have worked with fractions in earlier books. A fraction wall chart is a useful tool to explain the various aspects of fractions, especially to review concepts such as: 1 whole = 1 2 2 2 (2 halves) = 2 1 3 3 3 (3 one-thirds) = 3 1 4 4 4 (4 quarters) = 4 1 5 5 5 (5 one-fths) = 5 Also, that the following fractions are equal. 1 1 1 2 = 2 1 2 2 4 = 4 1 3 3 6 = 6 In addition to the fraction wall, students cut strips of coloured paper into halves, thirds, quarters, and fths. Emphasis is laid on the correct usage of fraction terms such as one-fth instead of one over ve and 99 hundredths instead of 99 over 100. 3 Later, for a fraction such as 2000 , it is acceptable to say 3 upon 2000. Choice of language is also important for introduction of numerator and denominator.

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a. To introduce improper fractions Shehla made strawberry jam and lled it in a jar. The jar was full with some jam remaining. She took another jar and it was half full. How many jars of jam does Shehla have? 1 3 1 1 + 2 = three halves = 2 = 1 2 3 2 is an improper fraction because it is more than a whole. In the same manner, a strip, which is equal to 1 whole and a quarter on the fraction wall, is obviously larger than one whole. This will be written as: 1 5 1 1 + 4 = ve quarters = 4 = 1 4 Activity Students write the following fractions on the board and separate improper fractions from proper fractions also showing if any of these can be converted to mixed fractions. 2 , 5 , 1 , 7 , 9 , 11 , 9 3 4 6 6 10 10 8 b. Number operations (+, , , ) involving fractions Once students are comfortable with the fraction wall, fraction equations like the following are easy to understand. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 + 2 = 1, 1 2 = 2 and 2 of 2 = 4 = 2 2 Many children encounter a problem in multiplication and division while working out simplications of fractions. A great deal of confusion is removed by paying close attention to the language in which these concepts are introduced. When students begin to multiply fractions, it is essential that they understand exactly what is happening. Rules are to be looked at after they have understood the concepts. The fact is that of and translate to the same operation, but they have dierent signicance in BODMAS. Multiplication of fractions is also repeated addition. Students will see that: 17

2 2 2 2 3 2 2 6 7 + 7 + 7 =3 7 = 1 7 =3 1 7= 7 (Multiply numerators and denominators) When a fraction is multiplied by another fraction, a sequence diagram is ideally explained on the board. Each stage can then be explained separately. Example

1 3 3 2 of 4 = 8 1 3 2 of 4 1 3 3 In a diagram, it is easy for a child to see that 2 of 4 = 8 1. 3 1 3 1# 3 8 = 2 4 = 2#4 Multiply the numerators and denominators separately.

2.

1 4 4 2 2 5 = 10 = 5

Here, it is possible to explain the method of reducing the number to its lowest form before multiplication is carried out. 1 4 2 2 5 (can be divided by 1 or 2 without changing the value) 1 4 2 5 (div by 2) 18

1 2 =1 5 2 = 5 (as shown in the diagram) It is essential to reinforce the division concept using very simple steps. 1 1 Look at this 4 1 or 1 4 This is translated into how much a quarter of a whole is or what 1 times a quarter is. The answer is simple, if students go back to the earlier fraction strips and multiplication by 1. How many sixths (1/6ths) make 2 wholes? How many twelfths (1/12ths) make 9 wholes? By the time the students have completed the rst few exercises, it will be clear that they have been using multiplication to solve division problems and that division is the inverse of multiplication. This is the time to introduce the idea of reciprocal fractions. Students will now proceed quickly through the various stages of division of fractions, applying the language of division. Once this is understood, multiplication of mixed numbers and reducing a set of fractions to the lowest terms is easy. Example 1 5 7 5 7 2 8 1 20 36 21 27 = 7 8 20

div by 4 div by 7

36 21 20 = 7 8 27

div by 7 div by 4

19

div by 9

div by 2

9 3 20 = 1 2 27

div by 2 div by 9 div by 3

10 =13 3 = 1 1 10 = 10

div by 3

IMPORTANT It must be explained that of from BODMAS (Brackets, Of, Division, Multiplication, Addition, Subtraction) is the same as . In a simplication problem, of must be worked out before division whereas is worked out after division. Sometimes, it will not aect the answer, but at other times, it does. Examples 4 2 5 2 5 1 3 7 14 3 5 = 5 5 7 6 1 = 5 = 15 4 2 4 2 5 1 3 of 2 5 14 14 = 5 3 14 3 3 = 5 14 = 5 5. DECIMAL FRACTIONS The most signicant aspects of decimals fractions are the facts that: a. numbers with decimal points are, in fact, fractions. b. decimal notation is an extension of the tens concept of the place value of whole numbers. 20

The decimal point simply makes it clear where the whole number ends and the decimal fraction begins, each digit having one-tenth the value, as it goes to the right. To use decimal fractions condently in everyday life, with money and measurements, pupils need to be comfortable with the decimal notation, its equivalence with fractions and the place value of each number to the right of the decimal. Activity Students work with dierent objects such as a loaf of bread, a cucumber, 100-square grids, and cubes made from play dough. Dierent groups cut these objects into 10 equal parts: 10 slices from each loaf and each cucumber, 10 strips from each paper grid, and 10 slabs from each cube. Students are familiar with the fact that each of these equal parts is equal 1 to 10 or a tenth of the whole. The teacher explains that there is another method of writing one-tenth 1 of a whole, or 10 . One-tenth is written as 0.1; the decimal point . is used to separate wholes and tenths. (In 0.1, 0 is for wholes and .1 stands for tenths. The prex deci stands for a tenth; deca stands for 10 times.) This is how decimal points are used to indicate fractions: 1 10 = 0.1 2 10 = 0.2 3 10 = 0.3 10 10 = 1.0 (It is important to explain that 01 = 1 or 005 = 5. So also, 0.10 or 0.100 is equal to 0.1) These can be shown on a square sheet of paper with 10 strips, or the decimal bar.

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Further, each of the tenths is cut into 10 equal parts. A tenth strip from the square grid is cut into 10 squares, and the slab of play dough is cut into 10 equal rods. Activity This is a good time to review the number of faces a cube has. Groups of 4 students each have a ball of play dough. Each group has a plastic knife. The teacher asks, What is the minimum number of cuts you need to make to get a perfect cube out of this ball? Students make cuts and eventually come to the conclusion that since a cube has 6 faces, it would need 6 cuts at right angles to make a perfect cube of any size from the sphere. Activity Through practical work, students understand that there are 10 strips or 100 small squares in the 100-square grid. Students count and colour the strips and squares on the grids as they work with decimal fractions. 1 They see that one small square (coloured) is equal to 100 of the whole. They write this as: 1 100 = 0.01 3 100 = 0.03 9 100 = 0.09 and so on

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On the board, this is written as: Tens Units. Tenths Hundredths 00.10 (1 Tenth or 10 Hundredths; read as zero point one) 00.30 (3 Tenths or 30 Hundredths; read as zero point three) 00.05 (5 Hundredths; read as zero point zero ve) 1 0.1 = 10 3 0.3 = 10

6. MONEY All children learn to use money early in life, so this is an easy topic to study. A little introduction about how man used beads and shells and even cocoa beans as currencies was given in classes 1 and 2 and students worked with simple addition and subtraction of whole rupees. Currencies of various countries are discussed and it is seen that all countries use decimal systems, up to hundredths (or 2 places of decimal). Euro is introduced as the common currency of most states of the European Union. The Dollar on the other hand, is used by America, Singapore, and Australia, but in every country the value of a dollar is dierent. Children learn about currencies of countries such as India and Indonesia, where a rupee is called a rupaiyah. 23

A collection of dollars, pounds, yens, cents, pennies etc. is useful for general knowledge. Comparative values, at a very simple level, can be discussed. A talk about Dollar stores in the US and other countries is interesting, where everything is available for $1. Questions such as If a toy car costs $1, how much will it cost in Pakistani rupees? generate active interest. Finer points, such as Re is written for 1 rupee and Rs is written for more than 1 rupee, need to be explained. Once the decimal fractions up to hundredths place are understood, everything falls into place, when they pay 25 p for a marble, and write it as Re 0.25. Activity Money is the ideal instrument for teaching 10ths and 100ths. Card money with 25 p coins, 50 p coins, and Re 1 coins explains the concept very clearly. Students set up a little shop with: 1 lollipop ....................... 75 p 1 shampoo sachet ......... Rs 2.50 1 pencil ........................... Rs 2 and so on. They make out bills and practise addition and subtraction. Activity Assuming you have enough coins of all denominations, 25p and 50p, in how many ways will you be able to ll your money box with change amounting to Re 1. Answer: four 25 p coins, two 50 p coins. Similarly, give other amounts that can be divided into the smaller currency unit. Each student can write the different combinations and then a comprehensive list is created in the form of a chart. 7. PERCENTAGE Again, students have some idea of percentages, because of marks obtained in class, and 50% fares for children and 30% o at sales in clothing stores before the season changes. Students have learnt concepts of fractions and decimal fractions, and now is the time to establish the link between fractions, decimal fractions, and percentages. 24

Students need to understand the fact that percentages are another way of writing decimal numbers with 2 places of decimals, and fractions with denominator 100. It is important to relate 1 whole to 100%, which again is not dicult, because they have experienced 100% marks when all sums have been correct. A complete correct exam paper gets you full marks or 100%. Students use their knowledge of cancellation or reducing to lowest form here. Activity Students work with various real-life problems. 1. 4 sandwiches in a tin box is 100%. 2 are eaten. Therefore 50% of the sandwiches have been eaten and 50% of the sandwiches are left. 1 2. 1 whole piece of ribbon is 100%. When 20% or 5 is cut o it leaves 4 80% or 5 . 3 3. The cost of a fabric is Rs120 per metre, with 30% o. 30% or 10 of Rs 120 is Rs 36. Therefore, the cost of the fabric will be Rs 120 Rs 36 = Rs 84 per metre. 4. The population of Pakistan is 172,800,048. 60% of the people turned 4 up for voting while 40% or 10 did not vote. 4/10 of 172,800,048 is 69,120,019. Work with the percentage of girls and boys in the class, 40% girls and 60% boys. The whole class is 100%. 1 1 Fractions such as 2 and 5 can be written as fractions with 10 or 100 as denominator. 1 5 50 2 = 10 = 100 = 50% = 0.5 = 0.50 1 2 20 5 = 10 = 100 = 20% = 0.2 = 0.20 This needs a great deal of practice so that pupils are able to convert one form into another with ease and speed. This practise should precede the introduction of the word percentage and the special symbol %. 25

Percentages are so much a part of our daily life that plenty of activities are easy to arrange (a mock sale in the class room: % of sale, % prot, % loss, % articles not sold). A visit to a shop with a reduction sale on is also interesting. Activity Children have 10 10 square grids. They are required to colour certain percentages of the whole in dierent manner: 1. 20%

2. 60%

More activities with 50%, 72%, and 0% of the square grid can be patterned similarly. 26

Once the decimal notation is fully understood, students will have no diculty handling more places of decimal such as 1000ths, at a later stage. The concept of metric units may also be introduced, simultaneously. There is plenty of opportunity for practical work with decimal fractions and metric measurements. If students can understand what happens when they multiply or divide with decimal fractions or handle calculations condently, multiplication and division by 10, 100, 1000 and so on must also be understood easily. Some oral exercises or team games designed to test this ability are useful: 1. What is 492 100? 2. Which is more: 25% of 200 or 50% of 100 3. 30% o in a sale for a crystal vase is Rs 90, what was the full price? 7 4. 10 of a number is 700. What is 35% of the number? 5. Which is greater 40% of 400 or 100% of 160? After this, application of the same basic rules to decimal numbers should be easy; written work must be reinforced with oral/mental exercises. Multiplication with decimal numbers should proceed carefully according to the stages suggested. A 1-decimal place number with a multiplier with tenths only is the same as multiplying two whole numbers and then dividing the product by 100. 7 3 7 21 For example: 0.3 10 = 10 10 = 100 = 0.21 The next step is to multiply a decimal number with tenths and hundredths. 7 3 5 7 3 105 For example: 0.5 10 100 = 100 10 100 = 1000 = 0.105 If we turn each decimal number into a common fraction, it is easy to see that a decimal with tenths multiplied by a decimal with tenths and hundredths will produce a decimal product with tenths, hundredths, and thousandths. Dividing by a decimal may pose a few problems; supplementary worksheets are useful. Beginning with problems such as these helps consolidate concepts about multiplication and division of fractions, be they decimals, percentage or simple fractions. 27

1 2 1 2 50 = 2 50 = 50 = 25 0.4 1 5 0.4 = 5 1 = 2 1 1875 7.5 2.5 = 7.5 2.5 = 75 25 100 = 100 = 18.75 8. MEASUREMENT Concepts of length, weight, capacity, and time are introduced with 3 decimal places at this stage. The chapters have been designed in such a way that there is plenty of scope to relate to real-life objects. A lot of charts or pictures, eldwork, and group work is required while doing measurements be it length, weight or capacity. The entire metric table depends upon 3 places of decimals: a prex of kilo means 1000 times. Kilometre, kilogram, kilolitre follow this pattern. a. TIME Time is the only form of measurement, which is not calculated in decimal fractions. The number of days it takes for the Earth to go around the Sun 1 is 365 and 4 days and it cannot be converted into tenths and hundredths. A day has been further divided into 60 minutes (and not 100 minutes) and a minute into 60 seconds (and not 100 seconds). Pupils should already know how to make a clock face by dividing it into 60 parts, as was shown in Maths Wise Book 1. Counting in 5s has also been done, right from the beginning, on a number line. The 24-hour clock can now be introduced, with the clock face divided into 12 and numbers written in 2 circles, 1 to 12, and 13 to 24.

