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# Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Dept. Of EEE

## Exp-1 CALIBRATION & TESTING OF SINGLE PHASE ENERGY METER

Aim:
To calibrate and test a single-phase energy meter.

Apparatus:
Sl.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Apparatus Voltmeter Ammeter Booster Transformer Energy meter Stop clock 1- Auto Transformer Rheostat Wattmeter Connecting Wires 230V/ 0-270V,10A 50/5A 0-5/10A 300V ----WoundWire Dynamometer Type UPF ----Range 0-300V 0-5/10A 0-40V/10A 0-5/10A Type MI MI Induction Digital Quantity 1No. 1No. 1No. 1No. 1No. 1No. 1No 1NO As required

Theory :
The energy meter is calibrated by finding error in the meter under different load conditions. In energy meter, there are two fluxes produced by currents, flowing in the series and shunt windings. These alternating fluxes produce emfs in the metallic disc. These emfs

Dept. Of EEE

## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Observations:
S.N O V (V ) I (A) Power (W) Time for 10 rev(Sec)t E2=W*t E1=meter constant (watt-sec) %error =

100 1

Model graph:
%error

0 IL(A)

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## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

inturn circulate eddy currents in the disc. Thus there are two fluxes and two eddy currents and therefore two torques are produced. Total torque is the sum of the torques. The speed of rotation of the disc is proportional to power. Energy consumed=Number of pulses/Meter Constant

Procedure:
1.Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram 2.Apply rated voltage i.e., 230V to the energy meter by varying auto transformer. 3. Current is passed through current coils with the help of booster transformer. The disc of the energy meter must rotate in the forward direction as marked on the meter. . 4.For each step note down the time taken for 10 revolutions of the disc using stop clock.. 5.Note down the ammeter and voltmeter and Wattmeter readings for each step. 6.Repeat the procedure until 5A of changing the tapping of booster transformer. 7. The % error is calculated from % error = 100.

8.Plot a graph between load current and percentage error taking the load current on x-axis and percentage error on y-axis.

Precautions:
1.Initially the autotransformer should be kept in minimum position. 2. .Initially the autotransformer should be kept in minimum position. 3.Initially resistance should be kept in maximum position. 4.Time taken for 10 pulses must be determined accurately. 5. If the disc rotates in opposite directions, then reverse the (Voltage) current direction in the (voltage ) current coils.

Dept. Of EEE

## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Sample calculations:
Voltage = Current = Time for 10 pulses = E1 = (10/k *1000*60* Watt-sec From meter reading = K=1200rev / kwh E1 = (10/1200)*1000*60*60=30000 Watt-sec. No. of pulses wh = Energy recorded = meter cons tan t

%error=

energy measured by energy meter actual energy consumed x100 actual energy consumed

Result :

Review Questions:
1. What is meant by calibration 2. What is meant by calibration curve 3. What is the torque equation for an induction type energy meter 4. What is meant by creeping 5. What are the main parts of operating mechanism of energy meter 6. What is meant by phantom loading

Dept. Of EEE

## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Circuit diagram:
CALIBRATION OF DYNAMOMETER TYPE 1-PHASE POWER FACTOR METER

Dept. Of EEE

Dept. Of EEE

Exp-2

## CALIBRATION OF DYNAMOMETER TYPE 1-PHASE POWER FACTOR METER

Aim :
To calibrate a dynamometer type power factor meter.

Apparatus :
S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Apparatus Ammeter Voltmeter Powerfactor meter Range 0-5/10A 0-300V/ 150V 300V/5A 230V/0-270V,10A ---100/5A 0-5/10A 300V Type MI MI Dynam o Inducti on Induction Wound wire Dynam ometer Type UPF --Quantity 1No. 3No. 1No. 1No. 1No. 1No. 1NO.

Connecting wires

----

As Require d

Observations :
8 Dept. Of EEE

S.No

IL (A)

Cos = W/V*I S2

%error = 100

Model Gragh:

Theory:

Dept. Of EEE

## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Single phase dynamometer type power factor meter consists of a fixed coil which is split into two parts which carries a current of test circuit. Two identical pressure coils are pivoted on spindle of the moving system. One pressure coil has a resistance in series and other has an inductance in series. The two coils are connected across the voltage of the circuit. Current through one pressure coil will be in phase with the voltage and that of the other coil lags by 90 degrees. The torques due to these two coils are in opposite to each other. The pointer will stop when the two torques are equal. The deflection of the instrument depends on phase difference between the main current and currents in the two pressure coils.

