Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 7

3.

1,7

jet

Transports twelve c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of observations a r e offered: a l ljet

jet

F i g u r e s 3.19-3.21 p r e s e n t transports. The f o l l o w i n g

1. E x c e p t f o r t h e BAe 146 o f F i g . 3 . 2 l d . t r a n s p o r t s have a low wing c o n f i g u r a t i o n .

2. A l l h a v e t h e e n g i n e s i n s t a l l e d i n n a c e l l e s on t h e r e a r f u s e l a g e o r under t h e wing. The T r i s t a r o f Fig.3.20a has i t s center engine buried i n t h e fuselage w i t h an i n l e t i n t h e form of an S-duct. J e t engines p o d d e d b e l o w t h e w i n g w e r e p i o n e e r e d by B o e i n g o n t h e B47 bomber a n d b e f o r e t h a t b y A r a d o i n G e r m a n y d u r i n g w w i l . J e t e n g i n e s o n f u s e l a g e mounted n a c e l l e s w e r e p i o n e e r e d by t h e F r e n c h o n t h e Sud C a r a v e l l e . Not shown i n F i g s . 3 . 1 9 - 3 . 2 1 a r e j e t e n g i n e s b u r i e d i n t h e wing. T h e s e w e r e p i o n e e r e d by t h e B r i t i s h and u s e d on many j e t b o m b e r s a n d t r a n s p o r t s . Examples a r e t h e DH Comet, t h e HP Victor T h e AVRO V u l c a n ( F i g . l . l ) and t h e V i c k e r s V a l i a n t . T h e BAe N i m r o d o f F i g . 3 . 2 8b w h i c h w a s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e Comet a l s o s p o r t s t h i s t y p e o f e n g i n e arrangement., 3. N o t e t h a t e x c e p t f o r t h e BAe 146 a l l j e t t r a n s p o r t s r e t r a c t t h e landing gear i n t o t h e wing/fuselage intersection. T h e f u s e l a g e mounted g e a r o f t h e BAe 146 i s a very clean i n s t a l l a t i o n (aerodynamically speaking). H o w e v e r i t d o e s l i m i t l a t e r a l s t a b i l i t y o n t h e g r o u n d due t o t h e s m a l l d i s t a n c e between t h e main g e a r s . 4. Many j e t t r a n s p o r t s f o l l o w t h e B o e i n g w i n g / f u s e l a g e arrangement w i t h a wing g l o v e and a wing yehudi. The g l o v e / y e h u d i a r r a n g e m e n t ( p i o n e e r e d on t h e 707) p r o v i d e s f o r f a v o r a b l e d r a g , a t h i c k w i n g r o o t a n d a way to g e t t h e landing gear r e t r a c t e d without interfering with e i t h e r t h e inboard f l a p s or t h e rear spars. I t also o f f e r s v e r y good l a t e r a l s t a b i l i t y o n t h e g r o u n d . 5. M o s t j e t t r a n s p o r t s u s e a t r i c y c l e l a n d i n g g e a r layout. T h e B o e i n g 747 u s e s f o u r m a i n g e a r s t r u t s . w h i l e t h e DC 1 0 - 3 0 u s e s t h r e e m a i n g e a r s t r u t s . 6. O b s e r v e t h a t t h r e e j e t t r a n s p o r t s u s e T - t a i l s , remainder using low h o r i z o n t a l t a i l s .

the

7. F o r i n - f l i g h t s p e e d b r a k e s . t e n o f t h e j e t t r a n s p o r t s u s e w i n g mounted s p o i l e r s . However. t h e F o k k e r F - 2 8 a n d t h e BAe 146 ( F i g s . 3 . 2 1 c a n d d ) u s e r e a r f u s e l a g e mounted c l a m s h e l l d o o r s .

