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Sara Percival & Michael Whitfield Professor Horowitz Com 340: Rhetoric and Theory November 4, 2011 Mike

Sara Gun Control General Purpose: Specific Purpose: Central Idea: To Persuade To persuade my audience on the importance of the right to bear arms. There has been a debate over gun rights over the past one hundred years, but the battle to control these rights has proved to be a failed attempt. The 2nd Amendment and the strong opinions of those who own guns have triumphed over the worry of the danger of guns.

I. Introduction Imagine for a moment, if you will, youre at home for the holidays with your family. When you arrive, you are ecstatic to see all of them. You exchange warm hugs and I love yous. As night approaches, you all go upstairs to your rooms. You are fast asleep when you hear a noise downstairs, the sound of breaking glass. Its an intruder. The intruder makes their way upstairs to where your loved ones are. To your knowledge, youre the only one awake, so its your job to protect them. You look around anxiously for a form of defense. Then you remember that there is a gun in the closet. You frantically reach for it. At that moment, as the intruder enters your room, the door opens slowly. Its your grandpa George. You breathe a sigh of relief and set down the gun. He explains that he broke a glass downstairs getting a midnight cup of milk. This is a prime example of how most of us would wish the story to end, but what if it really was an intruder, wouldnt you be glad to have a gun? II. Orienting Material Today, we will be discussing the importance of preventing gun control from happening. Guns do cause many tragedies in our society, but trying to control them more than we already have isnt going to prevent these tragedies. We will discuss the rhetorical situation, history, and the social and political climate of gun control. Well also go into detail of the leaders and followers of both the anti and pro gun control movements. Lastly, well share our personal connections to this topic.

Credibility We are credible to be speaking on this matter, because of the extensive research we have done as well as the videos we have looked into as well as our personal experience in the field and the knowledge that we have gained through that. Transition: At this time, wed like you all to form two groups. This half of the class is group one and this half of the class is group two. Now, quietly, discuss amongst yourselves. 1. When you think the 2nd Amendment was ratified?it was 1791 2. What does the 2nd Amendment state?. A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. 3. What was the act inspired by the assassination of JFK?....Gun Control Act Transition: Sara would now like to begin with explaining the rhetorical situation of the movement in further detail. Body III. Rhetorical Situation a. Exigencies i. The exigencies to this movement are to show the people of America that believe controlling guns more than we already have is possible, that it is not. ii. Leaders of this movement work to defend the 2nd Amendment and stick to the roots that our country was built on. iii. All of the growing fear that is occurring in peoples heads about guns is a valid fear, but more laws are not the answer. b. Audience i. The main audience to this movement is all Americans, Republican or Democrat. ii. Since Republicans all mostly already agree with the 2nd amendment, those who are threatened by the existence of guns are more narrowly the audience in this movement. c. Constraints i. The constraints to the movement are that people are saying the 2nd Amendment is not applicable to todays society. ii. All of the tragedies that have created fear of guns are also constraints. From Columbine to Virginia Tech, guns have played a big part of very tragic events, but the anti-gun control movement works to prove that even with more laws in place, the people behind these events still wouldve gotten their hands on guns. Transition: Now that you have an idea of the rhetorical situation, wed like to jump into the history of the movement.

IV. (Describe the history of the movement and the time line of the movement). a. Guns have been around for centuries, and with guns, comes fear. In our country, our Constitution respected our rights as people, and trusted us enough to have the right to keep and bear arms. And so the 2nd Amendment was born. Lets take a look at the history of our countrys journey with guns. b. According to http://www.infoplease.com/spot/guntime1.html i. The 2nd Amendment was ratified in 1791. It stated that, A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. c. The National Rifle Association (NRA) was founded in 1871 under Ambrose Burnside, its first president. i. It has been a major organization full of supporters of our 2nd Amendment ever since. ii. It continues to grow and be a driving force for anti-gun control activists. d. (National Firearms Act) i. It wasnt until 1934, during prohibition, that Franklin D. Roosevelt passed an act that he hoped would eliminate automatic firearms in the streets. ii. This was called the National Firearms Act. e. (Federal Firearms Act) i. The Federal Firearms Act, enacted in 1938, required those selling guns to obtain a Federal Firearms License. ii. It also required them to record the names and addresses of everyone who purchased a gun, as well as not allow them to sell to those who had been convicted of certain crimes or didnt have a permit to buy a gun. f. (Gun Control Act) i. The Gun Control Act was enacted in 1968 and was a slight revision to the current gun laws already in place at that time. ii. It was inspired by the assassination of JFK because his assassin used a mail-order gun on him. The act therefore prohibited the mailorder sales of rifles and shotguns. iii. It was quickly and easily passed because of MLKs and RFKs assassinations soon after. iv. It also limited sales of guns to those who were not drug users and were not mentally competent. v. Handgun sales over state lines were also restricted. vi. Basically, the act defined in more detail those who were banned to buy firearms. g. (Brady Bill) i. The Brady Bill, enacted in 1998, required those selling guns to do a background check on all their potential buyers.