Procedure : 1. Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram. 2. Initially keep the autotransformer in minimum position 3. Initially keep Rheostat in maximum position. 4. Vary the 1-variac until voltmeter connected across it reads rated voltage. 5. Vary the rheostat until ammeter shows maximum possible reading ( 4.5A) 6. Note down the readings of all the meters.
7. Through the output of three-phase induction regulator pressure coils of P.F, meter

## and wattmeter are excited.

8. 3

Induction regulator is varied for different power factors.(0.5 lag to 0 .5 lead) and

## all the readings are noted down every time

9.

Note down the readings of all the meters at each step. and P.F. meter are noted.

10. And by taking different load currents the readings of watt meter, voltmeter, ammeter

11. Calculate the percentage error for each step. 12. Plot a graph between IL and percentage error.

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## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Precautions : 1. Avoid loose connections 2. Initially keep Rheostat in maximum position. 3. Initially keep auto transformer in zero position

Result:

Review Questions:
1. What is meant by power factor 2. What are the types of power factor meters 3. On what principle does the power factor meter work 4. How many minimum current coil does a PF meter has for three phase balanced load 5. How the torque is developed in PF meter 6. How the current is related with the voltage in current coil

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## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Exp-3

CROMPTON POTENTIOMETER
Aim: To measure the unknown e.m.f and to calibrate the given PMMC Ammeter and PMMC Voltmeter. Apparatus : Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Apparatus D.C.Crompton Potentiometer Kit Ammeter Regulated power supply Dual channel Standard cell Volt meter Resistance Wire Multimeter Connecting Wires Rheostat Range ---0-1/2A 0-30V, 2A Type ----MC Digital Quantity 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 As required 01

## 0-30V <1 0-2V ---300 /2A

MC D.M.M ---Wound

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## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Wire Theory Dc cromptons potentiometer uses calibrated dial resistors and a small circular wire of one or more turns in place of a long slide wire. The standardization of potentiometer is obtained by varying the dial resistors and slide wire voltage against that of standard reference source.

## Block diagram of DC Cromptons Potentiometer :

Circuit diagram 2 :

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Dept. Of EEE

## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

For calibrating an ammeter, a suitable standard resistance is connected in series with ammeter to be calibrated. Knowing the voltage across the standard resistor by the potentiometer, the ammeter can be calibrated accurately. . For calibrating a voltmeter, a suitable D.C supply is fed to the voltmeter. The same supply is stepped down to a suitable value using volt-ratio box to apply to the potentiometer. Knowing this value from potentiometer and comparing it with the voltmeter reading, it is calibrated accurately Procedure : standardization of potentiometer: 1. Connect the circuit diagram as per the circuit diagram (1). 2. Connect RPS of voltage ,say 2V in the circuit. varying coarse rheostat & fine rheostat. 4. Galvanometer circuit to zero , obtain the null deflection using coarse & fine dials. Thus the potentiometer is standardized. Calibration of voltmeter: 1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram (2). 2. Set the known supply voltage to ,say, 30V.(RPS2)
3. By applying the rated DC. Voltage from the potential divider circuit, the reading of the

3. Press the STANDARDISE key and obtain the NULL deflection in the Galvanometer by

voltmeter which is under calibration is noted (V1) 4. Press the STANDARDISE key and obtain the NULL deflection in the Galvanometer by varying voltage &milli voltage. 5. Note down the potential dial reading 6. Calculate the total voltage and multiply with the multiplication factor to obtain the actual value of the voltage. 7. Compare the actual value with the Voltmeter reading and calculate the % error 8. Repeat steps 2 to 6 by changing the value of unknown supply voltage. Note down the values for 2 different voltage readings.

