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LOCAL GOVERNMENT Local Administrations are the tools, to deliver public services, through organizations other then central

administration. They are administrations organized separately+ autonomously from central administration in terms of; -Administration Taks -Authority & Responsibility Personal -Financial Resources Local Administrations are Applied 3 Forms: 1-Geographic (or Spectral) Local Administration(Ac & MA 127) 2- Functional Local Administrations: It is a delegation of Public Services from central Government to certain local Autonomous Institutions which are more Technical Specific Units, e.g. State Economic Enterprises, Universities, Chamber of Commerce & Industries 3-Public Professional Organizations as Public Corporate Bodies(Arm. Md 135): There are established by law with the objectives of meeting the Common needs of the members of a given profession to facilitate their professional activities to safeguard professional discipline etc. Bars, Doctors, Engineers. The Principles & Characteristics of Local Adms. As described in the constitutional: 1-Local ADMS. Are Public Corporate Entities 2-Local ADMS. Are Established to meet the common local needs of the inmobitans of Provides Municipal Districts & Villages 3-Their Decisions making Organs are elected. 4-The Formation, Putties. Powers of the local adms. Are regulated by Law. 5-The Elections for local adms. Shall be help every five years. 6-The Procedude dealing with obsecting to the Aggusition by elected organs of local adms or their status as a organ & their loss of such status are resolved by the Judiciary. 7- The central adms. Has the power of Administrative Trusteeship (tutelage) over the local Adms. 8-Local Adms. May form A Union among them with the Permission of the council of Ministers. 9-Special Administrative Arrangement may be introduced by Law for Larger Urban Centers. MAIN CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLES(FUNDAMENTALS) of Turkish Public ADM. 1-The Principles of Integral Unity of Public Legal Personality of the Adm. 2-The Principles of Central Administration. 3-The Principle of Decentralization 4-The Principle of Delegation of Wides Power(Decentralization) 1-The Principle of Integral Unity of Public Legal Personality: Turkey us a unitary state, governed by a parliamentary system of Turkey has a highly centralized Administrative system. The Administration in Turkey is composed of central local administrative TURKISH STATE *Legislative *Executive *Judicial EXECUTVE *Administration: -Central Administration -Local Administration Article 123: The organization of functions of the administration one based on the principles of constulization of deculatalittion. Public corporate bodies shall be established only by law on by the centrity expressly gas anted by law

1-This Principle has a strong Kinship with one the main characteristics of Turkish Republic: The Turkish State, with Its Territory & Nation is on Indivisible Entity for this reason local Administrations are under the tutelage of central Adm. Article 127: The Central Administration has the Power of Administrative trusteeship over local Adms. In the Framework of Principles of Procedures set forth(vesyet) By Law with the Principles of the Integral Unity of the Administration swearing Uniform Public series sate guarding the Public interest and meeting the local needs in on appropriate manner. 2-The Principle of Central Adm.: The Authority to decide on public services, to implement them and to arrange revenues and expenditures is vested in central adm. What is meant by central is the execution of and decide on public services mainly from Capital central adm. Is also called general adm. With the Adm. Of Providing services across the country the central adm is organized in form of capital adm. & its Local Branches in provinces districts. The structure of central adm. Cons. Of Central State Apparatus; The President, Prime ministry, Ministries Their Realized Government Agencies Their Branches in Province Districts Provincial Branches Provide Services in the name and in line with the Imperatives & Instruction of the Central Adm. 3-The Principle of Decentralization The Principle of Local Administration describes the previous on of some public services by public corporate entities outside the Realms of Central Adm. This Principle Asserts that certain needs of local people can be meat by establishment that have decision making agencies effected by the elect rate , are Autonomous to certain extent from the central adm: sustain their budgets from own-revenues; and have legal personality. 4-The Principle of Delegation of wider Power :Deconstruction it is the moderate form of Centralism the plancupve Authorizes Governors Senior Officials of the provincial Branches of central adm. To take of implement decisions on certain issues. The official of the provincial Branches Exercise this Authority in line with the imperatives and Instructions of the central Adm. Art 126: ..... The Administration of the Provinces is based on the principle of Revolution of wider Powers Governors, has two hats; 1)Representative of Central Adm.(Both State of Government) 2)Mead of Special province Adm. Art 127.:To meet local common needs(or requirement) i-) what needs are common local needs? Mahall mterek ihtiya Yerel Ortak Gereksinme ii-) who decides on that Example: Ankara 1-Ankara Numne Hastanesi-Ankara Province special adm. 2-Ankara 19 Mays Stadyumu-Ankara Province special adm. 3-City Traffic- Up to 1950s this seduce had been undertaken by the municipalities

