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Additional Mathematics : Form 4 1. DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS.

Note: y

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry

y2

B( x 2 , y 2 )

Distance AB = A()

y 2 y1
x
Example : Solution. Use ( x1 , y1 ) = (5, 3) and ( x 2 , y 2 ) = (8, 7). Therefore, AB =

1. Find the distance between A(2,3) and B(7,6).

y1

(8 5) 2 + (7 3) 2

x1
Example: 2. Given that the distance between R(4, m) and S(-1, 3) is 13 units, find the value of m.

x2

= = = 5 units Solution.

Given that RS = 13 units, therefore

(1 4) 2 + (m 3) 2 = 13
= (m 3)2 = m3 = or = or m=

= m= EXERCISE 1. 1. Find the distance between each of the following pairs. (a) C(1, 3) and D(4,-1)

(b) R(-2, 6) and T(7, -3)

Ans: 12.73 Ans:5


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Additional Mathematics : Form 4 (c) K(-5, -2) and L(-6,-1)

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry

(d) P(

1 , 1) and Q(1, -3) 2

Ans: 4.031

Ans: 1.414 2. Given the points R(-9, -2), S(-1, -6) and T(-1,2),show that TR = RS.

3. The distance between the points U(6,3t) and the points V(12,-t) is 10 units. Find the possible value of t.

t = 2
4. Given point P(h, k) is equidistant from points A(2, 5) and B(-2, 4). Show that 2k + 8h = 9.

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Additional Mathematics : Form 4 2. DIVISION OF A LINE SEGMENT. a. The midpoint of two points. Note: y

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry

y2 C(x,y) y1 A( x1 , y1 ) x1

B( x 2 , y 2 ) If C is the midpoint of the line AB, then coordinate C =


x 1 + x 2 y1 + y 2 , 2 2

x2

Example : 1. Find the midpoint of points P(3, 4) and Q(5, 8)

Solution. (a) Midpoint PQ =

3+ 5 4+8 , 2 2 8 12 2 2

= ,

= (4,6).

Example :

Solution.

2. Points A and B are (5, r) and (1, 7) respectively. Find the value of r,if the midpoint of AB = (3, 5).

Midpoint of AB =

5 +1 r + 7 , 2 2

(3, 5) = 3,

r +7 = 2
r=

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Additional Mathematics : Form 4 3. B(3, 4), C(7, 5), D(6, 2) and E are the vertices of a parallelogram. Find the coordinates of the point E

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry Let the vertex E be (x, y). The midpoint of BD =

3+ 6 , 2 ,

= ,3 . The midpoint of CE =

The midpoint of BD = The midpoint of CE.

5+ y 2

9 = ,3 2 7+ x 9 5+ y = and =3 2 2 2 ,
x= and y = .

EXERCISE 2: 1. Find the midpoint of each pair of points. (a) I(4, -5) and J(6, 13) (b) V(-4, 6) and W(2,-10)

2.

Ans: ( 1, 2) Ans: ( 5, 4 ) If M(3, q) is the midpoint of the straight line K(2, 6) and L(4, 5). Find the value of q.

Ans: q = 3. The coordinates of points R and S are (4, k) and (h,5) respectively. Point T(-1, 2) is the midpoint of RS. Find the values of h and k.

11 2

Ans: h = 6, k = 1 b. Finding the coordinates of a point that divides a line according to a given ratio m : n.
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Additional Mathematics : Form 4 Note: y

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry

Q() n m P() x A
If A divides PQ according to a ratio m : n,then nx 1 + mx 2 ny1 + my 2 A(x, y) = n +m , n+ m

EXAMPLE: Find the coordinates of the point C that divide the line segment joining the P(5, 2) and Q( 10, 8) in the ratio of PC : CQ = 2 : 3. steps 1. Draw a line and locate (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) , Locate the ratio from (x1,y1) to the divider and the divider to (x2,y2) 2. Use formula n x1 + m x2 n y1 + m y2 (x, y) = m+n , m+n solution n=3

Q( x 2 , y 2 )

m=2

P( x1 , y1 )

C (x, y) = 3 ( 5) + 2 ( 10) 3 ( 2 ) + 2 ( 8) = , 3+ 2 3+ 2

( 1 , 2 )

Examples 2. Given the points P(-1, 3) and Q(8, 9). Point R lies on the straight line PQ such that 2PR = RQ. Find the coordinates of point R.