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Dept. Of EEE

## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

TABULAR COLUMN : FOR PMMC AMMETER S.NO Current (I1) Amps Voltage (pot. Resistance Reading) V (ohms) I2 = V/R (Amp) % Error = *100

FOR PMMC VOLTMETER:S.No Volt meter reading (V1) (volts) Pot. reading V0(volts) V2= n*V0 (Volts) % Error= *100

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Dept. Of EEE

## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Calibration of ammeter :
1. Select a suitable potentiometer shunt depending on the range of current to be measured. 2. Connect the circuit diagram as per the circuit diagram (2). 3. Set the known supply voltage to ,say, 30V.(RPS2) 4. The current (I1) in the ammeter is note down 5. The voltage drop across the load is note down using potentiometer. 6. The standard value of current in the circuit is calculated form the formula V/R =I2 7. Then the % error is calculated from the formula % Error = 8. This process is repeated for different values of current. *100

Sample Calculations : For Calibration of voltmeter Total voltage = True value of voltage = Measured value of voltage = % error = {[ Measured value True value ] / True value } * 100

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Dept. Of EEE

## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Precautions: 1.Fine and course dials in the potentiometer kit should not be disturbed , once the potentiometer is standardized. 2.RPS-1 should be of 2V. if the voltage is more than 2 volts,a suitable external highly stable resistance should be connected in series with the RPS-1. 3..Connections should always be made with due care of polarity. 5.Voltage higher than < 2 volts should not be connected across the TEST terminals. 6.Standardize the potentiometer at intervals during prolonged tests to compensate for any slight drift in the RPS-1 voltage.

Result:

Review Questions:
1. What is the principle of basic potentiometer

2. What is meant by standardization of potentiometer? Why it is necessary 3. What are the applications of D.C potentiometer 4. What is meant duo-range potentiometer 5. What is the principle of vernier potentiometer

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## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Exp-4
KELVINS DOUBLE BRIDGE MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE
Aim: To determine the resistance of given unknown resistor.. Apparatus: Sl.No 1. 2. 3. 4. Apparatus Range Kelvins double bridge --trainer kit Unknown resistance Galvanometer Standard cell <1 ---1.0185V Type ------Analog --Quantity 01No 1 No 1 No. 1 No.

Theory: Kelvins double bridge is used for the measurement of low resistances(of the order less than 1).Wheatstone bridge is used for the measurement of medium resistances ranging from a few ohms to several megaohms. The lower limit for the measurement is set by the resistance of the connecting leads and by contact resistance of the binding posts. The error caused by leads may be corrected fairly well, but contact resistance presents a source of uncertainty that is difficult to overcome. This is eliminated in the Kelvins double bridge by connecting the galvanometer to any intermediate point of the known resistance(r) .Due to this, the resistance(r) is divided into two parts i.e., second set of ratio arms(P,Q)

Procedure: 1. Initially set the galvanometer to zero position by adjusting the knob provided on it 21 Dept. Of EEE

## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

2. Connect the battery to the terminals provided on the kit 3. The wire whose resistance has to be measured is connected between the terminals C1 and C2 and short circuit the terminals P1 and C1, P2 and C2. 4. Initially keep the slide wire at zero ohm position and vary the variable standard resistance and multiplier until the G deflection is minimized. 5. By varying the slide wire slowly, adjust the G position to zero in initial and final positions of G switch for a particular value of sensitivity. resistance and slide wire resistance. 6. To eliminate errors, due to thermal e.m.f reverse the direction of the current using reversing switch and take another reading as above. The mean of these two values will give the correct value of unknown resistance 7. Calculate the unknown resistance at each step. 8. Repeat the process for different values of sensitivity. Precautions: 1.The galvanometer should not be operated in short circuit position. 2.While changing the sensitivity of the galvanometer, it should be set in lock position.
3. Slide wire is varied slowly by observing galvanometer reading.

Observations:

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## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

s.no 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Multiplier Range

Resistance()

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## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Rx= (Main dial reading +slide wire reading)*Multiplier range Where Rx is the unknown resistance.