Part I I

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Page 5 5

3.1.8

Military Trainers

F i g u r e 3.22 s h o w s f o u r p r o p e l l e r d r i v e n m i l i t a r y trainers. F i g u r e s 3.23 and 3.24 p r e s e n t e i g h t j e t d r i v e n military trainers. Th- f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e offered: 1. T h e p r o p e l l e r d r i v e n t r a i n e r s a r e p r i m a r i l y u s e d i n i t i a l or b a s i c t r a i n i n g . The j e t d r i v e n t r a i n e r s used f o r advanced t r a i n i n g . of being e q u i p p e d w i t h gun and

for are

2. A l l a r e c a p a b l e borab r a c k s .

3. N o t e t h e RFB F a n t r a i n e r o f F i g . 3 . 2 2 d . I t uses a d u c t e d f a n (5 b l a d e s ) w i t h t h e f a n s h a f t a n d d u c t s t r u c t u r e used as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e f u s e l a g e . The f o r w a r d s w e e p a n g l e on t h e w i n g was s e l e c t e d f o r r e a s o n s o f w e i g h t and b a l a n c e , n o t f o r a e r o d y n a m i c r e a s o n s . The F a n t r a i n e r i s the only pusher, the others a r e t r a c t o r s . 4. O b s e r v e t h e e x t e n s i v e u s e o f B t r a k e s and most t r a i n e r s . T h e s e were p r o b a b l y added d u r i n g t e s t a s 'aerodynamic a f t e r t h o u g h t s ' t o f i x s t a l l s p i n problems. 5. N o t e t h a t two o f t h e e i g h t j e t t r a i n e r s w i n g s , t h e r e s t h a v e low w i n g s . f i n s on flight and/or

have

high

6. A l l j e t t r a i n e r s shown u s e b u r i e d e n g i n e s i n t h e fuselage. A major drag problem w i t h a l l t h e s e configurations i s to f a i r the r e l a t i v e l y large i n l e t s i n t o t h e w i n g r o o t o r i n t o t h e f u s e l a g e w i t h a minimum o f flow d i s t o r t i o n . With the s i n g l e engine c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , another design problem i s the b i f u r c a t e d s-ducts leading to t h e engine. These ducts are very c r i t i c a l t o the s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n of t h e e n g i n e and r e q u i r e a l o t of d e t a i l d e s i g n a t t e n t i o n e a r l y on. 7. O b s e r v e t h a t t h e i n b o a r d p a r t o f t h e e n g i n e i n l e t s a r e l o c a t e d a good d i s t a n c e away f r o m t h e fuselac The r e a s o n i s t o p r e v e n t ' t i r e d ' boundary l a y e r s from g e t t i n g i n t o t h e i n l e t d u c t . 8. A l l t r a i n e r s layout. use the t r i c y c l e landing gear

9. T h e t a i l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s r a n g e f r o m o n e T - t a i l t o s e v e r a l c r u c i f o r m and l o w t a i l l a y o u t s . T h e T-4 6A o f F i g . 3 . 2 3 b u s e s a t w i n v e r t i c a l t a i l , an u n u s u a l f e a t u r e for t h i s type of a i r p l a n e .

Part I I

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3.1.9

Fiahters

F i g u r e s 3.25-3.27 p r e s e n t t w e l v e f i g h t e r c o n f i g u rations. The f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e o f f e r e d : 1. E x c e p t f o r t h e P u c a r o f F i g . 3 . 2 6 c a l l f i g h t e r s are j e t driven. nless t h e r e i s a r e q u i r e m e n t for high d a s h s p e e d s , t h e t u r b o p r o p o f f e r s a c o s t and a t a k e - o f f performance advantage over j e t s . 2. N o t e t h a t s i x o f twins. the fighters a r e s i n g l e s and six