Transition: Now we would like to discuss the political and social climate of the movement. V. Democrats a. For about the last century, Democrats and Republicans have been at a constant battle over guns. (Political and Social Climate as well as how opponents of the social movements work rhetorically to undermine, contain, or accommodate protest discourse). i. ii. iii. According to the book Gun Control, Democrats see the great importance of law and order and that the government needs to take action on this. They feel as though Republicans are all talk, and that they just say they care about law and order, but dont do anything to help fix it. They also stand behind the police officers in general. They work to assure that no bullet can penetrate an officers bulletproof vest. These bullets are called cop-killer bullets, or armor piercing bullets. Democrats have been arguing that there need to be more laws to increase the control of guns. They feel as though the 2nd Amendment is outdated for this day and age. There are definitely different extremes to the way Democrats think on this issue. According to the magazine "The American Spectator," Democrats fall into roughly three categories: those who are relatively pro-gun, those who are relatively anti-gun but politically savvy, and those who are anti-gun nuts. The majority just want to make the limitations reasonable. For instance, they dont support the restrictions of weapons used for legitimate hunting and sporting purposes, just those weapons that would be used for crimes. They also wish to shut down the black market of gun sales.

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Transition: To show you an example of someone who is pro-gun control, wed like to go into a video of Michael Moores. Video: Michael Moore (0:50) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4138T2VRgxs&feature=related a. Michael Moore i. Often times Moore will use an epideictic approach in the making of his documentaries in order to place blame on someone. Such is the case in the movie, "Bowling For Columbine" where he shows exactly who he thinks is to blame for so much violence in the U.S. He blames the government for such loose restrictions on guns, and tries to use






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persuasive speaking in this film to try to go along with what he is saying. It seems to me, that Moore's audience could be drawn from either side of the movement. He tries to instill what he believes to be true and right in the minds of the people who watch his films, whether that be from one side or the other, it doesn't seem to matter. He tries to persuade the opposition in his movies, and at the same time, he reinforces the opinions of others that are already for higher restrictions of guns. From watching his films, it is easy to see his use of persuasion in what he tries to convey to the audience. Although, we disagree with his viewpoint on the matter, we feel as though he is a very audience connected speaker and he is able to give us exactly what we want. From bibliography.com I found that Michael Moore shows his ethos in all of the different documentaries he has made. Such as: Bowling For Columbine, and Fahrenheit 911. He shows his credibility in the documentaries he makes as well as through the emotion he has through bringing awareness to the topics that are dear to him. Moore shows his logos in the documentaries that he makes. For instance, in his movie, Bowling For Columbine, he tries to state the different reasons why there should be higher restrictions on gun control. The logic behind Michael Moore would depend upon the type of movie that he is making, and what he wants to accomplish with that. Moore truly shows his pathos in the documentaries that he makes. We are really able to tell that he is passionate about what he is speaking about, because you are able to see it in what he says, as well as the way he says it. Im not sure that he would create a documentary like Bowling for Columbine if he did not truly care about the topic at hand. From the standpoint of Michael Moore, it would seem as though he is a Democrat. I draw this conclusion based upon his right-wing views that he shows in his documentaries as well as in some of the interviews that we see him in. From watching the documentary, Bowling For Columbine it is obvious to see that he is against the use of guns, or he at least is appalled by the loose restrictions that we have for them. He believes that the restrictions should be much heavier and they should be much more difficult to get.