Result :

Review Questions:
1. What is meant by bridge balance 2. What is the basic difference between Wheatstone bridge and Kelvin Bridge 3. What is the range of resistance is to be measure by using Kelvins Double Bridge 4. Why Kelvin Bridge is proffered for measurement of low resistance compared with other bridges

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Exp-5

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Exp-5

## CT TESTING BY SILSBEES METHOD

Aim: To determine the ratio and phase angle errors of a current transformer by silsbees method. Apparatus: S.No 1. 2. 3. 5. 6. 7. Apparatus Ammeter Wattmeter C.T. testing kit Phase shifting transformer Current transformer Connecting Wires Range 0-1A 0-5A 300V,5A ---3- ,440V,50Hz,500VA 50VA,660v,50Hz ----Type MI MI UPF ---Standard ----Quantity 01No 02 No 02No 01No 1No 1 No As required Theory and formulae: It is a comparison method. The ratio and phase angle error of test transformer X are determined in terms of ratio and phase angle errors of a standard current transformer having same nominal ratio. This is a deflection method. W1 = 0 , W1q = VqISS cos 90=0 W2q = Vq . component of I in phase with Vq = Vq . Iq = Vq Isx sin(x - s) W1p = Vp Iss cos 00 = Vp Iss W2P = VpIp = Vp [ Iss Isx cos( x - s) ]

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Dept. Of EEE

## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

W2P = VP ISS - VP ISX V = VP = Vq W1 P = V ISS ; W2P = V. ISS - V. ISX W2P = W1 P - V. ISX ( or ) V. ISX = W1 P - W2P RX = (IP/ISX ) , RS = (IP/ISS ) ; RX / RS = [ (V. ISS ) / (V. ISX ) ] = W1 P / (W1 P - W2P) (or) RX = [W1 P / (W1 P - W2P) ] * RS

RX = [1 + (W2P / W1 P ) ] * RS tan ( X - S ) = W2q / (W1 P - W2q) => X = [ W2q / (W1 P - W2q) ] + S X = [ W2q / W1 P ] + S Procedure: 1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram. 2. The CT Testing kit secondary circuit is set to minimum value position. 3. Switch on the 1- mains supply and Also switch on 3- supply by using transformer and apply rated voltage. 4. Increase Ist (5A) by varying CT Testing kit in the primary circuit.
5. Adjust the phase shifting transformer such that WS is zero. Note down the readings of all the meters. The readings of wattcmeters are noted down as W1p and W2p 6. Vary the phase shifting transformer such that WS is maximum. Note down the readings of all the meters. The readings of wattmeter are noted down as W1q and W2q

3- auto

Tabular column:

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S.N o

IP (A)

ISS (A)

ISX (A)

WS

WD1 (W)

WD2 (W)

ID (A)

## %Phase angle error= s+ (WD2 / V. ISS ) * (180 / )

Sample calculations: Standard CT values: Ratio error = 1% , Nominal ratio, Kn = Phase angle error = , Voltage V =

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## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Readings: IP = ID = ISS = ISX = WS = WD1 = WD2 = RS = (IP/ISS ) = RX = RS [ 1 + (WD 1 / WS) ] = % Ratio error = [(Kn - RX) / RX ] * 100 = Phase angle error X = s+ [ (WD2 / V. ISS ) * (180 / ) ] = Precautions : 1. Initially the Phase shifting transformer should be kept in ZPF position. 2. Initially 1- & 3- Autotransformers should be in minimum position. 3. Switch off the supply while reversing secondary terminals of current transformer. 4. Wattmeters WD1 and WD2 must be sensitive Result: The ratio and phase angle errors of the given current transformer are determined by using Silsbees method.

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## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Exp-6

ANDERSONS BRIDGE
Aim : To measure inductance and calculate Q-factor of an inductor using Andersons bridge. Apparatus : 1. Andersons bridge kit - 1No. 2. Connecting wires Theory: Andersons bridge is a modification of Maxwells inductance-capacitance bridge. It is used for measurement of self-inductance of coils with a very low value of Q. This cannot be done using Maxwells bridge because balance has to be obtained using a fixed capacitor and varying the resistances alternately. Alternate variation of the resistances leads to the disturbance of resistive balance, and it moves to a new value giving slow convergence to balance. By using an Andersons bridge, balance can be obtained easily with alternate adjustments of the two variable resistances which are independent of each other.

Circuit diagram :

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## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

P=Non-inductive resistance Q=Non-inductive resistance R=Non-inductive resistance S=Resistance connected in series with the self-inductor r=Non-inductive resistance C=Standard capacitor Procedure : For DC balance: 1. 2. 3. Connect from DC supply terminals on the kit to supply terminals on the kit. Connect terminals marked galvo to the terminals marked detector and unknown inductance to the terminals marked unknown. Switch on mains supply provided on the kit board.