28

The concept of time is mainly related to real life and word problems can easily be written to further develop students understanding. Students hear about time management such as the school timetable. Based on that, they prepare a timetable for their daily activities once they arrive home from school. When these timetables are compared, it becomes obvious that students spend various amounts of time watching TV, doing homework, playing sports or interacting with parents and siblings. A balance is essential. It is necessary for students to understand the concepts of one hour, one minute, and one second. A stopwatch helps. Questions listed below, help in assessment: 1. For how many hours are we in school? Or How many hours do we spend doing homework? 2. What can you do in one minute? (For example, how many words can one speak in one minute, how many words can one write, how many bites of a sandwich can one eat in one minute, and so on.) 3. How many times can you clap your hands in one second? 4. Ahmed has read a paragraph from Alice in Wonderland; how many minutes did he take? 5. How long does it take to sing a particular song, or our national anthem? The following conversion table is important to understanding time: 60 seconds 60 minutes 24 hours 30 days 12 months 100 years 10 centuries Activity Students make charts with names or pictures of activities, which might take, say, 30 seconds, 60 seconds, 5 minutes, 15 minutes or 1 hour. The class is divided into 3 or 4 teams. They play games to reinforce concepts and skills of telling time. = 1 minute = 1 hour = 1 day = 1 month = 1 year = 1 century = 1 millennium

29

Activity Find the names of the days hidden in the puzzle: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday A M O N T L K W H E U F D R R N S I E D D S A Y A D Y Y A Y T U E S D A U N D A S E U T D A Y I K F N R N D A S A T U R D A Y

A similar activity can be designed with the names of the months. Activity Worksheets with clock faces are fun. Clock faces have numbers only and no hands. Students write the time alongside, or draw hands of the clock to match the time given. Activity Match the times in column 1 with those in column 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 14:50 2:30 12:00 7:55 6:00 22:10 18:50 5:15 a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. 2:30 a.m. 6:50 p.m. 7:55 a.m. 12 oclock 6 a.m. 2:50 p.m. 10:10 pm ve fteen

30

3:15 + 3:00 =

4:45 + 3:00 =

6: 25 + 3:00 =

Some sample exercises related to time are given here which can be given for further practice. The time now is 7:10 a.m. 4 hours ago the time was It is 11:00 p.m. now. In 5 hours the time will be . .

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It is 3:45 p.m. In 2 hours 30 minutes, the time will be . 3 hours 30 minutes ago, the time was 2:10 p.m. What is the time now? b. LENGTH Activity To reinforce the concept of length, some activities like the one given below would be useful. Fill in the blanks choosing from the list given below: metre, taller, taller, shorter, inches, kilometres high. 1. The electricity tower is 12 2. The lamp post is than a man. 3. The Muslim Commercial Bank tower is than the Habib Bank Plaza. 4. I am 5 feet 2 . My brother is 6 feet, I am than my brother. 5. The motorway from Lahore to Islamabad is 765 long. Or ask the students questions like: 1. Is the doorway longer or shorter than the edge of a carpet? 2. Which object length in this room is just a little longer/shorter than a metre? c. WEIGHT Weight concepts are introduced like concepts for length, with relevant vocabulary: 1. Which of these two (a large bath sponge and a small stone) do you think is heavier? (The students hold the two objects and assess.) 2. Are you heavier than Sadiq or lighter? 3. Does your school bag weigh more or less than 4 kg? 4. In this weighing scale (pan balance), which side will go down: the one with 6 apples or the one with 6 bananas? 6. On a spring balance, a packet of peas shows 1 kg. Will 2 dictionaries weigh more or less? 7. If there is an elephant on one side of a see-saw and 2 children on the other, which side will go down? 32

Wherever possible, demonstrate with real objects. Some exercises like the last one, require students to use logic. Activity Students work in groups and make 4 charts: Less than 1 kg More than 2 kg About 5 kg More than 10 kg

Less than 1 kg may be a pin, a feather, a pencil or a half-full bottle of water. More than 10 kg may be a car, an aircraft or the Statue of Liberty. The students should identify a variety of objects that are heavier than 10 kg. d. CAPACITY Once again, during a dialogue or an experiment about litres, it is necessary to use vocabulary related to capacity and litres. These are: full, half-full, empty, nearly full, nearly empty, liquids, container, litre, half-a-litre, Example 1. How many litres of water or milk or juice can a container hold? If a container holds 1 litre of water, it will also hold 1 litre of juice or 1 litre of milk. 2. If a half-full jug contains 1 litre of juice, how much would a full jug contain? Activity Students see an array of containers such as a watering can, a bucket, a bottle, a water jug, a can, and a tetra-pack. They also observe the height of 1 litre of water in a at dish, in a broad container like a water jug, or in a tall container, like a slim vase. Then, they compare 2 or more containers. 1. How much water does a cup hold? 2. Does a teapot hold more water than a water jug? 3. How many litres of water does a bucket hold? 33

Students make charts of objects that may hold: less than 1 litre about 5 litres more than 10 litres more than 1000 litres Water reservoirs, lakes, and ponds can hold several hundreds of thousands of litres. TEACHERS NOTE Social issues such as pollution (students can find the amounts of poisonous gas in a certain capacity of air in dierent parts of the city or village, amount of waste in the river water and sewage water), conservation of water (wastage of water in daily house-hold chores, dripping taps, and methods of minimizing it, the need to conserve water), cutting trees, after-eects of war, burning petrol, pollution caused by 2-wheelers and open res, global warming, population explosion, and the extremely harmful effects of plastic waste can be discussed using metric measurements. e. TEMPERATURE This topic is dealt with in Maths Wise Book 5. Its an important concept as children hear about it daily in weather reports or if they fall sick, they use the thermometer and the Centigrade or Fahrenheit scales. Activity The students can be given a home exercise to note down the temperatures of dierent cities of Pakistan on a particular day from the weather report on TV. Some more examples of conversion between the two scales can be given. 9. GRAPHS This section deals with the pictorial representation of data and its analysis. The section also has lots of activities which could be used as group projects. It would not only encourage and hone practical thinking amongst pupils but also develop positive group dynamics and leadership qualities. 34

Graphs are pictorial representations of a daily-life situation. When counting the animals on a farm, a graph can be drawn to illustrate:

rabbit

duck

cow

horse

hen

cat

Activity Students work in groups and make graphs on chart paper using cut-out pictures of animals.

35

Initially, 1 animal is represented by 1 animal picture. The same chart can be made with a key where 1 animal would mean 5 animals, in which case it will represent: 10 dogs, 30 rabbits, 35 ducks, 5 cows, 10 horses, 25 hens, 15 cats

rabbit

duck

cow

horse

hen

cat

Key: 1 animal picture = 5 animals In later classes, actual picture graphs become bar graphs, and then line graphs, with an X-axis and a Y-axis. Some students have diculty in remembering which is X-axis and which is Y-axis, so you can always refer that X axis is a X (a cross). Activity The number of students in various classes in the school can be represented as a block graph, either vertically or horizontally. Other examples of pictorial graphs, after visiting and collecting data from the relevant areas are: colours of cars in the parking lot, types of trees in the park, (organize a tree planting week as a conservation project), snacks available in the canteen; amounts of dierent fruits available at the fruit sellers stall (here, it will be necessary to say, 1 orange = 30 oranges, 1 banana = 30 bananas, and so on) 36

Students work in groups and prepare bar or column graphs of the listed items and compare the two. 10. AREA AND PERIMETER The concepts of area and perimeter need to be clearly understood. The students paint the surface of any shape. For example, the surface of a cardboard. Students give examples of other surfaces, which have area: The wall, the oor, the windowpane, the surface of the teachers desk, the face of a block of wood, the inside of a cup, the outside of a cup, the shell of a tortoise, these are all surfaces. A surface occupies space and has an area. The area of the top of teachers desk is less than the area of a classroom, the area of a classroom is less than the area of a school building. The area of a school building is less than the area of the zoo. The area of the zoo is less than the area of Karachi, and the area of Karachi is less than the area of Sind. The area of Sindh is less than the area of Pakistan and so on. If grass needs to be laid in the school garden, one needs to know the area of the garden; if a fence is to be put around the garden, one needs to know the perimeter of the garden. The length of the wire required needs to be found. The perimeter of the school ground, a garden, a classroom, a desk, a library or a hotel lobby can be found by using a measuring tape. Area can also be found by using squared sheets of paper. Activity A group of students nds the perimeter of a verandah by using a measuring tape. Other groups nd the lengths of each side of the classroom. The four lengths are added and the two groups compare the results. The essential point for students to understand is that the perimeter is the measurement of a line, whether straight or curved, enclosing a space.