VI. On the other hand, Republicans feel as though the 2nd Amendment still holds true even with all the violence in our country as stated in the book Gun Control.

a. Mainly, the followers of the anti-gun control movement includes Republicans, or rather anyone who believes that the 2nd Amendment shouldn't be messed with anymore. b. Gun owners also play a big part in following this movement because they obviously don't want to restrict their gun use. c. According to http://ontheissues.org/TX/Ron_Paul_Gun_Control.htm, Republican Texas Congressman Ron Paul says this about gun control: "When the 2nd Amendment speaks of a 'well-regulated militia,' it means local groups of individuals operating to protect their own families, homes, and\or communities. They regulated themselves because it was necessary and in their own interest to do so. The Founders themselves wrote in the Federalist papers about the need for individuals to be armed. Gun control makes people demonstrably less safe - as any honest examination of criminal statistics reveals. It is no coincidence that violent crime flourishes in the nations capital, where the individuals right to self-defense has been most severely curtailed." d. According to the book Gun Control, in the case of District of Columbia v. Heller it was determined by the Supreme Court that the second amendment is applicable in todays standards. Transition: Now Mike would like to show you a video on another Republican who is against gun control. e. Charlton Heston (RHETORIC USED TO ENTICE POTENTIAL MEMBERS) i. Charlton Heston uses deliberative speaking in a lot of the speeches that he gives. He does this in his speeches that revolve around gun control by making a case for what people should or should not do in the future about gun violence and gun control. He also tells us what he thinks the government should and should not be able to do. He makes this very easy to see whenever he talks of gun control. ii. His audience could be viewed from either side of the movement of gun control, as he is talking to both of them. He reinforces what the audience against gun control already knows, and he uses persuasive speaking to try and win over people on the opposing side. iii. Charlton Hestons ethos can be found in who he is and what he stands for. iv. From bibliogarphy.com I can see that Heston is able to find his credibility, or ethos, from his past acting career; staring in such movies, as "The Planet of The Apes", as well as "The Omega Man," and also draws credibility from his tireless years as president of the National Rifle Association (NRA). v. He shows his logos through his constant activism in the area of gun control appearing at many gun control rallies. He also believes that it is blatantly obvious that the second amendment is completely applicable today as it was when it was first created.

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Charlton shows his pathos through his speaking ability as well as through his appeal to the audience, in being a very audience connected speaker as seen in the short video clip. You can see the uses of metaphors in his speech and it really seems to feel, at least for me, very poetic in a way. Just in the way that he talks and the language that he uses. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ju4Gla2odw

Transition: Activists such as Sarah Palin go further into detail on this idea (Leaders of the movement) Video: Sarah Palin (0:50) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VRTRAS1kfBc f. In the video, Sarah Palin says that bad guys with guns will do what they want no matter the laws, so we might as well let the good guys keep and use their guns legally. g. (Sarah Palins intended audience) i. Sarah Palins intended audience is generally all of America, but is also narrowly the politicians that think we need to reform the gun laws more and more. ii. Her audience's demographics also vary greatly because she reaches a multitude of different types of people. iii. She hopes to keep America free by allowing the ownership and safe use of guns. To achieve this, she also has to reach the general public of America with her words. h. (Sarah Palins ethos) i. Palins ethos stems from her experience in politics. According to Palins biography from http://www.biography.com/people/sarahpalin-360398, Palin has been in politics since 1992. ii. She has been a mayor as well as governor in Alaska since then. iii. She was also John McCains running mate in the 2008 election against current president Barack Obama. iv. Relating to the topic of gun control, Palins opinion is very credible being a hunter and outdoors enthusiastic herself. v. She is also a member of the NRA (National Rifle Association). i. (Sarah Palins logos) (rhetoric used to entice potential members) i. Palin obtained logos by reminding her audience that it is pretty apparent that those who commit crimes with guns probably wouldnt be scared to obtain them illegally. ii. As she said, bad people already dont follow the laws in place today, so logically, they wouldnt abide by any new ones put in place. iii. Its hard to argue this point. j. (Sarah Palins pathos) i. Palin created emotional appeal, or pathos, through her epideictic speaking style because during the time of this video, Palin had to

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hold her stance even though controlling guns was looking pretty appealing to the public after the Tucson shooting. She uses adaptation by acknowledging the pain that people are faced with when gun violence takes a loved one from them. She empathizes, but believes the main concern is in the people, not the guns. By empathizing, but also keeping her point, she can maintain her persuasion of her audience.