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## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

4. 5. 6.

Adjust the resistance dial R until galvanometer shows null deflection, to get fine balance adjust resistance S. Switch off mains supply on the kit board. DC balance should not be disturbed, i.e R and S should not be varied. For AC balance : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Connect the terminals marked AC supply to the terminals marked supply on the kit board & head phones across the terminals marked detector. Keep standard capacitor at 0.1f or at 0.2f. Adjust r till sound in head phones becomes minimum. This gives ac balance point. Note down values of P, Q, R, S, r & C Calculate inductance using L = RC (Q+2r) Calculate the Q factor of the circuit using Q = L/(R-S) Repeat the experiment for different unknown inductance values.

Observations : Frequency of supply f = 1KHZ, = 2f = 6283.18 rad/s S. no P() Q() R() S() r() C(F) L( mH) 1 Q= L/(R-S)

Sample calculations: Non inductive resistance P= Non inductive resistance Q= Non inductive resistance R= Resistance connected in series with self inductances S=

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## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Non inductive resistance r= Fixed standard capacitor C= Self inductance L=RC(Q+2r)= Quality factor Q=L(R-S)= Result: Self inductance and Q-factor are determined using Andersons bridge. S.NO 1 L (mH) Q

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## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

SCHERING BRIDGE
Aim: To measure capacitance of an unknown capacitor and to determine its dissipating factor using Schering bridge. Apparatus: 1.Schering bridge kit -1 no. 2. Head phones 3.Connecting wires Theory: Schering bridge is used for the measurements of capacitance and dissipating factor. From the balance, the equation to obtain the value of capacitance is C1=C2(R2/R1) Since R1and C3 are fixed values, capacitance value can be obtained directly by varying R2.The dissipation factor can be obtained directly from the equation D1=C1r1

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## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Circuit diagram:-

C1 = unknown capacitance C2 = standard capacitance C3= variable capacitance R1 = non inductive resistance R2 = variable non inductive resistance in parallel with C3 Procedure:1. Connect AC supply of 1k Hertz to the supply terminals and one unknown capacitor on the kit to the unknown terminals. 2. Connect head phones to the detector terminals. 3. Set the standard capacitor switch to 0.01 mf position. 4. Set the decode capacitor dial c3 to any value (say at 500 pf) 5. Set decade resistance dials R1 at any value( say 153 )

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## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

6. Adjust R2 until the sound in headphones is minimized. head phones is observed. 7. Note down the Values of R1, R2, C2, C3 and tabulate.

If it is not minimized

8. Repeat the above process for different values of unknown capacitance. 9. At each step find out the value of C1 . Where C1 = C2.R2 / R1 And dissipation factor D = 2 fC1r1 where r1 = R1 x C3 / C2 and r1 is the resistance representing loss in C1 10. Repeat the same for another unknown value of capacitor. Observations S.no R1() R2() C2 (mF) C3(pF) C1 = C2.R2 / R1 r1 = R1.C3 / C2 D= 2fC1r1

Sample calculations: Non-inductive resistance R1= Variable non-inductive resistance R2= Standard capacitance C2= Variable capacitance C3= Unknown capacitance C1= C2.(R2 / R1)= Internal resistance of C1 = r1= R1.(C3 / C2)= Dissipation factor=2fC1r1= Result:Capacitance of given capacitor is S.no 1. C1 D r1

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Exp-7

## MEASUREMENT OF 3-PHASE REACTIVE POWER USING SINGLE PHASE WATTMETER

Aim : To measure reactive power in a three-phase circuit using single phase wattmeter. Apparatus : Sl.No 1 2 3 4 5 Apparatus Voltmeter Wattmeter Ammeter 3 autotransformer 3 loading inductor Range (0-600V) 1 ,600V,10A, LPF 0-10A, 415/0-470V, 10A, 8.14KVA 10A, 415V Type MI D.M.T MI Qty 1 no. 1 no. 1 no. 1no. 1 no.

