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Hydraulic Circuit Analysis

Dr. Sunil Jha

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Energy Losses in Fluid Power Systems. Bernoullis equation & Continuity equation used to perform analysis of Fluid Power System Calculating Pressure drops, flow rates, HP losses for all components.

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Laminar or Turbulent Flow

Reynolds number <2000 : LAMINAR >4000 : TURBULENT CRITICAL ZONE Greater losses in Turbulent flow Fluid power system designed to operate in LAMINAR flow region.
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Friction Losses
Friction Main cause of losses Loss in Pressure head Head Loss
Losses in Pipes Losses in Fittings

Head loss in Pipes DARCYs Equation

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DARCYs Equation
HL = f (L/D)(v2/2g)
f = friction factor (dimensionless) L = length of pipe D = pipe inside diameter v = avg. fluid velocity g = Acceleration due to gravity

Used for Laminar as well as Turbulent flow Difference lies in evaluation of friction factor.
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Frictional Losses in Laminar Flow

Friction Factor f = 64/(Reynolds Number) Hagen Poiseuille Equation

HL = (64/NR)(L/D)(v2/2g)

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Frictional Losses in Turbulent Flow

Relative roughness = /D
= absolute roughness D = Pipe inside diameter

Typical values of Roughness (m)

Drawn tubing = 1.524 Commercial steel = 45.72 Cast Iron = 121.92 Galvanized Iron = 152.4 Riveted Steel = 1828.8

Moody diagram used to calculate friction factor

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Moody Diagram

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Losses in Valves & Fittings

Energy losses in valves and fittings such as Tees, Elbows, and Bends Nature of flow through Valves and Fittings is very complex. Head Loss HL = Kv2/2g K factor for Valves and Fittings
Gate Valve (wide open) = 0.19 open = 0.90, open = 4.5, open = 24.0
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Return Bend Standard Tee 90 deg Elbow 45 deg Elbow Ball Check valve

= 2.2 = 1.8 = 0.75 = 0.42 = 4.0

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Equivalent Length Technique

Darcys Equation
Friction head loss in pipes proportional to
Square of Fluid Velocity Length of Pipe

Head Loss in valves & fitting

Proportional to square of fluid velocity

Possible to find a length of pipe that for the same flow rate would produce same head loss as a valve or fitting.
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Equivalent Length Technique

HL(valve or Fitting) = HL(Pipe) K(v2/2g) = f(L/D)(v2/2g) Since velocities are equal Equivalent Length Le = KD/f Convenient method for analyzing hydraulic circuits where frictional energy losses are to be taken in to account.

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For the Hydraulic System shown, following data are given:
Pump is adding 5 hp (3730 W) to fluid Pump flow is 0.001896 m3/s Pipe has 0.0254 m inside dia Sp. Gravity of oil = 0.9 Kinematic viscosity of oil is 100 cS Elevation difference between station 1 & 2 is 6.096 m Pipe lengths: 1 ft = 0.305 m, 4 ft = 1.22 m, 16 ft = 4.88 m

Find pressure available at inlet to hydraulic motor. The pressure at the oil top surface level in the hydraulic tank is atmospheric (0 MPa). The head loss HL due to friction between stations 1 & 2 is not given.

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Bernoullis equation between stations 1 & 2 Z1+P1/+v12/2g+Hp-Hm-HL = Z2+P2/ +v22/2g
Hp = Head added by pump Hm = Head removed by Hydraulic Motor HL = Head lost in friction

Hm = 0 , No Hyd motor between 1 & 2 V1 = 0, P1/ = 0 Z2 Z1 = ?

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Solve for v2 Evaluate velocity head at station 2 Find Reynolds Number
NR = vD/ = vD/(Kinematic Viscosity) SI unit Kinematic Viscosity = m2/s Stokes = cm2/s

Laminar or Turbulent ? Find friction factor

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Determine Head loss due to friction
Darcys equation Calculate L Use Leq for standard elbow, K = 0.9

Substitute in Bernoullis equation to solve for Pressure head at 2. Calculate Pump Head
Hp = 0.762 (HP)/Q(m3/s).Sg

Solve for P2 , use water = 9797 N/m2

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Problem for Exam

Determine the External load F that the hydraulic cylinder can sustain while moving in The extending direction.
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