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# Unit 2- Stresses in Beams

Topics Covered
Lecture -1 Review of shear force and bending

moment diagram
Lecture -2 Bending stresses in beams Lecture -3 Shear stresses in beams Lecture -4- Deflection in beams Lecture -5 Torsion in solid and hollow shafts.

## Torsional Deformation of Circular Bars

Assumptions

Plane sections remain plane and perpendicular to the torsional axis Material of the shaft is uniform Twist along the shaft is uniform. Axis remains straight and inextensible

Torsional Deformation
B

L F

= angle of twist

F
F F

= shear strain
is the shear strain, also remember that tan = ,thus : F'F R = = L L Note that shear strain does not only change with the amount of twist, but also, it varies along the radial direction such that it is zero at the center and increases linearly towards the outer periphery (see next slide)
5

Torsional Deformation
C q = = R L r
Shear stress at any point in the shaft is proportional to the distance of the point from the axis of the shaft.

## Torque transmitted by shaft(solid)

r R
total turning moment due to turning force = total force on the ring x Distance of the ring from the axis = 2r 3 dr R Total turning moment (or total torque) is obtained by integrating the above equation between the limits O and R R R T = 0 dT = 0 2r 3 dr R r 4 R R 3 = 2 0 r dr = 2 R R 4 0 = =

R3 2

D3 16

## Torque transmitted by shaft(hollow)

r R
total turning moment due to turning force = total force on the ring x Distance of the ring from the axis = 2r 3 dr R0 Total turning moment (or total torque) is obtained by integrating the above equation between the limits O and R Ro R0 T = R dT = R 2r 3 dr i i R 0

= 2 R

R0 3 Ri

r 4 R 0 r dr = 2 R0 4 R
i

R 0 4 R i 4 = 2 R 0 D0 4 Di 4 = 16 D0

## Power transmitted by shaft

Power transmitted by the shafts N = r.p.m of the shaft T = Mean torque transmitted = Angular speed of shaft 2NT * Power = 60 = T

## Torque in terms of polar moment of inertia

Moment dT on the circular ring dT =

## 2r 3 dr = r 2 2rdr (dA = 2rdr) R R

r R

r 2 dA R

Total Torque = T= =

R 0

dT

R 0

dT =

R 0

r 2 dA R

R 2 r dA R 0 r 2dA = moment of elemnetary ring about an axis perpendicular to the plane and passing though the center of the circle

R 2 0

## r dA = moment of the circle about an axis perpendicular to the plane

and passing though the center of the circle = Polar moment of inertia = D4 32

## Torque in terms of polar moment of inertia

r R

T = J R T = J R C = R L T C = = J R L

C = Modulus of rigidity

## = Angle of twist L = Length of the shaft

Polar Modulus
Polar modulus is defined as ration of polar moment of inertia to the radius of the shaft.

Zp =

J R

4 D 32

## 4 D Z p = 32 = D3 D /2 16 For hollow shaft => J = [ D0 4 Di 4 ] 32 [D04 Di4 ] 4 4 Z p = 32 = [D0 Di ] D0 /2 16D0

Torsional rigidity
Torsional rigidity is also called strength of the shaft. It is defined as product of modulus of rigidity (C) and polar moment of inertia

=C*J

D 2

## Shear Stress at a point on the surface of the shaft r =

c =

Tr T D 16T = = 4 2 D 3 J D 32 Bending stress at any point due to bending moment M My = = I y I Bending Stress at a point on the surface of the shaft r = D 2

b =

## Shaft in combined bending and Torsion stresses

Major principal Stress b 2 b = + + c 2 2 2 32M 2 16T 2 32M = + 3 + 2 D 3 D 3 2 D 16 M2 + T2 3 M + D Minor principal Stress 16 = M M2 + T2 D 3 Max shear Stress Max principal Stress - Min principal Stress = 2 16 = M2 + T2 3 D =

SOLID SHAFT

( ( (

## Shaft in combined bending and Torsion stresses

Major principal Stress 16D0 = M + M2 + T2 4 4 D0 Di

[ [ [

( ]
]( ](

) )

HOLLOW SHAFT

## Minor principal Stress 16D0 = M M2 + T2 4 4 D0 Di Max shear Stress 16D0 = M2 + T2 4 4 D0 Di

Application to a Bar

Normal Force:
Fn Fn

Bending Moment:
Mt Mt

Shear Force:
Ft Ft

Mn Mn