Theory: Reactive power measurement in 3- circuits using 1- wattmeter can be done only for balanced 3- loads. By connecting the current coil of the wattmeter in one line and the pressure coil across the other two lines of 3- circuit, current through the current coil and voltage across the pressure coil are determined. Now as the current in the current coil lags the voltage by an angle of 90,the wattmeter reads a value proportional to the reactive power of the circuit.

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## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Circuit diagram :

Model graph:

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## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Procedure : 1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram. 2. Keep the variac of the auto-transformer in minimum position. 3. Close supply TPST switch and vary the auto-transformer slowly and apply rated voltage i.e.230V. 4. Vary the load gradually and at different loads, note down readings of ammeter, Voltmeter and Wattmeter. 5. Draw the phasor diagram. Phasor Diagram :

IR VR

V YB V BN VY

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## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Observations : For ideal inductive load = 900 --> Sin = 1 Reactive power S. N o Voltage VL volts Current IL amp Wattmeter reading (W) Reactive power (measured value)Qm= 3W (VAR) 1 2 Sample calculations : Load voltage VL =415V Load current IL =1.0A Watt meter reading W =480W Reactive power (measured value) = (actualvalue) Qa= %erro r= {(QmQa)/ Qa}*1 00

## 3VL I L sin (VAR )

Reactive power (actual value) = measured value - actual value x100 % error = actual value =[(831.38-718.8)/718.8]*100 =15.66% Result:

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Exp-8

## MEASUREMENT OF PARAMETERS OF A CHOKE COIL

USING 3-VOLTMETER AND 3-AMMETER METHOD Aim : To measure parameters of a choke coil by 3 voltmeter method and 3 ammeter method. Apparatus : S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Apparatus Choke coil Ammeter Voltmeter 1 Phase auto transformer Rheostat Rheostat Range 230 V, 0.39A 0-1/2 A 0-5 A 0-300V 0-75V 230V/0-270V,10A 145 /2.8A 25 /5A Wire wound Wire wound Type Copper wound MI MI MI MI Quantity 1 No 1 No 2 No 2 No 1 No 1 No 1No 1No

Theory & Formulae: Inductances of about 50 to 500mH can be measured using this method. It is suitable for iron cored coils, since the full normal current can be passed through it during measurement. From the phasor diagram, VL VS2 = VR2 + cos = VL2 + 2 VR VL cos VS VR

## 2 2 2 r VS VR VL , Also cos = 2 r + (L) 2 2VRVL

where r is the resistance and L is the inductance of the coil. 2 2 2 2 2 r 1 VS VR VL 4r 2VR VL r2 = 2 L= 2f VS 2 VL 2 VR 2 r + (L) 2 2VRVL

Circuit diagrams :

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## (ii) 3 Ammeter method :

figure-2 Procedure : 1. Make the connections as per the circuit shown in figure (1) 2. Initially keep the autotransformer in minimum position. 3. Close supply DPST switch.

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## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

4. Vary the applied voltage by varying the auto-transformer until rated current flows through the choke coil. 5. Note down the readings of all the meters. 6. Make connections as per the circuit shown in figure(2). 7. Repeat steps 2,3,4 and 5. 8. Draw the phasor diagram for both the methods. Observations : 3-Ammeter method: S . N o Is (A) Ir (A) IL (A) V (V) Pf Cos =
2 2

2 2

## 2 Vs VR = VLL cos V I 2VRVL

VL sin I

Sample calculations: (i) 3-Ammeter method: cos = Is2 IR2 IL2 / 2IRIL= Resistance = (V / IL) cos= Inductive reactance of the coil = XL= [V/IL] sin =

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## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Inductance = [ XL/2f ] = Where w is the frequency of supply in hertz = 50Hz (i) 3-Voltmeter method: Power Factor cos = Vs2 VR2 VL2 / 2VRVL =

Resistance = (VL / I) Cos = Inductive reactance of the coil = XL= [VL/I] sin = Inductance = [ XL/2f ] = Where f is the frequency of supply in hertz = 50Hz Phasor diagrams : 3-voltmeter method: V3 V2 V1

3-Ammeter method : I3 I2 I1

Precautions : 1. 2. 3. Avoid loose connections Keep autotransformer in minimum position before closing supply DPST. Readings are to be taken without parallax error.