Transition: Now that you have a better idea of the opposing sides to the movement, we'd like to go into how the anti-gun control believers respond to those who wish to control the guns. VII. (Response to opposition and resolving conflict) a. When gun control activists speak out, it is up to the anti-gun control believers to prove that it isn't right to change the 2nd Amendment that has been in place for so long. b. Typically speaking, anti-gun control believers are well aware of the dangers that guns can occasionally present to society, so they do try to appeal to those who are scared of guns' emotions. They empathize with tragedies that occur, such as Sarah Palin did in the video we showed, but also make sure they remind those gun control activists that there is so much history behind guns, and that people have become so attached that there's no going back at this point. You can't take away what people have become so accustomed to having. According to americanrevival.org, an American Patriot, George Mason said it best when he said "To disarm the people... was the best and most effectual way to enslave them." i. According to the newspaper http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/03/13/obama-guncontrol-arizona-shooting_n_835103.html, Obama said this about the gun issue conflict right after the Tucson shooting: "People shout at one another, which makes it impossible to listen. We mire ourselves in stalemate, which makes it impossible to get to where we need to go as a country." As he continues, he hopes for common sense to prevail and that America can get passed the wedge that has been created and that we can find a plausible way to make America safer and stronger. c. Now, Id like to take a look into one particular example of a response to the opposition of changing the 2nd Amendment, an interview with Republican John McCain during his run for presidency in 2008. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b83zgbRnrFs (0:20-1:07) d. (John McCains ethos) i. McCain gains his ethos through his long life in politics. According to McCains biography from biography.com, McCain has been in the Navy, and retired from it in 1981 as a captain. This is when he

started his career in politics. That makes 30 years of political experience. ii. Hes been in the House of Representatives, the Senate, as well as ran for president. iii. Also, he is credible on the subject of guns because of his activism in it, for instance, when he filed his amicus brief on the gun ban in Washington D.C. that he was against. iv. McCain also discusses that he has worked to assure that gun manufacturers are not being treated unfairly and therefore they stay in business, because without the gun manufacturers, the gun control activists will win. e. (John McCains logos) i. McCain gets his logos from deliberatively stating that hes not advocating that guns just get thrown around as if theyre not dangerous, but that the 2nd amendment clearly states our right to keep and bear arms, and that we should have that right. ii. McCain also knows the importance of certain measures already in place on ownership of guns, such as laws prohibiting criminals to own one. f. (John McCains pathos) i. McCain uses pathos in a unique way. He says things that appeal to the audiences ego such as, we all know this, making them feel as though he trusts their judgment. ii. He also believes in keeping our country safe, but within our rights to keep and bear arms. By believing in the safe use and ownership of guns, he makes his audience see that it is possible to join safety and guns together, which would be appealing to anyone. g. His intended audience is all of his supporters or those who he is trying to sway. i. During the time of his video it was the voters, ii. But overall, he is always working to raise awareness to all Americans of the importance of the 2nd Amendment. Transition: Now Mike would like to discuss with you, exactly how this movement maintains its unity. VIII. (Sustain its vision and identity, maintenance of unity, response to those against it) a. There are many organizations that give gun supporters a place to come together and unite. i. The NRA (National Rifle Association) is a major one. As mentioned earlier, it was founded in 1871 and creates a sense of belonging as well as a place for answers. According to their official website nra.org, you can get answers on everything gun related. It explains how to get involved as well as what you can do with them. For


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example, you can learn about safety and training as well as how to become a competitive shooter. Gun owners of America is another organization that unites anti-gun control activists. Their official website gunowners.org, encourages people to join if they want to have a successful voice in defeating legislation designed to disarm America. There is also a Citizens Committee that is ever striving to keep the Right to Bear Arms in our constitution. The Second Amendment Foundation looks to create better understanding about the heritage of the Constitution. According to their official website saf.org, they also put on educational and legal action programs to help raise awareness to the public about the gun control debate.