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Activity On a geo-board dot paper, the teacher works with dots on the board and explains that the distance between 2 dots is one unit. Students draw lines between points (vertically or horizontally) and count the number of units in each line. They record this below each line. Length of AB = 3 units

A 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit A 1 unit B

Length of AC = 2 units

C

1 unit

Students count the units in each side of a square or a rectangle and record the lengths of the straight lines. Students make squares and rectangles on a geo-board paper and count the number of units along the perimeter of each shape. They record the sizes below each shape. The next activity can be worked on the board with the help of two students. The teacher calls out a number 16 units and says, Draw a rectangle with perimeter of 16 units. Asim draws a rectangle with a perimeter of 16 units. Various rectangles are possible. Students participate in a discussion on 16 how the size of the sides is arrived at. Halve the perimeter ( 2 = 8) and nd dierent combinations where the sum is 8; 7 + 1, 6 + 2, 5 + 3, 4 + 4. Asim draws one or two of these. Students with geo-board papers draw these rectangles and write the length of each side: 7 units, 1 unit 6 units, 2 units 5 units, 3 units 4 units, 4 units

38

Students learn to tabulate these: Perimeter 16 units 20 units Half of perimeter 8 units 10 units Length of rectangle 7 units 6 units Width of rectangle 1 unit 4 units

This tabulation continues, with dierent numbers until students are fully condent about the relationship of the lengths of sides to the perimeter of a rectangle. CHALLENGE The rectangles and squares given above have perimeters which are even numbers. Students try and make rectangles with perimeters which are odd numbers. CHALLENGE On a geo-board paper, make 2 units = 1 UNIT. Draw rectangles and squares with perimeters which are odd numbers. Activity To introduce area, the teachers desk is covered with square sheets of paper. If 15 sheets of paper cover the desktop, then the area of the table top is equal to the area of 15 sheets of paper. If the same desktop is covered by 5 sheets of glazed paper, then the area of the 5 sheets of glazed paper is equal to the area of the 15 sheets of squared paper. Activity Each student holds a loop of string with the 2 forengers and the 2 thumbs of his hands. He moves his ngers in the loop (stretched all the time). He nds that he can enclose dierent sizes of area with any xed perimeter. If he brings the thumb and the forenger of each hand close together, he will squeeze all the area out but the perimeter will remain the same. Activity Students work on squared paper. They colour squares or number them to nd the area of the sheet. 39

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70

71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80

81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90

91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

The area of this sheet of paper is equal to 100-square units. Students estimate areas of dierent spaces vis--vis the squares. An area can be coloured and the tip of a nger, or the palm of a hand can be moved across an area. Activity On a square sheet of paper (or a geo-board paper), students have drawn rectangles and squares with given perimeters. Now, they draw rectangles and squares of given areas:

Students draw dierent rectangles on their sheets of square paper, and colour them. It is useful if they put a dot in each square as they count the area. They learn to tabulate areas, as they did for perimeters. A rectangle with 24 square units can be any of these: 24 units, 1 unit 12 units, 2 units 8 units, 3 units 6 units, 4 units Students learn to tabulate these: Area of rectangle 12 square units 12 square units 12 square units 20 square units Activity (on square sheets of paper) Length of rectangle 12 square units 6 square units 4 square units 20 square units Width of rectangle 1 square unit 2 square units 3 square units 1 square unit

The students then draw rectangles of various sizes on blank square paper sheets, and just write the following: Area = Perimeter = Activity Students are given sheets of paper with dierent shapes drawn on them, such as dierent quadrilaterals, pentagons, and hexagons. The name of each shape, and the measurement of each side is written next to it. For example: = square units units

Draw dierent pentagons with the following measurements: 4 cm, 5 cm, 6 cm, 3 cm, and 7 cm (measurements written next to each side.) Students nd the perimeter and write the answers below each shape. Activity 11. GEOMETRICAL CONCEPTS Open and closed shapes The following work reinforces concepts of shapes and prepares the students to use the geometry set. The teacher draws 12 to 20 dots arranged in a circle on the board. The students copy this in their exercise books.

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The teacher connects dots drawn in a circle on the board to make open shapes. On their individual papers, students join any 2 dots with a ruler and a pencil. They continue to join dots to create open shapes. Finally, the 2 end-points of the open shape are joined together to make a closed shape. Students count the number of sides each closed shape has and write it below.

A wooden board with 16 or 20 nails driven in to form a circle is a very interesting tool. A cord wound around various nails produces an amazing variety of gures such as: equilateral triangles, isosceles triangles, right-angled triangles, obtuseangled triangles, quadrilaterals such as squares, trapeziums, rectangles, pentagon hexagons, pentagonal stars, and even, a 20-sided gure. Activity Angles Asma comes to the front of the class and stands with her 2 arms stretched facing the class. The teacher asks her to turn round clockwise on the same spot, till she comes back to the original position. How many times has Asma gone around?, the teacher asks. The students answer, One. Asma turns again and the students say Two. Asma makes more anticlockwise turns.

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In this way, clockwise and anticlockwise concepts are reinforced. When one moves around in the direction of the hands of a clock, it is moving in a clockwise direction. The opposite direction is known as anticlockwise direction. Students nd out whether the fans in the classroom move in a clockwise or an anticlockwise direction: What about the following objects which can move in both directions? a door knob turning to open or close a door? a key locking or unlocking a lock? A screwdriver driving a screw or unscrewing in it?

CHALLENGE Students look for more objects which move in clockwise and anticlockwise directions. Taps, numbers on locks of suitcases, blades of a helicopter are some examples. Activity Students have worked with the movements of the 2 hands of a clock, to show times. From the position of 12 oclock, as the minute hand moves clockwise, an angle is formed. The minute hand goes through a full rotation (in a clockwise direction) before it comes back to the number 12. Asim stands with his arms stretched, facing the class and turns clockwise through a right angle (using the tracing of a paper right angle on the oor). Asim goes through a 2nd right angle, turning clockwise again. He turns a third and fourth right angle, before he comes back to the original position, facing the class. On a clock, it is 12 hours in one round of the hour hand or one hour by the minute hand. Asim turns through 4 right angles or 360, when he completes one rotation. The teacher works with a wooden protractor before children work with their own. It can be useful to draw a protractor on the oor, where students can see angles marked from 0 through 90, 180, and 270 and back to 360. Students learn to use the protractor from their geometry box to draw right angles. They draw 4 right angles in such a way as to reinforce the concept that 4 right angles makes 360. 44

CHALLENGE N E S Junaid draws this diagram, in bold letters, on a sheet of an old newspaper. He puts the paper on the oor, with N pointing towards north in the classroom. To go from N, through W, S, and E, back to N, he needs to move in a clockwise direction. What happens to this movement when the sheet of paper is stuck to the ceiling (or held upside down above Junaids head)! (The teacher needs to work this out before putting it to the students.) Activity Before the students draw the angles as given in Maths Wise Book 5, the teacher needs to work on the board with a large ruler and a protractor. She draws a line segment AB on the board, centres the protractor on A, marks 10, as point C. She joins C to A, and writes CAB = 10. She goes through 10, 20, through 90 to 180, back to 360, reinforcing words such as an acute angle, a right angle, an obtuse angle, a straight angle, a reex angle and a full rotation. This is done in both clockwise and anticlockwise directions, rst on the board and then in the students in their exercise books. They use the right-angled corner in a set square to identify acute angles and obtuse angles, in addition to construction of right angles. Students need to be fully condent with the various aspects of angles; the working with polygons becomes very easy if they do. It is essential that the students can estimate the sizes of other angles with some accuracy, and identify right angle and parallel lines. This is extremely useful in everyday life when sewing hanging picture frames or curtain rods, carpentry or making painting. W

45

Activity A large wall chart shows dierent angles, without sizes, with a few pairs of complementary angles and supplementary angles. Students make verbal assessments and tabulate the rst two columns. They then measure these angles and the rest of the columns are lled in. Angle 1. PQR 2. LMN 3. ABC Assessment 50 150 Real Measure 35 52 142 Supplement 38 Complement

Plenty of work is necessary with the various instruments in the geometry set in order to develop students condence. CHALLENGE Question I am a quadrilateral. I have 2 sets of opposite sides equal. I have 2 pairs of opposite angles equal. What am I? Is there another like me? Answer a parallelogram and a rectangle REMEMBER A square is a quadrilateral, but all quadrilaterals are not squares. A rectangle is a parallelogram, but all parallelograms are not rectangles. A diamond (or a rhombus) is a kite, but all kites are not diamonds. How many more statements can the students make like the ones given above?

46

Imagine that each polygon, starting with a pentagon, is rolled along the line. Estimate the distance each polygon will roll after one full turn. Mark this point on the line running along the shape. Discuss your ndings with your teacher. Which shape has the smallest perimeter, the largest perimeter? Which shape has the smallest area, the largest area?

47

Periods required: 8 Skills acquired: Objects from the Maths Table: Content Introduce Fractions Listening, responding to questions, application of the subject. biscuits, bread sticks, coloured square papers, a fraction booklet, and other related objects. Method Activities

a) Demonstration a) The teacher begins by asking the children, What is a fraction? (Many students may know what a fraction is but not what it looks like and where it is used.) b) The teacher takes a biscuit or a bread stick and breaks it in half. She asks a child to eat one half. b) Interaction c) The teacher asks the children what she did and hears their responses. (Broke it in half or in pieces.) c) Brainstorm d) The teacher now goes on to explain that things can be broken into equal parts and those parts are fractions of the whole item. d) Practical e) The teacher can now give each child demonstration one biscuit or bread stick and have them break it in half and then quarters. The teacher asks the children questions like: i) How many pieces did you have when you broke the biscuit into halves? ii) How many pieces did you have when you broke the biscuit into quarters? f) The teacher hands out a square, coloured sheet and asks the children in how many dierent ways can they fold it in half?

48

Content

Method

e) Explanation

f) Application

g) The teacher explains that the coloured square was folded into two congruent or equal parts. Each part is half or one half. h) A fraction booklet has been made for each child. Some of the concepts covered in the booklet are listed below: 1 1 1 i) Identifying fractions 2 , 4 , 3 of a given shape. ii) To circle or colour half of a collection of 20 balls or quarter of a collection of 8 oranges. iii) Introduce the two terms of f r a c t i o n nu m e r at o r a n d denominatorwith the help of examples. iv) What fraction of the given gure is shaded / unshaded? v) Fraction facts they need to know. 1 E.g. 2 dozen = ? 1 or 2 a score = ? 1 or 4 of a day = ? hours Each page of the booklet needs to be done after a quick brainstorming session.

g)

E. Answers to Book 3

Unit 1: Assess and Review 1

Exercise 1

1. ones 5. ones 9. hundreds Exercise 2 1. 5. 9. 13. 36 176 998 710 2. 235 6. 904 10. 20 3. 519 7. 21 11. 508 4. 40 8. 100 12. 976 2. tens 6. ones 10. ones 3. tens 7. ones 4. hundreds 8. tens

Exercise 3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270 599, 699, 799, 899 37, 47, 57, 67, 77, 87, 97, 107 62, 82 152, 162,172, 182,192

Exercise 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 07, 23, 61, 75, 82, 94 and 94, 82, 75, 61, 23, 07 128, 287, 348, 475, 711 and 711, 475, 348, 287, 128 504, 524, 554, 564, 594 and 594, 564, 554, 524, 504 600, 601, 603, 606, 609 and 609, 606, 603, 601, 600 227, 337, 777, 887, 997 and 997, 887, 777, 337, 227

Exercise 5 1. 2. 3. 4. 50 247, two hundred and forty-seven 617, six hundred and seventeen 689, six hundred and eighty-nine 495, four hundred and ninety-ve

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

944, nine hundred and forty-four 160, one hundred and sixty 926, nine hundred and twenty-six 116, one hundred and sixteen 600, six hundred 1400, one thousand four hundred

Exercise 6 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 12, twelve 84, eighty-four 393, three hundred and ninety-three 432, four hundred and thirty-two 386, three hundred and eight-six 666, six hundred and sixty-six 32, thirty-two 106, one hundred and six 47, forty-seven 610, six hundred and ten

Exercise 7 1. 8 5. 18 9. 102 Exercise 8 1. 2 cars each 2. 5 sweets each 3. 4 pencils each 4. 5 teddies each 5. 3 coins each Exercise 9 circle, square, triangle, rectangle Exercise 10 cube, sphere, cuboid, cylinder, pyramid, 51 2. 21 6. 20 10. 120 3. 30 7. 130 4. 60 8. 60

Exercise 11

Exercise 12

Exercise 13 1. 6.1 cm 5. 5.2 cm Exercise 14 1. 5 minutes past 2 2. 20 minutes past 3 3. 7 oclock Exercise 15 1. 4. 7. 10. 841 books 2. Rs 24 Rs 18 5. answers will vary 8m 8. 3 hrs, evening 12 cans of juice, 30 sandwiches 3. 182 days 6. 56 kg 9. 4 4. half past 9 5. 12 oclock 6. quarter past 11 2. 3.4 cm 3. 5.1 cm 4. 8 cm

Puzzle There can be many combinations: 2 + 8, 5 +5, 6 + 4, 3 + 7, 7 + 3, 20 2 etc. Similarly, combinations can be made for other numbers. 52

Unit 2: Numbers Exercise 1 1. Children draw three owers. 2. 2 marks 3. 5 marks Exercise 2 2. III 3. V 4. IV 5. VIII

Exercise 3 1, 7, 4, 9 5, 2, 6, 10 Exercise 4 Roman X X X X X X X X X X Exercise 5 1. XVI, 16 2. XX, 20 53 + + + + + + + + + + I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X = = = = = = = = = = XI XII XIII XIV XV XVI XVII XVIII XIX XX Words eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty

Activity LID, MILD, DILL, MILL, CIVIC, CIVIL, etc. Cross out LONG, VI will be left. XI (It becomes eleven.)