are

3. A l l f i g h t e r s shown h a v e a t r i - c y c l e l a n d i n g g e a r . N o t e t h e t n d e m w h e e l a r r a n g e m e n t on t h e V i g g e n o f Fig.3.27d. T h a t a r r a n g e m e n t was s e l e c t e d t o a l l o w t h e g e a r t o be r e t r a c t e d i n t o t h e t h i n w i n g . 4. O b s e r v e t h a t m o s t o f t h e f i g h t e r s shown employ o n l y one w h e e l p e r m a i n s t r u t . However f o u r o f t h e m h a v e two n o s e w h e e l t i r e s . 5. Two o f t h e f i g h t e r s shown u s e a v a r i a b l e s w e e p wing. T h i s i s a v e r y e x p e n s i v e f e a t u r e ( i n terms of w e i g h t and c o s t ) and i s j u s t i f i e d o n l y i n c a s e s w h e r e s u p e r s o n i c r a n g e , s u b s o n i c r a n g e a n d low s p e e d p e r f o r m a n c e a r e a l l c r i t i c a l t o t h e m i s s i o n of t h e airplane. 6. N o t e t h e p r e f e r e n c e f o r c o n v e n t i o n a l c o n f i g u r a tions. The M i r a g e I I I E of F i g . 3 . 2 6 c employs a d e l t a wing configuration. T h i s i s a very e f f i c i e n t form i f the dominating mission requirement i s for rapid acceleration t o s u p e r s o n i c a t t a c k or c r u i s e . The b l e n d e d wing-body of t h e GD F - 1 6 X L ( F i g . 3 . 2 5 c ) i s a modern v a r i a t i o n on t h e d e l t a theme. 7. T h e c o u p l e d c a n a r d / d e l t a p l a n f o r r a ( F i g . 3 . 2 7 c ) o f t h e V i g g e n was p i o n e e r e d by SAAB ( S w e d e n ) . By p r o p e r r e l a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t of t h e c a n a r d above and f o r w a r d of t h e wing i t i s p o s s i b l e t o a c h i e v e very f a v o r a b l e i n t e r f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e c a n a r d l i f t i n g v o r t e x and t h e f l o w over the f o l l o w i n g d e l t a wing. 8. A m a j o r d e s i g n p r o b l e m w i t h a h i g h s p e e d , h i g h l y maneuverable f i g h t e r i s the achievement of s u f f i c i e n t d i r e c t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y a t high a n g l e s of a t t a c k . Vrtices shed from the forebody tend t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h the vertical tail. T h i s l e a d s some d e s i g n e r s t o u s e two l a r g e v e r t i c a l t a i l s . F i g u r e s 3 . 2 5 a and 3.27b a r e t y p i c a l examples.

Part I I

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3.1,10 M i l i t a r y P a t r o l . Bomb a n d T r a n s p o r t

Airplanes

F i g u r e s 3.2S-3.30 p r e s e n t t w e l v e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s f o r a i r p l a n e s i n t h i s category. The f o l l o w i n g observations are offered: 1. T h e B5 2H o f F i g . 3 . 2 8 a i s a l o n g r a n g e bomber d e s i g n e d a r o u n d a l o n g bomb b a y . This forced the high wing l a y o u t and t h e tndem l a n d i n g g e a r . Because of t h e tndem g e a r l a y o u t , r o t a t i o n d u r i n g t a k e - o f f i s n o t possible: theairplane 'flies o f f . This i n turn r e s u l t s in longer take-off distances. I talso forces a rather l a r g e wing i n c i d e n c e angle. I n turn this causes t h e a i r p l a n e t o c r u i s e ' n o s e down' w h i c h i s n o t t h e b e s t a t t i t u d e from a drag v i e w p o i n t . The point of these comments i s : a s e e m i n g l y i n n o c e n t a n d l o g i c a l m i s s i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s u c h a s a l o n g bomb b a y c a n d o m i n a t e t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n design of an a i r p l a n e . 2. N o t e t h e t t h e t r a n s p o r t s o f F i g u r e s 3 . 2 8 c , d, 3.29b, d a n d 3 . 3 0 a a l l h a v e h i g h w i n g l a y o u t s w i t h body mounted l a n d i n g g e a r s . This configuration feature i s f o r c e d by t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t o l o a d and u n l o a d heavy equipment without e x t e r n a l help. 3. T h e t a n k e r / t r a n s p o r t s o f F i g u r e s 3.29b a n d d a n d t h e p a t r o l a i r p l a n e o f F i g . 3 . 2 8 b were d e v e l o p e d from c i v i l transports. T h a t i s t h e main r e a s o n f o r t h e i r low wing c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . 4. Note t h a t t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s a r e conventional.