IX. Impact of The Movement On History and Society a. Due to the fear that many Americans still hold about guns, some states have enforced laws to work towards hiding guns in public as to not scare others. i. According to the journal Mother Jones, California passed a law on October 11 of this year that prohibits people from carrying handguns in public anymore. ii. Previously, California has allowed weapons to be displayed in the open, as long as they weren't loaded. iii. Due to this free display of guns, there were frequent gatherings of gun enthusiasts at places such as Starbucks with guns at their hips. iv. Police officers got many calls from panicked customers about their displaying of guns. The police didn't like this very much because it distracted them from the possibility of catching real criminals. v. This issue led to the new law, but the executive director of the advocacy group Gun Owners of California, Sam Paredes, said that he is concerned this will lead to people just concealing loaded guns, rather than revealing unloaded ones. This might lead to more dangers if they are already loaded. b. Still according to Mother Jones journal, democrats have almost completely given up on gun control. i. Federally, there hasn't been any progress towards controlling guns. ii. Also, in 2008, the Supreme Court case of District of Columbia vs. Heller ruled in favor of Heller because the 2nd Amendment says it is a person's right to bear arms. iii. A few years later, in 2010, the case of McDonald vs. Chicago, McDonald was ruled in favor because this right also applies to states and local communities as well as the federal government. c. This movement has created a lot of controversy in our nation. Ever since there has been awareness of the growing danger of guns, some Americans have gone into a downward spiral of worry. But there really is no reason to worry when theres not much further we can do.

d. Did the movement succeed or fail? i. As previously explained, the movement to control guns is failing. There are too many gun owners and Constitution supporters. It is very hard to argue the Constitution when it's what our country was built on. ii. Democrats continue to fight to restrict guns further, but are fighting a losing battle. Transition: Now we would like to move on to how this movement has affected us personally. X. Personal Connection and what we learned from this experience a. Saras i. I feel connected to keeping guns as a personal way of entertainment. Ive had many good times using them with friends and can see how they can bond people. I do not believe in improper use of them of course, but without them, I wouldnt have as much to do in a small town like Ellensburg. ii. Also, as a woman who hopes to have a family of my own one day, I feel the importance of being able to protect my family if I ever needed to. Guns can be scary if you think about the negative effects, but the positive effects can be so great too. b. Mike's i. My personal connection to the topic of gun control is slightly different, than that of Saras. I have grown up around guns. I started hunting when I was around ten years old. I own three high-powered pellet guns, one twenty two, a 17 HMR, a twelve-gauge shotgun, a 3030, as well as my Berretta Px4. I dont hunt near as often as I used to, but it is still fun to go out sometimes and shoot. Ill go out and go skeet shooting from time to time with my friends. For those of you who do not know what that is, it is where you take little clay disks and throw them into the air and try to hit them with your shotgun. ii. Almost every time I go out on an adventure in the wilderness to go hiking or backpacking, Ill bring along my little pistol for personal protection against wild animals. This provides me with a comfort to be out there in the mountains either by myself or with others to be able to protect ourselves should the need arise. Summary: Today we have talked about the importance of keeping guns in our society. As the old saying goes, as cited from debate.org "If we outlaw all the guns... then only the outlaws will have them. We have touched on the history, political and social climate, leaders, followers and maintenance of the movement. Lastly we expressed how we feel personally connected to this subject.

Conclusion: Today we'd like to leave you with a few thoughts on guns. For example, if someone were pulled over for a DUI, the police officer wouldn't blame the car or the alcohol, but rather the person who made that poor choice. You also wouldn't say that pens misspell words, just as guns don't kill people, people do. Guns are our right as the American people. Charlton Heston said it best when he stated: "from my cold dead hands." http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ju4Gla2odw

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Spitzer, R. J. (2009). Gun control: a documentary and reference guide. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. Stein, S. (2011, March 13). Obama Wades Into Gun Control Debate, Two Months After Tucson, Arizona Shooting. Breaking News and Opinion on The Huffington Post. Retrieved November 15, 2011, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/03/13/obama-gun-control-arizonashooting_n_835103.html Tabin, J. (n.d.). The American Spectator : Stop or I'll Vote. The American Spectator. Retrieved November 12, 2011, from http://spectator.org/archives/2008/06/27/stop-or-ill-vote Why Join GOA? - Gun Owners Of America. (n.d.). Gun Owners of America - Gun Owners Of America. Retrieved November 15, 2011, from http://gunowners.org/why-join-goa.htm