Exercise 7 Students colour the grid as instructed. Exercise 8 1. 56, 57 , 58, 59 , 60 2. 87 , 88, 89 , 90, 91 3. 201 , 202, 203 , 204, 205 4. 444, 445 , 446, 447 , 448 5. 1234, 1235 , 1236, 1237 , 1238 Exercise 9 HTh TTh Th H 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2 8 3, 2, 5 6, 4 3, 7 0, 1 0 3 0 4 T O 7 5 6 9 9 4 8 7 8 6 number names three thousand, one hundred and seventy-four two thousand and fty-eight fty six thousand, three hundred and sixty-seven two hundred and forty-three thousand and ninety-eight eight hundred and seventy thousand, four hundred and ninety-six

54

Exercise 10 2. 2 ones 3 tens 7 hundred 8 thousand 0 ten thousand 6 hundred thousand 600,000 + 8000 + 700 + 30 + 2 3. 8 one 4 ten 9 hundred 5 thousand 5,000 + 900 + 40 + 8 4. 2 one 8 ten 9 hundred 8 thousand 0 ten thousand 6 hundred thousand 600,000 + 8000 + 900 + 80 + 2 5. 8 one 7 ten 2 hundred 6 thousand 7 ten thousand 70,000 + 6000 + 200 + 70 + 8 6. 7 one 3 ten 4 hundred 8 thousand 6 ten thousand 9 hundred thousand 900,000 + 60,000 + 8000 + 400 + 30 + 7 Exercise 11 HTh TTh Th H 2. 3. 4. 1 9 8 7 1 1 6 5 2 T O 4 9 0 3 0 7 number names seven thousand six hundred and forty-three nine one thousand ve hundred and ninety one hundred eight-one thousand, two hundred and seven

Exercise 14 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 3108; 3208; 3308; 3408; 3508; 3608 13,009; 13,019; 13,029; 13,039; 13,049; 13,059 210,345; 220,345; 230,345; 240,345; 250,345; 260,345 980,819; 980,820; 980,821; 980,822; 980,823; 980,824 35,909; 36,909; 37,909; 38,909; 39,909; 40,909

Exercise 15 4678 5678 6678 7678 21 121 221 321 18,101 19,101 20,101 21,101 22,101 709,543 710,543 711,543 712,543 79,677 179,677 279,677 379,667 134,257 134,357 134,457 134,557 Activity Across 1. 53,067 10. 5796 Down 2. 3527 8. 66,666 Exercise 16 1. < 5. > Exercise 17 Only the second pair is correct. 2. > 6. = 3. > 4. = 3. 718,329 5. 300,000 6. 980,154 4. 123 11. 6363 7. 897,653 9. 64,910 8678 9678 421 521 23,101 24,101 713,543 714,543 479,667 134,657 134,757 134,857

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Exercise 18 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ascending; 367, 921; 368,921 descending; 77,249; 77,239 descending; 214,291; 214,281 ascending; 526,344; 627,344 ascending; 220,024; 230,025; 240,026

Exercise 19 1. 2. 3. 4. 76,431 largest; 13,467 smallest 98,620 largest; 20689 smallest 984,210 largest; 102,489 smallest 764,321; 123,467 smallest

Ascending order: 1000; 10,000; 99,999; 100,000; 999,999 Unit 3: Number operations Exercise 1 1. 9976 5. 4599 Exercise 2 1. 9889 Exercise 3 1. 6230 2. 4968 2. 3688 3. 8678 4. 3444 2. 5844 6. 10,983 3. 8867 4. 6589

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Exercise 4 1. 7467 5. 4489 Exercise 5 1. 8139 Exercise 6 1. 6914 5. 7931 Exercise 7 1. 60 5. 60 9. 58 Exercise 8 1. 62 5. 83 9. 40 Activity Hoopla Wheel of fortune 5 and 25; 10 and 20; 10, 10, 10; 100, 100, 100, 100, 100, 100 100, 150, 250 200, 300 150, 350 100, 400 50, 150 50, 50, 100 100,100 2. 96 6. 29 10. 61 3. 76 7. 92 4. 60 8. 84 2. 70 6. 65 10. 95 3. 80 7. 30 4. 60 8. 39 2. 6578 3. 3550 4. 9470 2. 6919 3. 7493 4. 1494 2. 9459 6. 2213 3. 9319 4. 9444

Darts

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Exercise 9 1. 4221 5. 4083 9. 3000 Exercise 10 1. 7051 bees Exercise 11 1. 2156 5. 3427 Exercise 12 1. 2744 5. 8775 Exercise 13 1. 882 cards 4. 7095 bangles Exercise 14 1. 5. 9. 13. 40 25 7 32 2. 6. 10. 14. 40 10 16 50 3. 40 7. 14 11. 38 4. 52 8. 38 12. 20 2. 1498 people 5. 2486 bottles 3. Rs 7024 2. 2950 6. 1652 3. 2881 4. 4203 2. 2519 6. 5782 3. 4175 4. 7560 2. 1111 pages 3. 2413 men 2. 2242 6. 6743 3. 8322 7. 5203 4. 4223 8. 2200

Exercise 15 1. 35 5. 36 2. 56 3. 41 4. 48

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Activity Spider with 8 legs is the correct choice, since in the rst row each animal has legs in the multiples of 2. (snail, 0 legs; kiwi, 2 legs; squirrel, 4 legs; beetle, 6 legs) Exercise 16 1. 5. 9. 13. 16 11 7 64 2. 6. 10. 14. 54 9 8 9 3. 7 7. 9 11. 6 4. 6 8. 56 12. 88

Exercise 17 1. 170 6. 360 Exercise 18 1. Rs 369 4. 144 dozen Exercise 19 1. 5. 9. 13. 70 48 216 32 2. 6. 10. 14. 830 93 108 0 3. 990 7. 99 11. 648 4. 340 8. 88 12. 189 2. 160 legs 5. 100 crayons 3. 72 students 6. 343 days 2. 402 6. 245 3. 116 7. 396 4. 712 8. 328

Activity 5 10 2 60 5 8 2 4 32 4 9 8 5 45 5 9

7 63

10 100

10

10

10

3. 12 6 = 2 6 2 = 12

4. 14 2 = 7 2 7 = 14

2. 2 6. 4

3. 4

4. 4

3. 6, 5

4. 4, 12

5. 6, 8

2. 151 6. 52 R4

3. 28 R1 7. 8 R3

4. 492 R1 8. 64 R2

2. 16 R2 6. 46 R7

3. 60 R4

4. 50 R4

2. 7 buttons

3. 16 kg

4. Rs 52

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Exercise 26 1. 21 5. 81 9. 103 Activity The secret message is: DIVISION IS FUN Unit 4: Fractions Exercise 1 2. 23 6. 21 10. 500 3. 11 7. 20 11. 247 R1 4. 31 8. 21 12. 40

Exercise 2 1.

2.

2 2 2 6 + 6 + 6 = 1 whole

Exercise 3 2. 3.

62

4.

5.

6.

Exercise 4 1. 4. 7. 1 2 of 8 = 4 1 2 of 14 = 7 1 4 of 8 = 2 2. 5. 8. 1 2 of 12 = 6 1 4 of 20 = 5 1 4 of 12 = 3 3. 6. 9. 1 2 of 6 = 3 1 4 of 8 = 2 2 5 of 10 = 4

2 10. 5 of 20 = 10 Exercise 5 1. 5. 2 4 2 5

2 11. 5 of 15 = 6

2 12. 5 of 30 = 12

2. 6.

4 8 5 10

3.

3 6

4.

1 2

Exercise 6 1. 3 1 9=3 2. 10 2 15 = 3 3. 2 1 12 = 6 4. 4 1 16 = 6

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Exercise 7 2. 6,

3. 4,

4. 6,

Exercise 8

64

Exercise 11 1. 5. 2 4 2 2 2. 4 6 3. 6 18 4. 20 24

65

Exercise 15 1. 5. 9. 2. 6. 3. 7. 4. 8.

10 10. 9 1 5 2 11 2 7 1 5 6 8 5 12

Exercise 16 1. 5. 9. 2. 6. 3. 7. 4. 8.

3 10. 9

Exercise 17 1. + 5. + Exercise 18 1. 3. 1 3 4 eaten, 4 left 3 5 8 eaten, 8 left 2. 4. 1 5 6 eaten, 6 left 1 2 3 eaten, 3 left 2. 3. 4. +

Exercise 19 3 1. 4 of the pencils remain. 2. Amir ate 4 pieces and 4 pieces are left. 3. 25 apples were unripe; 75 apples were ready to eat. 66

Game page 80

2. 3.5 cm

3. 1.5 cm

4. 2.6 cm

2nd section 1. The example shows a ruler measuring the line as 6 cm, which is not drawn to scale. Allow the children to use their rulers to draw actual measurements as given for the next three exercises. Exercise 4 1. 18 cm 5. 34 cm Exercise 5 1. 7 m 5. 13 m 2. 38 m 3. 17 m 4. 9 m 2. 9 cm 3. 9 cm 4. 17 cm

hill, tower, lamp post, house, tree, ladder ladder, tree, house, lamp post, tower, hill Exercise 6 home Exercise 7 2. 355 m Exercise 8 2. 217 m 68 3. 41 km 4. 23 cm 5. 108 m 3. 54 km 4. 118 cm 5. 145 m superstore ice-cream parlour school

Exercise 9 16 cm Exercise 10 12 cm Exercise 11 Children draw a line 5 cm long. Exercise 12 2. 7 cm, 16 cm 5. 27 cm, 64 cm Exercise 13 2. car 5. can of juice Exercise 14 1. 4 kg 5. 25 g Exercise 15 2. mg 6. g Exercise 16 less than 1 kg: teddy, pencil, scissors, photo frame, jar of sweets, CDs more than 1 kg: laptop, television, sh bowl, books 3. g 4. kg 5. kg 2. 450 g 6. 60 kg 3. 250 g 1 4. 3 2 kg 3. truck 6. fox 4. dog 3. 9 cm, 21cm 4. 79 cm, 171 cm

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Exercise 17 The weights that the shopkeeper can use are: 2. 250 g, 10 g 4. 10 kg, 3 kg 6. 500 g, 250 g, 10 g Exercise 18 2. 1102 g Exercise 19 2. 130 g 6. 12 kg Exercise 20 2. 16 kg Exercise 21 Total = 201 kg; overweight by 101 kg Exercise 22 1. jug 4. bigger bowl Exercise 23 1. ml 5. litre Exercise 24 1. 2 l 5. 100 ml 70 2. 250 ml 6. 13 l 3. 25 l 4. 51 l 2. litre 6. ml 3. ml 4. litre 2. thermos 5. bottle 3. larger pack 6. can of juice 3. 462 g 4. 39 kg 5. 67 g 3. 120 g 4. 4 kg 5. 39 g 3. 68 kg 4. 499 g 5. 178 g 3. 30 g, 20 g, 20 g, 10 g 5. 300 g, 25 g

Exercise 25 2. 443 ml 7. 519 ml Exercise 26 1. 27 l Unit 6: Time Exercise 1 1. 2 a.m., 4 a.m., 10 a.m., 12 noon, 3 p.m., 4 p.m., 5 p.m., 7 p.m. 2. a. a.m. b. p.m. c. a.m. d. p.m. e. a.m. 3. a. a.m. b. a.m. c. p.m. d. p.m. e. p.m. Exercise 2 2. 5 minutes to 2 4. 15 minutes to 4 6. 10 minutes to 8 Exercise 3 2. eleven thirty 4. twelve three 6. four fty two Exercise 4 1. 3. two twenty-eight 5. six one 1 2 past 9 5. 15 minutes past 7 3. 2. 28 l 3. 26 ml, 5 ml 4. 1650 ml. 3. 1330 ml 8. 156 ml 4. 15212 l 9. 52 l 5. 60 l 10. 27 l

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2.

Exercise 5

1. 7:10

2. 11:50

3. 1:00 2:30

4.

5.

3:10

72

Exercise 6

1. 2:25

2. 3:45

3.