5. N o t e t h e l a r g e s e a r c h r a d a r s i n F i g . 3 . 3 0 c a n d 3.3 0d. These r a d a r s a r e designed f o r 'look-up' a s w e l l a s 'look-down' c a p a b i l i t y . The f u s e l a g e and t h e empennage o f b o t h a i r p l a n e s h i n d e r t h e l o o k - d o w n ' c a p a b i l i t y t o some e x t e n t . T h e empennage o f t h e Hawkeye i s made o f c o m p o s i t e s f o r t h a t r e a s o n . 6. A l l j e t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y h a v e s i g n i f i c a n t w i n g s w e e p w h i l e t h e t u r b o p r o p s do n o t . The reason i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n design c r u i s e speed. 7. N o t e t h e f o u r v e r t i c a l t a i l s o n t h e Hawkeye. T h i s i s a c a r r i e r b a s e d a i r p l a n e w i t h commensurate r e s t r i c t i o n s on l e n g t h , w i d t h and h e i g h t . I n turn this leads t o 'short-coupled' configurations. When a l a r g e radome i s a d d e d , d i r e c t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y s u f f e r s , l e a d i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r more v e r t i c a l t a i l r e a . Since t h e h e i g h t i s a l s o r e s t r i c t e d , one s o l u t i o n i s t o p u t on more v e r t i c a l t a i l s .

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3.1.11 F l y i n a

B o a t s . Amphibious

and

Float

Airplanes

F i g u r e s 3.31-33 p r e s e n t t w e l v e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s i n t h e f l y i n g b o a t and a m p h i b i o u s c a t e g o r y . The f o l l o w i n g observations are offered: 1. T h e s e a i r p l a n e s a r e d o m i n a t e d by t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r a l a r g e , h y d r o d y n a m i c a l l y shaped n u i l . This r e q u i r e m e n t r e s u l t s i n much l a r g e r w e t t e d r e a and p r o f i l e drag than i s the c a s e i n land based a i r p l a n e s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d i t g i v e s t h e s e a i r p l a n e s a u n i q u e c a p a b i l i t y : l a n d i n g and t a k e - o f f f r o m w a t e r . 2. T h e a i r p l a n e s i n F i g u r e s 3.31-3.3 2 c a r e 'modern e r a ' t y p e s , t h e o t h e r s d a t e f r o m j u s t b e f o r e and d u r i n g WWII. O b s e r v e t h e p r e f e r e n c e f o r c o n v e n t i o n a l configurations. 3. A m a j o r d e s i g n p r o b l e m w i t h w a t e r b a s e d a i r p l a n e s i s t o k e e p t h e w a t e r s p r a y f r o m t h e h u l l away f r o m e n g i n e components: s a l t w a t e r does n o t a g r e e v e r y w e l l w i t h most metis. 4. A c o n s e q u e n c e o f i t e m 3 i s t h a t t h e t h r u s t l i n e s i n some f l y i n g b o a t s e n d up r a t h e r h i g h a b o v e t h e c . g . T h i s has s i g n i f i c a n t consequences t o t h e f l y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e s e a i r p l a n e s i n g o i n g from power-on to power-off. 5. N o t e t h a t f l y i n g boats. turboprops a r e used i n m o s t modern

6. T h e M a r t i n S e a m a s t e r o f F i g . 3 . 3 2 b was a n a t t e m p t t o d e v e l o p a v e r y h i g h s p e e d f l y i n g b o a t f o r t h e USNavy. R e f . 2 2 i n S e c t i o n 14.2 g i v e s t h e r e a s o n s f o r i t s f a i l u r e . 7. T h e h u g e , t e n - e n g i n e , t u r b o p r o p P r i n c e s s o f F i g . 3 . 3 2 c was a n a t t e m p t j u s t a f t e r WWII t o c a p t u r e t h e t r a n s a t l a n t i c p a s s e n g e r market. I t f a i l e d because of t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f p a s s e n g e r j e t s s u c h a s t h e 7 0 7 , t h e DC8 and t h e Comet. 8. M o s t o f t h e a m p h i b i a n s h a v e gear c o n f i g u r a t i o n . T h e B e r i e v M12 interesting exception. a t r i - c y c l e landing o f F i g . 3 . 3 l d i s an