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## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Results : 3-Ammeter method Resistance of the coil R Inductance of the coil L Power factor 3-Voltmeter Method

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Exp-9

## CALIBRATION OF LPF WATTMETER BY PHANTOM LOAD TESTING

Aim : To calibrate the given LPF wattmeter using phantom load testing. Apparatus : S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Theory: When the current rating of a meter is high, a test with ordinary loading arrangement would involve a considerable wastage of power. In order to avoid this, phantom or fictitious loading is done. In phantom loading , pressure coil is connected across the supply voltage and current coil is connected in series with low voltage source, but it can supply the rated current because impedance will be low. Due to the above arrangement, the total power consumed for testing the meter is low when compared with actual loading of wattmeter. Apparatus 1- Auto transformer Ammeter Voltmeter Voltmeter Wattmeter Inductive load Range 230V/0-270V, 10A 0-10A 0-300V 0-150V 300V, 10A 250V/1-15 A Type MI MI MI LPF Quantity 2 nos. 1 no. 1 no. 1 no. 1no. 1no.

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Circuit diagram:

IL(A)

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## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Procedure : 1) Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram. 2) Initially keep the two autotransformers and inductive load in minimum position. 3) 4) 5) 6) By varying the autotransformer2 in the pressure circuit, the voltmeter reading is By slowly varying the autotransformer1 in current coil circuit, the voltmeter Apply inductive load in steps and tabulate the readings of all meters and calculate Plot the graph between IL and % error. adjusted to rated value i.e 230V. reading is adjusted to 150V. % error at each step.

Observations: cos = 0.2 Voltmeter Reading(V) Ammeter Reading(A) Wattmeter Reading(Wr) (W) True Power WT=VI cos (W) % Error =

S.No

Wr WT x100 WT

Sample Calculations: Voltage V = Current IL= Wattmeter reading (Wr) = True power (WT) = % Error =

Wr WT x100 = WT

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Dept. Of EEE

## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Precautions: 1) Loose connections must be avoided. 2) Meter readings should not be exceeded beyond their ratings. 3) Apply the voltage slowly so that the current is within the limited range of ammeter. Result: The given LPF wattmeter is calibrated by phantom loading and a graph is drawn between IL and %error.

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Dept. Of EEE

Exp-10

## LINEAR VOLTAGE DIFFERENTIAL TRANSFORMER

Aim: To study the operational characteristics of LVDT. Apparatus: LVDT TRAINER KIT Theory: Differential Transformer, based on a variable inductance principle, are also used to measure displacement. The most popular variable-inductance transducer for linear displacement measurement is the linear variable differential transformer (LVDT). The LVDT illustrated in the fig. Consists of three symmetrically spaced coils wound on to an insulated bobbin. A magnetic core, which moves through the bobbin without contact, provides a path for magnetic flux linkages between coils. The position of the magnetic core controls the mutual between the center or primary coil and with the two outside or secondary coils. When an AC carrier excitation is applied to the primary coil, voltages are induced in the two secondary coils that are wires in a series-opposing circuit. When the core is centered between the secondary coils, the voltage induces between secondary coils are equal but out of phase by 1800. The voltage in the two coil cancels and the output voltage will be zero. When the core is moves from the center position, an inductance imbalance occurs between the primary coils and the secondary coil and an output voltage develops. The output voltage is a linear function of the core position as long as the motion of the core is with in the operating range of the LVDT.

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Dept. Of EEE

## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Circuit diagram :

Model graph:

Core position

## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Observations : Micro meter reading (mm) Display (mm) Error Voltage (mv)

## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Plot the graph between output voltage Vs Core position Result : The operation of LVDT is observed and graph between output voltage and core position is plotted and the curve is linear.