11:05 4. 5. Exercise 7 2. 154 hours 5. 1746 hours 9. 26 hours Exercise 8 1. 6 hours 4. 3 hours 2. 2 hours 3. 12 noon 5. Bilal, Emad, Amir, 8 minutes, 3 min 3. 697 hours 7. 43 hours 10. 105 hours 4. 456 hours 8. 26 hours 8:40 6:20

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Exercise 9 1. 4. 7. 8. January, June, July 2. 30 3. April 366 5. Friday 6. 30 Friday, Monday, Saturday, Sunday, Thursday, Tuesday, Wednesday 156

Exercise 10 and Exercise 11 The answers to these exercises would be best given using the current years calendar. The teacher can adapt Exercise 11 to the current years month of December. Activity page 111 Similarly for this activity, use dates for the year in which the book is being taught. Exercise 12 1. Naveen 5. Naveen Unit 7: Geometry Page 115 points: A, B, O, M, N, P, R, S line segments: MN, RS ray: PA, OX straight line: AB Activity page 117 1. 2. 2. Danish 3. June 4. 3

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Exercise 1 1. rectangle 5. oval Exercise 2 kite 3, square 2, rectangle 1, diamond 1, arrowhead 2, triangle 5 Exercise 3 Help the students draw the picture. Exercise 4 Students colour as indicated. Exercise 5 2. pyramid 6. cube 3. circle 4. kite

Exercise 6 2. 5 + 3 + 5 + 3 = 16 cm 3. 5 + 2 + 3 + 2 + 2 + 4 = 18 cm 4. 3 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 6 + 2 = 19 cm Exercise 7 44 m 75

Exercise 8 80 m Exercise 9 24 cm Exercise 10 1. 170 m Exercise 11 For exercises 2 to 4, students draw dierent gures and calculate the perimeters accordingly. Activity page 124 13.3 cm approximately Unit 8: Graphs Exercise 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. favourite avours of ice cream an ice cream cone 10 scoops fruity orange six 115 2. 70 m 3. 240 m 4. m

Exercise 2 1. favourite pet 2. a circle dived into quarters 4. dog 5. 14 6. spider 7. rat and tortoise 76 3. 56

Exercise 3

Comic Books Science Fiction Funny Stories Horror Stories Fairy Tales Number of Children = 2 Children

HTh TTh Th H T O 2 7 Expanded Form Number Names two hundred and seventy thousand, six hundred and ninety two thirty thousand, two hundred and one three hundred and nine thousand and twelve forty thousand one hundred and three two hundred and four thousand and seven ve thousand, nine hundred and eighty sixty-six thousand, four hundred and seventy-nine nine hundred thousand and ninety-eight seven hundred and forty-ve thousand, eight hundred and thirty-nine

3 3 0 4 2 0

0 2 0 1 30,000 + 200 + 10 + 1 9 0 1 2 300,000 + 9000 + 10 + 2 0 1 9 3 40,000 + 100 + 90 + 3 4 0 0 7 200,000 + 4000 + 7 5 9 8 0 5000 + 900 + 8 + 0

6 9 7 0 4

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Exercise 2 1. 654,426; 654,522; 654,562; 655,426; 655,466; 655,526 655,526; 655,466; 655,426; 654,562; 654,522; 654,426 2. 30,039; 30,309; 33,009; 90,303; 93,300; 309,903 309,903; 93,300; 90,303; 33,009; 30,009; 30,309; 30,039 3. 77,770; 707,070; 707,777; 770,770; 770,777; 777,707; 777,707; 770,777; 770,770; 707,777; 707,070; 77,770 4. 23; 222; 232; 3323; 23,332; 223,323 223, 323; 23,332; 3323; 332, 222, 23 5. 10; 100; 999; 1000; 99,999; 999,999 999,999; 99,999; 1000; 999; 100; 10 Exercise 3 1. 5. 9. 13. 19,104 76,574 7555 686 2. 6. 10. 14. 1858 403 96 56 R = 6 3. 383 7. 180 R = 4 11. 25437 4. 113 8. 72,994 12. 38524

Exercise 7 1. length 5. triangle 9. curved Exercise 8 Check the students work. Exercise 9 Check the students work. Exercise 10 1. 1289 km 2. Rs 43,508 3. 945 km, 4 p.m. 4. 72 m, 216 m 5. Rs 90 6. 730 kg 7. 115 cartons in each truck, 1035 bottles 2 8. 5 9. 50 ml 10. 2 June Exercise 11 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. footfall in the cafeteria days: horizontal axis; number of students: vertical axis Friday Saturday 75 675 125 2. straight line 6. sides, corners 10. diameter

For questions 8 and 9, help the children to complete the graphs. Exercise 12 kite, square, rectangle, circle, triangle, rectangle, arrowhead 79

F. Answers to Book 4

Unit 1: Assess and Review 1

HTh TTh Th H T O 3 7 Expanded Form Number Names three hundred and seventy thousand eight hundred and ninety-ve thirty thousand two hundred and eleven eight hundred and nine thousand and twelve twenty four thousand and seven six hundred and six thousand, four hundred and seventy-nine ninety thousand and nine seven hundred forty-ve thousand eight hundred and thirty-nine

3 3 0

4 2

9 7 4

0 0 0 9 5 8 3 9

Exercise 2

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 650,426; 650,522; 654,502; 655406; 655,506 300,390; 303,090; 309,030; 309,903; 330,090 77,777; 77,707; 70,777; 70,770; 7770 3320; 22,332; 23,232, 23,332; 230,222 greatest 6D, greatest 5D, smallest 4D, greatest 3D, smallest 3D

Exercise 3 1. 5. 9. 13. 80 19,104 30,096 78,040 11,067 2. 6. 10. 14. 1,611 8,454 810 R = 2 167 R = 7 3. 4,620 7. 780, R = 4 11. 25,699 4. 111 R = 1 8. 18,844 12. 18,716

Exercise 4 1. 5. 4 6 24 40 2. 8 14 3. 22 24 4. 2 39

Exercise 6 1. 6 7 2 3 4 7 , 7 and 7 , 7 , 7 2. 2 3 2, 3

Exercise 7 1. 51 5. 126 Exercise 8 1. length 5. triangle 8. opposite Exercise 9 Check that the students mark the correct components of the circle. Exercise 10 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1289 km Rs 44,506, Rs 44,256 1,035Km, 9 p.m. 72 m, 360 m Rs 90, equal amounts were contributed by the boys and girls 1,600 kg 81 2. straight line 6. sides/vertices 9. curved 3. point 7. square/rhombus 10. diameter 4. two 11. four 2. 60 3. 200 4. 217

7. 1,150 crates each, 20,200 cans 6 2 8. 15 = 5 9. 50 ml, 16 pens, 2 ml left 10. 9th June, Monday Unit 2: Numbers Exercise 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 645,762, 645,000 500,000 + 60,000 + 1000 + 90 + 7 four hundred and fty-six thousand, eight hundred and seven thousands 682,511

Activity 999,999 place value: Hundred thousand Exercise 2 1. 123,453,298 Exercise 3 1. two million nine hundred and sixty-six thousand eight hundred and fty 2. three hundred and fty million, nine hundred and seventy-six thousand, two hundred and twenty-ve 3. thirty-four million, eight hundred and seventy-three thousand, three hundred 4. ve million, eight thousand four hundred and fty Exercise 4 2. 5,67,88,004 (ve crore, sixty-seven lac, eighty-eight thousand and four) 3. 6,75,43,098 (six crore, seventy-ve lac, forty-three thousand and ninety eight) 4. 4,67,63,005 (four crore, sixty-seven lac, sixty-three thousand and ve) 82 2. 892,046,710 3. 40,097,012 4. 6,337,027

Exercise 5 1. < Exercise 6 1. 2. 3. 4. 8,014,300; 18,320,200; 81,630,450 1,573,694; 2,516,019; 4,532,481 9,208,751; 9,240,715; 9,248,517 4,035,812; 4,053,612; 4,530,216 2. > 3. > 4. <

Activity The given activities require students to search for the gures on the internet or in the school library. Exercise 7 1. 4. 7. 10. 13. 499,699 761,911 1,040,167 1,108,008 925,454 2. 5. 8. 11. 14. 533,577 899,962 189,085 1,092,140 3,646,121 3. 6. 9. 12. 15. 900,811 998,959 708,122 1,174,053 974,498

Exercise 8 1. 4. 7. 10. Rs 152,000 1,572,204 322,200 40,100 2. 1,108,030 5. 1,071,500, 8. 1,585,750 3. 1,031,347 6. 264,464 9. 513,328

Exercise 9 1. 4. 7. 10. 521,162 397,985 383,495 135,177 2. 5. 8. 11. 696,994 236,182 153,434 912,960 3. 6. 9. 12. 35,999 407,949 111,113 530,299

83

Exercise 10 1. 676,400 Exercise 11 1. 64,319 Exercise 12 1. 4. 7. 10. 127,765 236,745 88,690 4,069,500 2. 470,464 5. 175,049 8. 264,319 3. 120,778 6. 42,599 9. 48,834 2. 727,109 2. 853,200 3. 747,500

Exercise 13 1. 27,184,815 4. 22,756,000 Exercise 14 1. 4. 7. 10. 15,237,600 276,480 Rs 9,088,625 4,657,500 2. Rs 6500 5. Rs 28,050 8. 80,000 3. 9,424,250 m or 9424 km 6. 127,020 9. Rs 202,080 2. 33,316,650 5. 23,909,904 3. 47,574,135

Exercise 15 1. 533 R = 9 Exercise 16 2. Rs 494 5. 1030 8. Rs 205 3. 82 km 6. 73, 16 left 9. 302 4. 65 7. 200, 15 2. 155 R = 41 3. 153, R = 6 4. 100 R = 9

Unit 3: Factors and multiples Exercise 1 2. NYN Exercise 2 1. 2,5,10 5. 10 Exercise 3 Solved table from the book YNY, NYY, NNN, NYY, NNN, YYY, YNN, YNY Exercise 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 2, 3, 5, 7 14 (40, 42, 44, 46, 48, 50, 51, 52, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58 , 60) 83, 89 97 2 = 95 101 2 28 2303 132 No, it is divisible by 3 2. odd 3. remainder 4. 3 3. NYN 4. YYY 5. YYY

85

2. a. c. e. g. i. 3. yes

b. d. f. h. j.