9. L a n d i n g g e a r w e l l s i n w a t e r b a s e d a i r p l a n e s h a v e t o be s e a l e d t o p r e v e n t w a t e r f r o m e n t e r i n g t h e h u l l . T h e h u l l s t h e m s e l v e s m u s t h a v e a number o f s e a l e d , w a t e r t i g h t compartments. T h i s i s t o p r e v e n t damage t o a s m a l l rea from c a u s i n g t h e e n t i r e m a c h i n e t o s i n k .

Part I I

Chapter

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71

3.1.10 M i l i t a r y P a t r o l . Bomb a n d T r a n s p o r t

Airplanes

F i g u r e s 3.2S-3.30 p r e s e n t t w e l v e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s f o r a i r p l a n e s i n t h i s category. The f o l l o w i n g observations are offered: 1. T h e B5 2H o f F i g . 3 . 2 8 a i s a l o n g r a n g e bomber d e s i g n e d a r o u n d a l o n g bomb b a y . This forced the high wing l a y o u t and t h e tndem l a n d i n g g e a r . Because of t h e tndem g e a r l a y o u t , r o t a t i o n d u r i n g t a k e - o f f i s n o t possible: theairplane 'flies o f f . This i n turn r e s u l t s in longer take-off distances. I talso forces a rather l a r g e wing i n c i d e n c e angle. I n turn this causes t h e a i r p l a n e t o c r u i s e ' n o s e down' w h i c h i s n o t t h e b e s t a t t i t u d e from a drag v i e w p o i n t . The point of these comments i s : a s e e m i n g l y i n n o c e n t a n d l o g i c a l m i s s i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s u c h a s a l o n g bomb b a y c a n d o m i n a t e t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n design of an a i r p l a n e . 2. N o t e t h e t t h e t r a n s p o r t s o f F i g u r e s 3.2 8c, d, 3.29b, d a n d 3 . 3 0 a a l l h a v e h i g h w i n g l a y o u t s w i t h body mounted l a n d i n g g e a r s . This configuration feature i s f o r c e d by t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t o l o a d and u n l o a d heavy equipment without e x t e r n a l help. 3. T h e t a n k e r / t r a n s p o r t s o f F i g u r e s 3.29b a n d d a n d t h e p a t r o l a i r p l a n e o f F i g . 3 . 2 8 b were developed from c i v i l transports. T h a t i s t h e main r e a s o n f o r t h e i r low wing c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . 4. Note t h a t t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s a r e conventional.

5. N o t e t h e l a r g e s e a r c h r a d a r s i n F i g . 3 . 3 0 c a n d 3.30d. These r a d a r s a r e designed f o r 'look-up' a s w e l l a s 'look-down' c a p a b i l i t y . The f u s e l a g e and t h e empennage o f b o t h a i r p l a n e s h i n d e r t h e l o o k - d o w n ' c a p a b i l i t y t o some e x t e n t . T h e empennage o f t h e Hawkeye i s made o f c o m p o s i t e s f o r t h a t r e a s o n . 6. A l l j e t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y h a v e s i g n i f i c a n t w i n g s w e e p w h i l e t h e t u r b o p r o p s do n o t . The reason i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n design c r u i s e speed. 7. N o t e t h e f o u r v e r t i c a l t a i l s o n t h e Hawkeye. T h i s i s a c a r r i e r b a s e d a i r p l a n e w i t h commensurate r e s t r i c t i o n s on l e n g t h , w i d t h and h e i g h t . I n turn this leads t o 'short-coupled' configurations. When a l a r g e radome i s a d d e d , d i r e c t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y s u f f e r s , l e a d i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r more v e r t i c a l t a i l r e a . Since t h e h e i g h t i s a l s o r e s t r i c t e d , one s o l u t i o n i s t o p u t on more v e r t i c a l t a i l s .