4-City Electricity- In 1980s this was given to the Ministry of Energy 5-Pricing certain good services Division of Labor Between Central Adm. & Local Adm. 1-Economic 2-Administrative Contreras 3-Traditional Criterias;(optimal, size, fun, cities) 1-Economic Criterias: a-) Efficiency (Etkenlik) b-)Indurisblity of services(Hizmetin Blnmezlii) c-)Economies of scale(lek Ekonomileri) d-)Extrusion Area of services (Hizmet Yasasnn Yaylma Alan) e-)Externalities(Yarar-Maliyet(c/b) Tasarlamalar Efficiency: Public services should be given by more efficient administration. Art. 127 to meet common local needs - 1999/zmit+stanbul *Max. Water supply 17 million *Min. Metro 1 Million Efficiency is met at a point where per unit cost will remain the same as to changes in Population & Geographic Area. Howewer, if the per unit cost of A given public service will be diminished in a bense Population & In A Larger Geographic Area that service has to be provided by the C.A + Vice Versa Because their should be not on idle capacity in service provision idle Not: Trkiye elektrik tketimi 200 milyar wat. Indivisibility of Service(Hizmetin Blnmezlii) A: Total(Full) Public Service: Full=Undivideble=C.A / B- Semi-Total Public Service: Semi-Total=Divdeble=C.A 1-) Total Public Good & Services Once Produced Additional Citizens will consume those godds+services without resulting any increase in cost. Benefits of Total Public goods & services are undividable this feature of total public goods & services Brohibith Procing of those goods & services -water supply sewerage -foreign prations defence -judicial service etc. Ankara Surface Project: 660 million$: -water pipeline+swalage collection system were separate -Sewerage purification 2-Administrative Efficiency: Has Total Adm. Is given enough legal rights in AUTHORITY Are L.AS Powerfull Enough to undertake public services for a given geographies. 3-Traditional Criteria (C.A) central adm. Justle Whole Bifnofits are at National level -Diplomacy -Internal external severity -Macro Economic Policies -Higher Boulation -Big enginering Projects (L.A) local adm. -Urban Environment -Culture -Urban Transportation -waste dispose -Whole Benefit are at local level Sewerage -Water Supply -Fire Department What is the planning hierarchy? social, economic -spatial planning.. landaus / zoning / speculation The control speculation 1-) the power as changing the agricultural land into a urban land has to be hold by municipalitier. 2-) high taxation. 3-) expatriation (kamulatrma) How can you affect the settlement patten of city? A part from laws and regulations, the settlement patern of a city can be effected by

i) permissions, ii) Prohibitions , iii) info structural investiemtr , iv) social, v) other urban investiments. LAND USE: There are two plans; - Urban master plan - Implementation plan ZONNG: There are two important coursing in this. -small scale industrial zone -organized industrial zone Hierarchy land of Turkey Field (tarla) , peace of land open land (arazi), plot of vacant land building site (parsel), dividing landing a parcels parcellation. Area development law (imar yasas): Number 3/94 Hali hazr harita (present time map)3/94: -Natural and main made socilities. -Rivers, valleys forost, lake etc. natural sacility(endownment) -Roads electrify netvork ,water network,telephone,metro etc. main made facility -Municipalities and special provisis can directly they can order present time map they approve this maps and send one copy office. Land peed administration (tapu idaresi). -Ministry (evre ve ehircilik bakanl) Economic and social planning (social economic planning ): -insestment and production tougts. -In economic sectors(agriculture,construction,investy) and in social sectors. (education and health) + physical planning (spatial planing) CHARASTERSTC OF TURKSH FLANNNG SYSTEM Planning that is described as a proless to solve current and forth coming problems. Can be effective instrument only equipped with total aproches a total planning aproch drected to areas and locations can be realized only in a hierarchic system. Planning grades in turkey have been defined with different laws in the relevant laws primarily in the building law no:3194 plans have been described in a certain hierarchic ranga from upper scole to lower scole. Consistency ( Tutarllk ) The area 4 Types of local administration in Turkey: 1.Special Provincial Administration : Covers Areas That Fall Neither with in principal use village boudries unabered 5302/ Date D 2005 2.Municipalities: Are Established in Areas which have more than 5.000 Inhabitanits. Unabered 5393 / Dates 2005 3.Metropolitan Municipalities: Are municipalities which have more than 75.000 in Habitouts. Numbered: Dated 2004 4.Villages: Are Governed by the Headman (Muhtar ) X Elders Council ( htiyar Heyeti ) Numbered 442 / Dated 1924 - Their organz are Elected - They have separete Budged 1-Governor Major / Metropolitan Major 2-Executive Committee ( ncmen ) 3-Council ( Meclis ) There Are Two Voits of Turkish Adm. System in Provinces a-General Administration of the Provinces ( l Genel daresi ) -Extension of Financial Adm. ( Government, central Adm. ) -Extention Power ( Yetki Genilii ) b-Special Provincial Administration ( l zel daresi ) -Governens are the Hend of Both Units

-Local adm. -Principle of Decentralization ( Yerinden Ynetir ) Special Provincial Administration 5302 sayl / 2005 Tarihli Yasa 1864- Regulation of Provinces ( Vilayet Nizamnamesi l Tz ) from Eyovet to vilayet starting date of strong Central Administration Tuna Province ( 1870- dare-i Umumiye-i ( Vilayet Nizamnamesi ) 1876- First Constitution 1913- dare-i Umumiye-i Vilaye Kanun-u Muvakkat 1987- l zel daresi 2005- Special Provuncial Adm. l zel daresi