5. yes

Exercise 6 1. 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 Exercise 7 1. multiples of 4 3. multiples of 8 Exercise 8 1. a. b. c. d. e. 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3 , 6, 9, 18 11 , 22 3 , 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 36 3 , 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 48 5 , 10, 25, 50 b. 2, 3 b. 3, 2 c. 2 c. 2, 3 d. 7, 5 d. 7 2. multiples of 11 4. multiples of 9 2. 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48 3. 196

2. a. 1, 11 e. 5, 2 3. a. 3, 5 e. 2, 3, 5 Exercise 9 1. a. 3 c. 2

b. 1, co-prime number d. 2 e. 5 c. 2 e. 2

2. a. 8 b. 2 d. 1, co-prime number 86

Exercise 10 1 a. 20 l 2. 8 Exercise 11 1. a. 20 e. 55 2. a. 84 e. 72 3. a. 30 e. 300 Exercise 12 1. 9:00 a.m. Activity Product of Numbers 54 50 24 36 108 168 80 28 48 HCF 3 5 2 3 3 2 2 1 2 LCM 18 10 12 12 36 84 40 28 24 HCF LCM 3 18 = 54 5 10 = 50 2 12 = 24 3 12 = 36 3 36 = 108 2 84 = 168 2 40 = 80 1 28 = 28 2 24 = 48 2. 60 3. 180 4. 90 sec b. 18 b. 60 b. 100 c. 36 c. 48 c. 72 d. 40 d. 48 d. 16 b. 9 times and 10 times 3. 9 cm 4. 6 cm

87

Exercise 2 1. Colour 6 boxes 3. Colour 7 boxes 5. Colour 1 box Exercise 3 1. unit fractions: 5 , 4 5 4 improper fractions: 5 , 7 , 3 4 3 2 2. a. e. i. 3. a. e. i. 22 2 14 5 32 3 11 3 19 4 9 4 b. f. j. b. f. j. 31 3 42 3 23 5 21 4 4 3 21 5 c. g. 16 3 17 4 d. h. 5 2 13 2 proper fractions: 2 , 3 , 5 4 4 7 mixed fractions: 12 , 5 7 , 21 3 12 2 c. g. 41 2 33 4 d. h. 21 5 32 5 2. Colour 8 boxes 4. Colour 3 boxes

88

Exercise 4 1. 5. 3 9 1 2 2. 6. 12 16 3 5 3. 7. 27 90 4 5 4. 8. 1 1 10 15

Exercise 5 1. 5. 9. 1 4 3 5 2 3 2. 6. 5 6 1 2 3. 7. 3 4 2 3 4. 8. 4 6 8 9

1 10. 2

3 11. 8

Exercise 6 1. 1, 6, 30, 3, 2, 5 3. 30, 10, 12, 60, 6, 20 5. 16, 6, 24, 18, 6, 3 Activity 4 2 Sidra: 6 Nadir: 3 Exercise 7 1. 7 63 4 2 90 9 2 10 6 3 9 = 48 , 6 = 3 , 100 = 10 , 5 = 25 , 8 = 4 2. 24, 4, 9, 24, 18, 60 4. 7, 36, 56, 9, 21, 54

2. Hammad 3. a. 4. a. 1 2 7 4 , 5 , 10 5 2 5 6, 3, 9 b. b. 2 8 3 7 , 14 , 4 4 7 1 5 , 10 , 2

89

Exercise 8 1. 5. 9. 2 2 =1 6 3 8=4 11 12 2. 6. 3 5 5 1 10 = 2 3. 7. 5 8 4 3 4. 8. 5 7 10 11

10 10. 9

Exercise 9 1. 5. 9. 5 6 11 12 111 28 2. 6. 11 24 19 24 3. 7. 5 18 15 12 4. 11 12

8. 1

15 10. 16

Exercise 10 1. 5. 3 5 29 30 2. 23 56 3. 5, 2 7 7 4. 6 10

Exercise 11 1. 5. 9. 1 4 1 6 9 13 2. 6. 1 5 2 11 3. 7. 2 7 1 5 4. 8. 6 3 8=4 5 12

3 1 10. 9 = 3

Exercise 12 1. 6 11 2. 7 10 3. 11 24 4. 17 60

90

5. 9.

2 1 20 = 10 1 6

6.

5 18

7.

5 18

8.

3 20

1 10. 10

Exercise 13 1. 1 6. 1 6 2. 1 10 3. 23 60 4. 5 7

Exercise 14 1. 5. 1 6 5 12 2. 7 24 3. 1 12 4. 1 4

Challenge: 1. 4 8 1 8 3 8 Exercise 15 1. 5. 9. 4 35 (P) 1 6 (P) 1 3 (P) 2. 6. 35 12 (I) 13 77 (P) 3. 7. 1 21 (P) 1 10 (P) 4. 8. 1 24 (P) 3 40 (P) 3 8 2 8 1 8 7 8 3 8 4 8 2. 1 2 1 6 2 6 1 3 1 6 1 6 5 6 1 3 3 6

2 12. 21 (P)

3 13. 28 (P)

91

Exercise 16 1. 40, 60 5. 14 5 2. 9 1 3. Rs 6 4. 1 8

Activity

5 12 17 ; 17 Exercise 17 1. 5. 3 2 14 5 2. 1 3. 3 1 4. 5 1

Exercise 18 1. 5. 35 36 5 6 2. 6. 1 4 33 4 3. 7. 1 21 12 13 4. 8. 6 7 1 6

9. 4 Exercise 19 1. 5. 8 9 2 3 2 2. 28 3 6 3. 1 7 4. 5 7

Activity 26 branches

92

Exercise 2 1. 0.1 Exercise 3 1. 2 , 0.2 cm 10 2. 6 , 0.6 cm 10 3. 7 , 0.7 cm 10 4. 3 , 0.3 cm 10 2. 0.4 3. 1.3 4. 5.9

Exercise 4 0.3, 0.5, 0.8, 1.2, 1.5 Exercise 5 1. 0.34 Exercise 6 1. 18 boxes shaded 0.82 unshaded 2. 51 boxes shaded, 0.49 unshaded 3. 7 boxes shaded, 0.93 unshaded 50 4. 150 boxes shaded, 200 unshaded 83 5. 217 boxes shaded, 300 unshaded Exercise 7 2. 0.45 6. 0.62 3. 1.33 4. 0.07 5. 2.45 2. 0.52 3. 0.79 4. 0.91

93

Exercise 9 1. 2.

H T U . 7 4 3 .

t 6

Th H T U . t h th 1 0 0 2 . 1 5 8

3.

4.

H T U . 5 0 3 . 5.

t h th 0 4 5

U . 0 .

t h th 8 9 2

t h th 9 0 1

2. <

3. <

4. <

94

Exercise 11 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7 8.81, 8.82, 8.83, 8.84, 8.85, 8.86 3.010, 3.011, 3.012, 3.013, 3.014 7.17, 7.18, 7.19 100.09, 100.10, 100.11

Activity Dierent solutions are possible. Exercise 12 1. 0.845 5. 67.988 Exercise 13 1. 2.78 5. 51.155 Exercise 14 1. 2.81 Exercise 15 1. 472.993 5 Rs 113.57 Challenge 0.56 0.76 1.32 0.3 0.84 1.14 0.59 1.60 2.46 4.8 6.3 11.1 2.9 7.4 10.3 7.7 13.7 21.4 95 2. 21.8 6. 1.803 kg 3. 26.544 7. 43.658 4. Rs 2.88 8. 3.278 km 2. 4.269 3. 79.638 4. 12. 842 2. 919.92 6. 76.001 3. 16.778 4. 44.22 2. 11.547 6. 654.899 3. 57.845 4. 167.0225

Exercise 16 1. 92.4 5. 0.294 Exercise 17 1. 72.8 5. 10.125 Exercise 18 1. 348.76 5. 0.1 Exercise 19 1. 18.72 m Exercise 20 1. 3.467 5. 0.001009 Exercise 21 1. 0.4568 g 2. 1.245 m 3. 0.0235 mg 4. 23.5 (Each friend gets 23 chocolates. Kabir keeps 5 chocolates for himself.) 5. 0.25 kg Unit 6: Measurements Exercise 1 1 cm 5. m 2. m 3. km 4. m 2. 0.90678 3. 0.48623 4. 0.0034 2. Rs 3170 3. 1088.36 MB 4. Rs 26.04 2. 193.7 3. 0.98 4. 345 2. 120.01 3. 2.016 4. 547.936 2. 1642.69 3. 3.174 4. 1.38

96

Exercise 2 1. 5. 9. 13. 17. 1.55 m 3569 m 8.006 km 6.1 cm 7 mm 2. 6. 10. 14. 18. 2.5 m 0.034 km 29.109 km 2372 cm 361 mm 3. 7. 11. 15. 19. 13.04 m 5.679 km 3.4 cm 45601 cm 128 mm 4. 8. 12. 16. 20. 1209 m 0.283 km 5.12 cm 230 mm 429 mm

Exercise 3 1. 1.68 m Exercise 4 home city X city Z city D Exercise 5 1. 680000 m, 2770 m, 51500 m 3. 680 km 5. same Exercise 6 100.84 m Exercise 7 1 m 62 cm Exercise 8 1. a. e. 2. a. e. 3. a. e. 1.342 kg b. 34.742 kg 67.005 kg 5000 g b. 8341 g 3005 g 9.779 kg b. 1.152 kg 8.024 kg c. 0.889 kg c. 4091 g c. 12.832 kg d. 2.067 kg d. 56725 g d. 0.1 kg 2. 2.77 km 4. 734.27 km 2. 29.12 m 3. 5.16 m 4. 247.69 m

97

Exercise 9 1. 39.11 kg 5. 42.482 kg Exercise 10 1. a. e. 2. a. e. 3. a. e. 4900 ml 7482 ml 0.49 l 126.004 l 25.562 16.186 l b. 3834 ml b. 2.222 l b. 2.456 l c. 7035 ml c. 0.098 l c. 8.376 l d. 46400 ml d. 75.806 l d. 43.594 l 2. 74.018 kg 3. 6.3 kg 6. 1 kg 500 g + 750 g + 250 g 4. 0.41 g

Exercise 11 1. 2.89 l Unit 7: Time Exercise 1 1. 10:55 5. 7:05 Exercise 2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. a. a. a. a. a. c. 6. a. d. 180 sec b. 265 sec c. 5 min b. 240 min c. 9 hr b. 72 hr c. 3 days b. 120 days c. 2 months b. 3 months 18 days 41 months d. 84 months 3 years b. 7 years c. 3 years 9 months 1920 sec 9 min 2 sec 119 hr 32 days d. d. d. d. 402sec 225 min 1 hr 75 days 2. 4:25 6. 12:40 3. 6:00 4. 2:15 2. 446.5 l 3. 571.5 ml

1 year 2 months

Exercise 3 Students answers may vary; help them write the correct a.m. or p.m. times. 98

Exercise 4 1. 19 min 53 sec 2. 3 hr 22 min 3. 10 days 20 hrs 4. 8 min 8 sec 5. 52 hr 27 min 6. 2 days 11 hr 7. 8 week 3 days 8. 4 years 3 months Exercise 5 1. 6:50 a.m. 5. 2:21 a.m. Exercise 6 1. 11:20 a.m. in hall 2 2. 3 hr 40 min 3. 1 hr 15 min 4. 2 hrs 50 min 5. 7:40 p.m. Exercise 7 1. 7:35 a.m. 2. 10 hr 52 min 3. 8:12 a.m. 4. 14 min 21 sec Unit 8: Geometry Exercise 1 1. 5.5 cm 5 7.7 cm 9. 11.8 cm Exercise 2 Help the students with this exercise and check their work. Exercise 3 1. 9.7 cm 2. 6.3 cm 5. 9.9 (all approximate measures) Exercises 4, 5, and 6 Help the students with these exercises and check their work. 99 3. 7 cm 4. 13 cm 2. 5.1 cm 6. 9.0 cm 10. 11 cm 3. 2.6 cm 7. 12.1 cm 4. 10.2 cm 8. 7.4 cm 2. 3:00 p.m. 3. 10:36 a.m. 4. 7:45 p.m.

Exercise 7 Parallel: 1, 4, 5, 8, 9 intersecting: 2, 3, 6, 7 Exercise 8 and 9 Help the students with these exercises and check their work. Exercise 10 1. right angle 5. acute 9. obtuse Exercise 11 1. 55 5. 146 Exercise 12 1. 45 5. 25 Exercise 13 1. a. e. i. 2. a. d. 3. a. b. c. 4. a. b. c. d. 100 acute b. obtuse acute f. obtuse acute j. obtuse 80/acute b. 110/obtuse 145/obtuse e. 10/acute 30, 60 (acute, acute) 75, 150 (acute, obtuse) 90, 180 (right, straight) 20, 80, 100 (obtuse) 45, 85, 130 (obtuse) 110, 10, 120 (obtuse) 145, 15, 160 (obtuse) c. obtuse g. obtuse c. 90/right f. 170/obtuse d. right h. straight 2. 122 6. 152 3. 140 4. 50 2. 15 6. 45 3. 80 4. 102 2. obtuse 6. complete 3. acute 7. obtuse 4. straight 8. reex

Activity 1. a.

b.

c.

d.