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Dept. Of EEE

## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Exp-11 STRAIN GUAGE Aim: To measure the strain by using the strain guage. Apparatus: Strain measurement trainer Weights Theory : Strain guage is a transducer which converts the applied load strain in to the change in resistance of the materials. It is connected as one of the arms of the wheat stone bridge. According to change in resistance of material used in strain guage breidge unbalanced voltage will be appeared and this voltage is calibrated in to the values of strain. In tail type strain guage, nichrome, which has low temperature coefficient, is used. This wire is designed in such a way that its thickness will be 0.005mm. It is connected on paper bakelite sheet of thickness 0.05mm and there it is attached to the cantilever beam with adhesive material. Here cantilever beam is tee material whose strain is to be found. The nichrome is designed in such a way that its natural strain should be zero. 1000g 1 Strain guage cantilever beam - 1

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Dept. Of EEE

## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Circuit diagram :

supply

Procedure:
57 Dept. Of EEE

## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

1. Check the connections made and switch ON the instrument by toggle. 2. Allow the instrument in one position for 10 min for initial warmup. 3. Select full or (short) half period configuration from the selection switch on the panel. 4. Adjust the zero position potentio meter on the panel till the display reads Zero. 5. Apply 1 kg load on the cantilever beam and adjust the CAL pot till the display reads 377 Micro strain.
6. Remove the weights the display should come to Zero. In case of any

variations adjust zero again and repeat the procedure again. Now the instrument is calibrated to read s. 7. Apply the load on the sensor using loading arrangement provided in steps of 100g up to 1kg. 8. Instrumental displays exact micro strain by the cantilever beam. 9. Note down the readings in the tabular form. The % error is calculated by comparing the theoretical values. Observations : Weight (Kg) Actual value micro strain (/m) Theoretica l % Error

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Dept. Of EEE

## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

SPECIMEN CALCULATIONS: P Load applied in kg L Efficient length of beam in com (22 cm) B Width of bean (1.8 cm) T thickness of beam (0.25 cm) micro strain youngs modulus (2x106) % error = (practical theoretical ) / Theoretical x 100 Precautions: Avoid loose connections Result: Strain is measured by using strain guage by applying different loads.

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Dept. Of EEE

Exp-12

## DIELECTRIC OIL TESTING USING H.T.TESTING KIT

Aim: To determine break over voltage of given dielectric oil, using H.T testing kit. Apparatus: 1. Dielectric oil testing kit 1No. 2. Dielectric oil. Theory: The dielectric strength of an oil is the potential at which it starts behaving as a conducting medium. In the HT testing kit, the oil to be tested is placed in an acrylic box consisting of two metal electrodes. By varying the distance between electrodes and by applying high voltage across the electrodes, the break over voltage of the oil is determined. Dielectric strength of oil = break over voltage (kV/cm) distance

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Dept. Of EEE

Circuit Diagram:

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Dept. Of EEE

## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

Procedure: 1. Take the oil cup and adjust the gap between the electrodes with the help of gauge. 2. Fill up oil test cup with oil to be tested, close it with the lid and place it on the HT horns under the hinged acrylic cover and close the acrylic cover properly. 3. Keep the variac in minimum position. 4. Connect the mains lead to the 220V, single phase AC 50Hz supply. 5. Switch ON the power supply by operating the toggle switch, then yellow neon bulb glows indicating that the HT kit is switched off. 6. Press the HT ON push switch. The red Neon lamp will start glowing and the HT transformer circuit will be energized, the green neon bulb start glowing. 7. In case the red indication does not glow, check up the hinged acrylic cover is properly closed and the variac knob is fully rotated in the anticlockwise direction for 0 start. 8. Now start rotating the variac knob slowly in the clockwise direction till the flash over occurs across electrodes in the oil test cup. The speed of ratio should be such that the voltage rises at the rate of 2 kv/sec. 9. As soon as flash over occurs, the supply of the high voltage transformers, will be cut off and the voltage pointer will also stop indications the flash over level. Note down the reading of voltmeter and distance between the electrodes. 10. To repeat test on the sample, switch OFF the mains supply and stir the test pot with the help of a clean rod and let it cool for sometime and close the acrylic cover properly. 11. Repeat the steps 2 to 10. 12. Switch OFF the mains supply after the tests are over. Observations: S.NO Distance between the electrodes (Cm) Break over voltage of oil (KV) Dielectric strength of oil =

## break over voltage distance

(kV/cm) 1 Precautions: 1.The lid of the HT testing kit should be closed properly.

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Dept. Of EEE

## Narasimha reddy Engineering College, Electrical Measurements Lab

2. The variac should be kept in minimum position initially. 3. Oil cup must be kept on the HT testing horns properly. Result : The break over voltage of the dielectric oil is determined by using HT testing kit

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Dept. Of EEE