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3,1,1- Supersonic C r u i s e A i r p l a n e s
F i g u r e s 3.34-3 6 p r e s e n t t w e l v e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f supersonic cruise airplanes. The f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s are offered: 1. T h e a i r p l a n e s o f F i g u r e s 3.34 and 3.35 h a v e f l o w n and e x c e p t f o r t h e XB-70 h a v e b e e n o r s t i l l a r e operational. T h e a i r p l a n e s o f F i g u r e 3.36 a r e d e s i g n s t u d i e s o n l y i n the s e n s e t h a t they have not been b u i l t . 2. N o t e t h e l a r g e s w e e p a n g l e s on a l l s u p e r s o n i c airplanes. T h e a i r p l a n e s shown a l l h a v e ' s u b s o n i c ' l e a d i n g edges i n s u p e r s o n i c c r u i s e . T h a t means t h e l e a d i n g e d g e o f t h e w i n g i s b e h i n d t h e Mach c o n e . S u p e r s o n i c c r u i s e v e h i c l e s a r e d o m i n a t e d by t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t o m i n i m i z e wave d r a g . The c r o s s s e c t i o n a l rea d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e s e a i r p l a n e s i s t h e r e f o r e v e r y critical. 3. B e c a u s e o f t h e l a r g e l . e . s w e e p , t h e l i f t - c u r v e s l o p e o f t h e s e a i r p l a n e s i s low. At a p p r o a c h s p e e d s t h i s r e s u l t s i n a h i g h a n g l e o f a t t a c k w h i c h makes v i s i b i l i t y over the nose a major problem. I n the a i r p l a n e s of F i g s . 3.3 5 c , d and 3.3 6 a , b t h i s p r o b l e m was s o l v e d by a 'drooped n o s e ' . I n the Bl-B of Fig.3.35b a v a r i a b l e sweep wing i s used t o a l l o w t h e a i r p l a n e t o c r u i s e w i t h reasonable e f f i c i e n c y a t subsonic speeds. This VSW feature c a n make i t u n n e c e s s a r y t o u s e a d r o o p e d n o s e . Note t h a t i n t h e B o e i n g SST p r o p o s a l o f F i g . 3 . 3 6 a b o t h f e a t u r e s a r e employed. 4. A m a j o r d e s i g n p r o b l e m w i t h c o m m e r c i a l s u p e r s o n i c t r a n s p o r t s i s t h e s o n i c boom. I t i s very d i f f i c u l t to d e s i g n a n SST w i t h a c c e p t a b l e s o n i c boom c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s during overland f l i g h t . T h a t i s t h e r e a s o n why s o f a r m o s t c o u n t r i e s ( i n c l u d i n g t h e USA) p r o h i b i t s u p e r s o n i c f l i g h t overland. M i l i t a r y a i r p l a n e s a r e exempted from t h i s requirement as long as they s t a y w i t h i n c e r t a i n corridors. 5. I n l e t p l a c e m e n t i n s u p e r s o n i c a i r p l a n e s i s a n o t h e r c r i t i c a l d e s i g n c o n s i d e r a t i o n . N o t e t h a t most have t h e i n l e t f a r a f t under t h e wing. Such an arrangement r e s u l t s i n f a v o r a b l e p r e s s u r e i n t e r f e r e n c e . 6. Trimmed c r u i s e l i f t - t o - d r a g r a t i o s a t s u p e r s o n i c s p e e d s a r e t y p i c a l l y 7 t o 9. For the subsonic t r a n s p o r t s t h e s e v a l e s a r e 14 t o 18. Here l i e s an a e r o d y n a m i c d e s i g n p r o b l e m w i t h s e r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r ecnomic feasibility.

Part I I

Chapter

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