Help the students measure the angles the clock hands make. 2. 3 oclock and 9 oclock 3. 6 oclock Activity 13 12 11 10 9 8 7

oasis palm tree cactus

N camel

4 3 2 1 0

ostrich A

9 10 11 12 13

101

Exercise 14 1. AE, EC, EB 2. DG 3. 1.8 cm Exercise 15 1. radius 3. diameter Exercise 16 1. Check the circles that students draw. 2. a. 7.9 cm b. 15.3 mm c. 5.2 cm 3. a. 11.6 cm b. 7.4 cm c. 9.8 cm Exercise 17 Check the students work. Unit 9: Information Handling Exercise 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. There are 5 names, therefore 5 bars Fluy Bobo 5 + 8 + 6 + 2 + 1 = 22 1 1 Roger 2. circumference 4. circumference EW, EZ, EY, EX CD, XY, AB 2 cm

5. Favourite Sports of the Maths Class y-axis: number of students x-axis: favourite sports Exercise 3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. a. 14 b. 19 a. science b. language mathematics & social studies 68 3 c. 14

Exercise 4 1. Jan, 20; Feb, 55; Mar, 30; Apr, 45; May, 10; Jun, 25 July, 30; Aug, 75; Sept, 60; Oct, 30 2. a. August b. May 3. July, 10 4. 380 5. 30 6. 15 7. 270 Unit 10: Assess and review 2 Exercise 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 40 million ten thousand 48 2 97

103

Exercise 3 1. 63024 + 34871 = 97895 2. 87967 40300 = 47667 Exercise 4 1. > Exercise 5 1. 8 Exercise 6 1. 397.6 5. 1.445 Exercise 7 1. Forty ve point and zero nine six 2. Three hundred forty-four million, eight hundred and ninety-three, nine hundred and eighty 3. Zero point zero zero four 4. Three hundred million, four thousand and ten Exercise 8 1. 1 5. 2 7 2. 3 2 3. 9 2 4. 4 63 2. 0.037875 6. 4.249 3. 5.94 4 4.324 2. 0 2. > 3. <

1 6. 3 3

Exercise 9 1. 6.4 Exercise 10 1. 104 345 1000 65 2. 23 100 3. 25 100 1 4. 6 2 2. 600.203 3. 2004.07 4. 45020.009

Exercise 11 19,000 Exercise 12 1. 763,566 Exercise 13 79 Exercise 14 60 Exercise 15 19 jugs Exercise 16 975,430 Exercise 17 1. 17,089 ml 5. 48 9. 0.75 Exercise 18 AOD, AOB, BOC, COD, AOC, BOD Exercise 19 1. 67 2. 145 3. 35 4. 108 2. 800 m 6. 7 15 10. 100 3. 60 months 7. 704 cm 4. 7.006 km 8. 25,050 g 2. 514,383

105

Exercise 20 Check students answers. Exercise 21 1. 9:35 p.m. Exercise 22 1. 3.059 km Exercise 23 24 litres Exercise 24 Check the students work. Exercise 25 1. 2 4. cloudy 2. 2 5. True 3. Tuesday & Saturday 2. 3.721 km 2. 12:00 p.m. 3. 12:10 a.m. 4. 4:30 p.m.

106

G. Answers to Book 5

Unit 1: Assess and Review 1 Exercise 1 1. 104,260,000 4. 103,944,000 Exercise 2 1. 404,040 4. 45,097,012 Exercise 3 1. 429,576 inches 2. 1,073,940 Exercise 4 90,001 Exercise 5 0.001, 0.02, 0.112, 0.121 Exercise 6 1. 16:25 Exercise 7 1. 1278 Exercise 8 16,002 railway compartments 2. 12 3. 1419 2. 00:10 3. 12:30 4. 21:18 3. 10.91 2. 200,048,503 3. 6,337,027 2. 123,069,000 5. 8 million 3. 260,599

107

Exercise 9 8548 m Exercise 10 468,505,600 sq.km Exercise 11 1. 11:00 p.m. Exercise 12 1324 Exercise 13 18 Exercise 14 535150 Exercise 15 Rs 423.20 Exercise 16 1. < 5. > Exercise 17 10.22 carats 2. > 6. > 3. = 7. < 4. < 2. 12:54 a.m. 3. 12:45 p.m.

108

Exercise 18 Sohail by 0.75 m Exercise 19 orange Exercise 20 630 kernels Exercise 21 1 Siddiq by 10 km Exercise 22 8 1. 3 & 9 Exercise 23 1. 14 3 2. 67 10 3. 100 3 4. 100 9 2 2. 9 & 11 3 3. 10 & 6 9 4. 11 & 8

Exercise 24 Anwaar plays more. Exercise 25 Check the angles the students draw. Exercise 26 1. 12 2. 81 3. 1 4. 12

109

Exercise 27 obtuse angle, acute angle, right angle, acute angle Exercise 28 1. 168 Exercise 29 96 Exercise 30 42, 84 Exercise 31 30 Exercise 32 19, 50 Exercise 33 26 kg 700 g Exercise 34 1. 3 4 2. 6 7 3. 15 27 4. 1 4 2. 48 3. 360 4. 1092

Exercise 35 1 and 4 are groups of like fractions. Exercise 36 Tazeen got the biggest share and Maham the smallest. 110

Exercise 37 1. 24 5. 1 12 2. 6. 5 7 5 8 3. 0 4. 3 8

Exercise 38 13.95 kg Exercise 39 1. 5700 minutes Exercise 40 1. 5 hrs 59 mins 2. 7 hrs 30 mins 3. 8 hrs 59 mins Exercise 41 40 mins 40 secs Exercise 42 4320 owers Exercise 43 Check the lines the students draw. Exercise 44 670, 532 Exercise 45 Check the lines the students draw. 2. 310 minutes 3. 4 minutes

111

Exercise 46 1. sqaure 4. trapezium Exercise 47 1. circumference 2. diameter 3. centre 4. equal 2. parellogram 3. rectangle

Unit 2: Numbers and arithmetic operations Exercise 1 1. Only the number: 4,085,000 2. 400, 000,000 + 50,000,000 + 8,000,000 + 500,000 + 60,000 + 1000 + 90 + 7 3. Two hundred and sixty-one million, four hundred and fty-six thousand and eight hundred and seven 4. 2 is in 10 millions place 5. 345,682,510 Exercise 2 1. 123,453,298 2. 3,892,046,710 3. 2, 004,097,012 4. 6,045,337,027 5. 25,040,015 Exercise 3 1. Five billion, seven hundred and sixty-two million, nine hundred and sixty-six thousand, eight hundred and fty 2. Three hundred and fty million, nine hundred and seventy-six thousand, two hundred and twenty-ve 3. One billion, thirty-four million, eight hundred and seventy-three thousand, three hundred 4. Five billion, one hundred and twenty-three million, eight thousand, four hundred and fty 5. Nine billion, eight million, forty thousand and ve

112

Exercise 4 1. 1,256,788,004 2. 4,467,543,098 3. 106,763,005 4. 46,583,930,400 5. 302,639,264 Exercise 5 1. > 5. > Exercise 6 1. 2. 3. 4. 48,014,300; 418,320,200; 481,630,450 431,573,694; 542,516,019; 1,114,532,481 3,229,208,751; 6,479,248,517; 9,456,240,715 4,234,530,216; 4,256,053,612; 4,345,035,812 2. < 3. > 4. >

Exercise 7 1. 16,065,679 2. 13,093,421 4. 647,219,011 5. 51,386,961 7. 2,470,201,844 8. 149,470,717 Exercise 8 1. 660,757,611 4. 486,155,852 7. 71,741,609 Exercise 9 1. 978,896,452 4. 11,126,401 7. 37,640 Exercise 10 1. Karachi 4. 18,201,147 2. 16,791,379 3. 8,917,521 113 2. 89,439,794 5. 77,535,805 8. 8,645,336 3. 93,818,702 6. 40,000,001 2. 71,936,787 5. 49,089,134 8. 51,469,060 3. 410,629,209 6. 14,719,708 9. 783,111,257 3. 93,246,956 6. 796,423,716 9. 1,851,425,727

Exercise 11 1. 140,584,815 4. 350,756,000 Exercise 12 1. 69,377 R78 5. 1572 Exercise 13 1. Rs 212,925,000 4. 604,800 secs 7. 5669 min Exercise 14 1. 1119 5. 0 Activity 3 7 21 7 22 15 6 9 4 5 20 4 48 12 45 15 12 9 3 3 6 2 8 16 2 18 24 17 10 40 8 48 26 2 16 10 36 3 8 24 5 9 2 14 3 12 4 6 2. 2530 6. 226 3. 484 4. 0 2. Rs 275,053,450 5. Rs 1,338,525,000 8. 1,027,601 3. 1001 6. 1500 mins 2. 27,092 R 243 3. 6186 R 855 4. 973 2. 324,766,650 5. 236,071,504 3. 529,664,135

Unit 3: HCF and LCM Exercise 1 1. 2 5. 4 9. 2 114 2. remainder 6. multiples 10. 195 3. 18 7. 0 4. 7 8. 99

Exercise 2 2. 24 Exercise 3 2. 7 Exercise 4 2. 6 Exercise 5 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. by 3 by 4 by 6 by 9 by 11 6543; 20,058; 67,800; 12,609; 456,984 29,612; 48,232; 67,800; 456,984 20,058; 67,800; 456,984 6543; 12,609; 456,984 1870; 15,686; 70,202; 29,612; 456,984 3. 7 4. 8. 3. 11 4. 6 3. 30 4. 84

Exercise 6 1. 3 4. 9 Exercise 7 1. 900 5. 84 Exercise 8 1. LCM: 36; HCF 3 product of 12 and 9: 108; product of LCM and HCF: 108 2. not possible 3. not possible 4. not possible Exercise 9 1. 3 2. 60 3. 20 115 2. 180 3. 96 4. 132 2. 8 5. 7 3. 3 6. 35

Exercise 10 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 6. 7. 8. 11:30 a.m. 185 36 20 children, 4 books, 5 toys a. 20 ml b. 9, 10 times after 30 secs, 2nd time after 60 secs 16 after 6 days

Activity

1.

4.

S I

E V

2.

F O U

3.

P R I

X

7.

6.

E N

T E

8.

Z E R R

9.

M E

10. 11.

T W

5 1 1 6 7 12 , 3 2 , 7 13 , 9 9 10 10

2 2. 3 7

2 3. 12 9

3 4. 3 16

2.

100 9

3.

77 9

4.

45 2

Exercise 6 1. 1 , 3 , 13 2 2 2 2. 1 , 1 , 23 4 14 4

Exercise 9 2. 7 9 3. 3 4 4. 14 31 117

17 6. 5 35 7 10. 3 34 3 14. 2 20

19 9. 5 24 1 13. 1 60 Exercise 11 1. a. 5 6

b.