Solution Given 2PR = RQ, therefore m = 1 and n = 2 Coordinates of point R =

PR 1 = , RQ 2

2( 1) + 1(8), 2(3) + 1(9) = (2, 5) 1+ 2 1+ 2

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Additional Mathematics : Form 4 3. Point P(-3, -2) divides internally a line segment joining two points R(6, 1) and S(-6, -3). Find the ratio of division of line segment RS.

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry Let the ratio is m and n. (-3,-2) =

n(6) + m(-6) n(1) + m(-3) , m+n m+n


6n 6m m+n -3(m + n) = 6n 6m -3m 3n = 6n 6m 3m = 9n -3 =

m 3 = n 1,

m : n = 3 : 1.

EXERCISE 3: 1. The coordinates of K and L are (10, 5) and (5, 15) respectively. If point M divides KL to the ratio of 2 : 3, find the coordinates of point M.

Ans: ( 8, 9 ) 2. Given point P(k, 1), Q(0,3) and R(5, 4) find the possible values of k if the length of PQ is twice the length of QR.

Ans: k = 10
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Additional Mathematics : Form 4

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry

3. P(a, 1) is a point dividing the line segment joining two points A(4, 3) and B(-5, 0) internally in the ratio m : n. Find (a) m : n. (b) the value of a.

Ans:a) 2 : 1 ;b) a = 2 3. AREA OF A POLYGON If the polygon with vertices (x1,y1) , (x2,y2) and (x3,y3) , its area can be calculated using : 1 x1 x 2 x 3 x1 = 2 y 1 y 2 y 3 y1

1 x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1 x2 y1 x3 y2 x1 y3 2
EXAMPLE: Calculate the area of the triangle formed by the vertices ( 1, 3), (3,-2) and (2,5). 1. Steps Locate (x1,y1) , (x2,y2) and (x3,y3) Solutions 1 3 2 1 1 2 3 2 5 3 = 1 [ ( 1)( 2) + ( 3)( 5) 2 + ( 2 )( 3) ( 3)( 3) (2)2 5( 1) ]
1 [ 2 + 15 + ( 6 ) ( 9 ) ( 4 ) ( 5) ] 2
1 ( 29) 2

2 .

Use formula Area of triangle = 1 x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1 x2 y1 x3 y2 x1 y3 2 Solve the expression

3.

= = =

29 2

EXERCISE 4
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Additional Mathematics : Form 4 1.

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry

Find the area of the triangle with the given vertices: a) (0, 0), ( 1, 2), ( 7, 1) b) (6, 3), ( 1, 3), ( 2, 1)

Ans: 13 2 2. Find the area of the quadrilateral with vertices (0, 0), ( 4, 1), ( 5, 3), ( 3, 4).

Ans:19

Ans: EXERCISE 5 1. Given S(2, 2), T(0,7) and U(5,4) are the vertices of STU . Find the area of STU .

Ans:

19 2

2. Find the possible values of k if the area of a triangle with vertices A(3, 2), B(-1, 6) and C(k, 5) is 8 units2.

Ans: k = 4, 4 3. Show that the points (-9, 2), (3, 5) and (11, 7) are collinear
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Additional Mathematics : Form 4

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry

4. The vertices of quadrilateral PQRS are P(5, 2) , Q(a, 2a), R(4, 7) and S(7, 3). Given the area of quadrilateral PQRS is 12 unit2, find the possible values of a.

Ans: a = 2, 5. Given that the area of the quadrilateral with vertices A(5, -3), B(4, 2), C(-3, 4) and D(p, q) is 19 unit2, show that 7p + 8q 6 = 0.

