Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5

Week 6 Assignment 1

11/13/2012

Juvenile Justice
Iris Walker CRJ1400XA

Time: 3.25 hrs.

Document1

In this paper, I will discuss how the juvenile justice system evolved over the years. Furthermore, what the needs of juvenile offenders are. In addition, what challenges the juvenile justice system is facing to deal with juvenile offenders. During colonial times, children were looked upon, either as small adults or as property if a child over 7 years of age cursed their parents they could be put to death. In 1825, the society for the prevention of Juvenile Delinquency successfully advocated the separation of juvenile and adult offenders. During this time, reformatories were established which used harsh discipline and corporal punishment. In 1899, the first juvenile court was established in Chicago, for children under the age of 16 focusing on rehabilitation, not punishment. By the year 1925, almost all states had juvenile court following the Chicago model. Furthermore, because of a lack of rules the treatment of juveniles was unfair. In 1967, in re Gault established that Juveniles had the same constitutional rights as adults and the Juvenile Justice System were reevaluated and updated that children would have many of the same rights as an adult when in court. In the seventies, community-based programs were established, and the focus changed to deinstitutionalization and diversion programs. In the 1980s and 1990s, there came another shift, more towards law and order and being tough on juvenile crime (Dr. Mary L. Livers, 2012). Now juvenile offenders can be waived over to adult court if the crime is unusually cruel and violent, and receive the same punishment as an adult would get. Currently there is a discussion if a juvenile could get the death sentence for capital murder just like an adult. Secondly, I want to talk about the needs of juvenile offenders and the differences between the needs of adult offenders. Juvenile offenders have more needs than adult offenders do. A juvenile offender needs stability, support, guidance, education, medical and

Document1

mental health programs. Many times juvenile offenders get into the system because of neglect in the home. They often have just one parent and this parent is working all the time to make ends meet. Another problem is learning disabilities, and no or little support to overcome them. Children want to be accepted, and find someone who will accept them. This is where gangs come into the picture because they seem to provide the support the juveniles crave. Juveniles are extremely impressionable and mostly imitate what they see in their environment. If dad is in and out of prison that is normal to them, in order to change this they need different role models. According to the National Survey of Juvenile Needs Assessment: A nationwide survey of juvenile needs assessment examined need deficit factors that are currently measured in the United States. Although most states have some semblance of needs assessment of juvenile offenders, a minority of states have formal needs assessment instruments. The most common needs measured include substance abuse, emotional/psychological dysfunction, violent behavior, sexual abuse and deviancy, family problems, peer association problems, educational deficits, vocational deficits, and physical problems. Recommendations for development of needs assessment measures and associated interventions on the secondary level, as well as the tertiary level are offered (Towberman, 1992). The needs of juvenile offenders are different from adults because their brains are not fully developed. Juveniles are still pliable and with the right help have a greater chance to be rehabilitated. While adults are fully developed and the treatment that we can offer them is limited to education, mental health treatment, and substance abuse treatment with adults we can only attempt to address certain destructive behaviors; but with juveniles we can change factors in their personality development. According to the publication of Facts for Policymakers: Recent research shows that the human

Document1

brain continues to develop throughout adolescence, with the pre-frontal cortex the section of the brain responsible for executive function and complex reasoning not fully developing until the mid-twenties. Because adolescents brains are not fully matured, their decision-making and thought processes differ from those of adults (David Gottesman, 2011). The challenges in dealing with juvenile offenders are many. The first one would be their family environment do they have a supportive family, constant supervision, one parent home. Another one is the external environment, is the community save and supportive. Are they experiencing peer pressure in school? Are their teachers supportive? Who are their friends? What role models do they have? Are they mentally, behavioral, or physically challenged? Here, is an excerpt out of Juvenile Delinquency Conclusion: Family interactions have greater influence on delinquency. Children reared by competent, affectionate parents who avoid using physical forms of punishment are unlikely to commit serious crimes either as juveniles or as adults. On the other hand, children reared by parents who neglect or reject them are likely to be significantly influenced by their community environments, which may offer opportunities and encouragement for criminal behavior (Juvenile delinquency-Conclusion, 2012). Works Cited Juvenile delinquency-Conclusion. (2012). Retrieved from family.jrank.org: http://family.jrank.org/pages/1008/Juvenile-Delinquency-Conclusion.html David Gottesman, S. W. (2011, 07). Juvenile Justice in the U.S. Retrieved from www.nccp.org: http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_1038.html Dr. Mary L. Livers, D. S. (2012, 11 13). State of Louisiana Youth Services Office of Juvenile Justice. Retrieved from Ojj.la.gov: http://ojj.la.gov/index.php?page=sub&id=230 Towberman, D. B. (1992, 04). National Survey of Juvenile Needs Assessment. Retrieved from cad.sagepub.com: http://cad.sagepub.com/content/38/2/230

Document1

Document1