1 6

3 2. 2 4 5 5. Arman, 8 more 1 8. 4 8 m

1 3. Rs 51 2 2 6. 6 3 m Activity 3 34 1

4. 8 cm 1 7. 5 2 cm

1 14

1 24

1 12

3 13 4 8 1 2 3 44 1 34

3 54

1 22

Exercise 12 1. 5. 8 15 5 6 2. 6. 3 14 3 22 3. 1 6 1 4. 3 4 2 8. 4 3

3 7. 84 20

Exercise 16 1 1. 4 2 Challenge 15 boards Activity THEY ALREADY HAVE BILLS. Exercise 17 7 1. 1 20 5. 1 2 2. 5 9 3. 0 1 4. 1 4 1 2. 22 2 3. 6 pieces 4. 25 pieces

6. 4

Exercise 5 1. 2831.47 Exercise 6 1. > Exercise 7 1. 8.854 5. 104.895 Exercise 8 1. 12.74 5. 361.125 Exercise 9 1. 11.8 Exercise 10 1. 12.4 5. 1.125 Exercise 11 1. 100 5. 100 120 2. 1000 3. 10 4. 100 2. 17.269 3. 5.0784 4. 0 2. 6.02 3. 10.293 2. 19.09 3. 3.378 4. 54.001 2. 461.18 3. 67.425 4. 111.968 2. > 3. = 4. < 2. 303.2 3. 1004.308 4. 4.05

Exercise 12 1. 68.25 m Exercise 13 1. 450 cm 5. 55 mm Exercise 14 1. 3.467 5. 0.001009 9. 110 Exercise 15 2. 100 Exercise 16 2. 0.0175 Exercise 17 1. 4.5 5. 9.500 Exercise 18 1. 198.583 5. 2.25 Exercise 19 1. a. 3.8 2 a. 8.97 3. b. 4.98 Exercise 20 1. Rs 15.10 5. 75.3 km 9. 6 cups 2. 18 m 6. 45.3 10. 176.85 kg 3. 300.2 kg 4. 10.23 cm 7. Haz by 0.3 sec 8. Rs 75 121 b. 60.0 b. 37.90 c. 116.67 c. 196.9 c. 500.00 d. 73.89 2. 3.3 3. 0 4. 0.46 2. 0.90 6. 2.360 3. 34.52 7. 20.50 4. 6.500 3. 0.0175 4. 17.5 5. 0.175 3. 1000 4. 100 5. 0 2. 0.90678 6. 3.24 10. 1 3. 0.48623 7. 12.5 4. 0.0034 8. 46.5 2. 15,250 g 3. 510 cm 4. 1500 ml 2. Rs 217.00

d. 49.02

Challenge 1 7 0.7 7 0.7 = 100 Challenge 2 9.95, 11.08, 12.21 3.4, 2.9, 3.3 0.47, 0.60, 0.57 0.8, 8, 80 Exercise 21 2. 32% 6. 150% Exercise 22 Per cent 35% 50% 45% 75% 5% 1% 129% 245% 525% Exercise 23 1. 122 65 100 , 65%, 35% 2. 43 100 , 43%, 57% Fraction 35 100 50 100 45 100 75 100 5 100 1 100 129 100 245 100 525 100 Decimal Fraction 0.35 0.50 0.45 0.75 0.05 0.01 1.29 2.45 5.25 3. 45% 4. 80% 5. 60% (+1.13) (+ 0.4, 0.5) (+ 0.13, 0.03) ( 10)

Exercise 24 2. 6. 1 2 3 2 3. 1 20 4. 1 4 5. 4

Exercise 25 2. 0.07 6. 1.25 Exercise 26 2. 87% 6. 225% Exercise 27 Only Exercise 27.4 is incorrect, the correct answer is 0.015 Exercise 28 1. 6% 5. 40% Exercise 29 1. 60% Exercise 30 1. 4. 5. 6. 30% a. 20% a. 60% a. 53% 2. b. b. b. maths 90% 80% 312 47% 3. 1, 1, 4, 3 2 5 5 25 2. 170% 3. 50% 4. 4 25 2. 175% 6. 6% 3. 36% 7. 180% 4. 75% 8. 412.5% 3. 1% 4. 56% 5. 23% 3. 0.02 4. 0.15 5. 0.90

c. 208

Activity cricket (40%), football (20%), basketball (30%), badminton (10%) 1. cricket 2. badminton 3. 160 123

Unit 6: Measurement: Distance, Time, and Temperature Exercise 1 3. 0.8932 7. 8.11 11. 47.8 Exercise 2 2. 1265 6. 12 Exercise 3 1. 15 m79 cm 4. 5 cm 2 mm Exercise 4 1. 528.92 km 4. 2.05 m Exercise 5 1. 141 km 34 m 4. 10 km 910 m Exercise 6 1. 784.241 km 4. 37,552 km Exercise 7 1. 240 secs 5. 460 secs 2. 180 mins 3. 96 hrs 4. 250 mins 2. 1.875 km 5. 2.5 km 3. 6400.1 km 6. 251.78 km 2. 111 m 82 cm 3. 22 cm 2 mm 5. 9 km 91 m 6. 5 m 77 cm 2. 42.05 m 5. 1.015 km 3. 4.25 km 2. 20 m 10 cm 5. 56 m 5 cm 3. 56 km 475 m 3. 1 km 567 m 4. 3 cm 9 mm 5. 3020 4. 9300 8. 34500 12. 45,000 5. 0.326 9. 4.050 6. 6084 10. 9530

124

Exercise 8 1. 5 mins 52 secs 4. 4 hrs 50 mins Exercise 9 1. 2 hrs 5 mins 3. 5 weeks 1 day Exercise 10 1. 09.00 a.m. 4. 1 hour 45 mins Exercise 11 7 hrs 50 min Exercise 12 1 min 46 secs Exercise 13 2. 69 hrs 2 mins 5. 49 mins 12 secs Exercise 14 2. 3 hrs 34 mins 5. 4 mins 16 secs Exercise 15 1. 49 days 5. 96 months 9. 120 days 2. 40 weeks 6. 144 months 10. 12 weeks 3. 432 weeks 7. 1095 days 4. 8 weeks 8. 5 months 3. 10 hrs 34 mins 6. 23 mins 48 secs 4. 5 mins 19 secs 3. 41 hrs 20 mins 6. 81 mins 24 secs 4. 59 mins 47 secs 2. 1 hour 3. 3 hours 15 minutes 5. 0900 hrs, 1000 hrs, 1600 hrs 2. 11 mins 22 secs 4. 4 years 3 months 2. 7 hrs 30 mins 3. 10 days 20 hrs 5. 8 years 11 months.

125

Exercise 16 1. 7:45 a.m. 4. 4 hrs. 49 min Challenge 7 June 31/12/06, 11:52 p.m. Exercise 17 1. 35C Exercise 18 2.5C Exercise 19 70C Exercise 20 1. 12C Exercise 21 1. 50C 5. 59F Exercise 22 1. mild Exercise 23 1. 27C 126 2. 23C 2. 0C 3. 15 degrees 2. 20C 6. 140F 3. 2C 4. 81.5F 2. 7C 3. birds 2. 39C 3. 4C 4. 45C 2. 22:05 hours 3. 8 hrs. 45 min 5. 4 hrs 35 min

Unit 7: Unitary Method; Ratio and Proportion Exercise 1 1. 1950 kg 5. 500 men 9. 16 days Exercise 2 1. proportion Unit 8: Geometry Exercise 1 arms; vertex; acute, 90; obtuse, straight; right; 360 Exercise 2 1. <DCB = 26, acute 3. <MNO = 55, acute Exercise 3 Check the students work. Exercise 4 2. any corner of the classroom 3. any corner of your book 4. any corner of the teachers desk Exercise 5 300, 340, 250, 310 Exercise 6 Check the students work. 127 2. <EFG = 125 obtuse 4. <PQR 98, obtuse 2. ratio 3. directly 4. decrease 2. 200 km 6. 960 kg 10. 16 nights 3. 25 kg 7. 3 days 4. 16 days 8. 150 pages

Exercise 7 <POR and <ROS ; <ROS and <SOQ <DOA and <AOC ; <AOC and <COB; <COB and <BOD; <BOD and <DOA Exercise 8 1. complementary 3. supplementary 5. complementary Exercise 9 1. 57 5. 174 9. 72 Exercise 10 3. 90 Exercise 11 equilateral, scalene, scalene isosceles, scalene, equilateral Exercise 12 right-angled triangle, right-angled triangle, acute-angled triangle obtuse-angled triangle, obtuse-angled triangle, acute-angled triangle Exercise 13 Triangle ABC PQR XYZ Angle 1 90 90 100 Angle 2 30 45 50 Angle 3 60 45 30 Sum 180 180 180 4. 60 (30 2 = 60) 2. 124 6. 177 10. 12 3. 102 7. 14 4. 68 8. 25 2. supplementary 4. complementary

128

Exercise 14 The triangles PQR and DEC cannot be drawn as the sum of two of the sides in each triangle is less than the third side. Exercise 15 Check the students work; triangle XYZ cannot be drawn with the given measurements. Exercise 16 Check the students work. Exercise 17 1. square 4. rectangle Exercise 18 Check the students work. Exercise 19 Check the students work. Activity 1. rhombus 4. rhombus 2. parallelogram 5. kite 3. trapezium 6. an irregular quadrilateral 2. rhombus 5. trapezium 3. parellelogram

Exercise 3 1. 16 m 2. a. 50 m 3. 1 km Exercise 4 1. 8 cm Exercise 5 1. a. 4 cm b. 70 cm c. 15 cm 2. L = 8 cm, B = 2 cm, P = 20 cm, A= 16 cm 3. 64 m 4. Perimeter (cm) Length (cm) Breadth (cm) 2 (l + b) 14 20 12.5 15 25 Exercise 6 1. Rs 6000 Exercise 7 1. 2. 3. 4. P = 90 cm, A = 506.25 m P = 112 m, A = 768 m P = 150 cm, A = 1250 cm a. B = 10 m b. A = 300 m c. Rs 4500 e. Rs 2000 5. 210 m 6. Sonia runs 1200 m (150 + 150 + 150 + 150) 2 Nina runs 1080 m (100 + 80 + 100 + 80) 3 Sonia runs 120 m 130 2. Rs 192,000 3. Rs 1.8 million 10 15 8.5 6 20 48 70 42 42 90 2. 16 cm 3. 12 cm b. Rs 3750 4. 10 m

5. 16 m

d. P = 80 m

7. 12 m 8. a. hexagons and equilateral triangles as their area is the easiest to calculate b. because they leave gaps in between (the shape does not tessellate) Challenge The rst challenge shows two diagrams. Help the students calculate taking the hint. The second challenge is solved as shown below: A A C C Unit 10: Information handling Exercise 1 2. 45 6. 5 Exercise 2 1. Rs 280 2. a. Younis: 113.6 Yousuf: 92.8, Imran: 74.8, Kamran: 83.6, Syed: 78.4, Iqbal: 69.6 b. 69.6, 74.8, 78.4, 83.6, 92.8, 113.6 c. three players 3. 66.8 grams 4. 40 km 5. 340 kg 6. b. 2 + 4 = 62 = 3 (odd); 24 + 26 + 50 2 = 25 (odd) a. 3 + 5 = 12 2 = 6 (even); 15 = 17 = 32 2 = 16 (even) 7. town A: 83C, town B: 8.8Ctown A is colder. 131 3. 55 4. 3 5. 758 m B B

Exercise 3 Laila Kiran Junaid 0 Exercise 4 The graph will look like the one given below. It can be either a horizontal bar graph or a vertical bar graph as shown.

14 13 12 11 10 Number of Shops / Stores 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Ribbon Shop Hairpin Shop Cheese Store Mall Shops Pencil Store Hairband Shoelace Shop Shop

132

Exercise 5 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. four bars labels the bar for the blue whale since it has the maximum length the bar for the humpback whale Check the graphs the students draw.

Exercise 6

Favourite Colours of Class 5 ______________________ 9 8 7 Number of Students 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Red Blue Pink Colours Green Yellow

Exercise 7 1. The graph shows information about the sports played by students of Class 5. 2. There are 5 bars, since 5 sports are listed. 3. cricket 133

4. Hockey and volley ball 5. 50 students 6. 5:2 Exercise 8 The answers will vary. Exercise 9 1. Rs 675 2. Rs 675

Unit 11: Assess and Review 2 Exercise 1 i. 20,480,503 2. 162,337,027 3. 45, 097,012

Exercise 2 1. 5. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 134 7080 kg 2. 5 3. 8 m 100, 111, 102 6. 36 7. 5-2/5 Check the angles drawn by the students 10,050 m a. Rs 5.07 b. Rs 14. 58 c. Rs 0. 54 e. 333.450 km f. 56.560 kg g. 2.5 l 4 children 1.45 m Yes a. 23 days b. 72 days c. 9 days cabbage Skardu 10.87 m 15 hours 3. 130 1. 57 2. 86 5. 320 6. 160 a. windows b. 180 c. door 678, 411, 693 a. 7 b. 9 c. 13 4. 60 8. 500 secs d. 5.67 m h. 0.150 g

4. 240

24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

a. 96 b. 3420 c. Rs 160,000 Rs 7200 857,750 bulbs, 17,155 cartons a. 28% b. 60% c. a., d., f., and g. are complimentary b. and h. are supplementary c., e., i., and j. are neither 64 l 130 a. 0.42 b. 0.77 c. 1. 12.6 2. 29.1 3. 5. 5.2 6. 89.4 a. 16.12 b. 100.43916 c. e. 6.145 f. 4 g.

Asian Circus __________ 2000 1750 Number of People 1500 1250 1000 750 500 250 0 Sun Mon Tue Days Wed

390

d. 360

100%

Thurs

Fri

Sat

d. 15 4. 44.04 135

39.

136

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