62 7

CONCEPT MAP
MBI:Module 6:Addmaths : Kelas Ibnu-Sina

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Additional Mathematics : Form 4

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry

GRADIENT INTERCEPT S

TWO POINTS

EQUATIONS OF A STRAIGHT LINE

GRADIENT FORM

INTERCEPT FORM

GENERAL FORM

INTERSECTIONS OF TWO LINES SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS

4. GRADIENT OF A STRAIGHT LINE a. INTERCEPTS

ELIMINATION METHOD

SUBSTITUTION METHOD

Find the x-intercepts, y-intercepts and gradient of the following straight line PQ. Example:

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Additional Mathematics : Form 4

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry

y P(0,5)

( x1 , y1 )
Q(3,0) x x-intercept = 3

y-intercept = 5

( x2 , y 2 )

Gradient PQ = EXERCISE 1:
y

y 2 y1 = x 2 x1

05 5 = 30 3
2. y

1.Find the gradients of the following straight y lines. y y2 -3 x

-3 Gradient=.............
Ans:

Gradient=.............
2 3
Ans:

3 5

4. 3. Find the gradient of a straight line that passes through the x-axis at 2 and the y-axis at -4

y A -2

The diagram shows a straight line which has a gradient of . Find the coordinates of point A.

Ans:2 Ans:

( 4, 0)

b.

Gradient of a straight line that passes through two points Gradient =

y 2 y1 x2 x1

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Additional Mathematics : Form 4

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry

Example: Find the gradient of a straight line that passes through points A (2,-4) and B(4,8) Solution : Gradient of AB , m AB =

8 (4) = 6 42

EXERCISE 2: 1. Find the gradient of the straight line joining each of the following pairs of points a) (1,3) and (4,9) b) (-1,2) and (1,8)

ans:2 ans:3 2. Find the value of h if the straight line joining the points (2h,-3) and (-2,-h + 2) has a gradient of 2.

Ans: h = 3 3. Given P(3a-1,-a), Q(-5,3) and R(1,6) are three points on a straight line. Find the value of a.

Ans: a = 2 5. EQUATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE

the equation of a straight line passing through (x1,y1) is : y y1 = m ( x x1 )


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Additional Mathematics : Form 4

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry

a. Given the gradient (m) and passing through point (x1, y1). EXAMPLE 1: A straight line with gradient 2 passes through the point ( 2, 5). Find the equation of this line. 1. 2.
3.

Steps Write down the gradient and a point (x1,y1) Substitute into the equation y y1 = m ( x x1 ) Simplify the equation

Solutions m=2 x1=2, y1=5 y5=2(x2) y5=2x4 y =2x4+5 y =2x+1

EXERCISE 1: Complete the table below: m Examples: 5 (0, 4) Y ( 4)= 5(x 0) Y + 4 = 5x Y= 5x 4 5x y 4 = 0 (x1,y1) Yy1 = m(xx1) Y = mx + c Equation in general form ax + by + c = 0

1.

1 3

(3,0)

2.

1 3

(3,0)

3.

(1,4)

b. Line which passed through two point (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) EXAMPLE 2: Find the equation of the straight line joining the points ( 2, 4) and (5,6). 1. Steps Write down (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) Solutions x1=2, y1=4 x2=5, y2= 6

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Additional Mathematics : Form 4 2. Substitute into the equation

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry

y y 1 y 2 y1 = x x 1 x 2 x1

y4 64 = x2 52 y4 2 = x2 3
3(y4) = 2(x2) 3 y 12 = 2 x 4 3y = 2x + 8

3.

Simplify the equation

2x + 8 3 2 8 y= x+ 3 3 y=

EXERCISE 2: Complete the table below:

x1
1

y1

x2

y2

y y1 y 2 y1 = x x1 x2 x1 y 3 93 = x 1 4 1 y 3 6 = =2 x 1 3

Y = mx + c

Equation in general form (ax + by +c = 0)

y 3 = 2(x 1) y3 = 2x 2 -1 2 1 -8

y = 2x 2 + 3 y = 2x + 1

2x y + 1 = 0

-2

-b

4b

c. Given the gradient (m) and y-intercepts (c) EXERCISE 3: Complete the table below: m y-intercept y = mx + c ax + by + c = 0

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Additional Mathematics : Form 4

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry

x y + =1 a b 3 2
5 3 Y=

3 x3 2

x y + =1 2 3

3x2y6=0

1 2

2 5

6. POINT OF INTERSECTION OF TWO LINES. EXAMPLE: Find the point of intersection of the straight lines y=-2x + 1 and y = Solution: y = -2x + 1 .............(1)

1 x+6 2

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Additional Mathematics : Form 4 y=

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry .............(2)

1 x+6 2

(2) x 4: 4y =2x + 24 ..............(3) (1) + (3): 5y = 25 y=5 Substitute y =5 into (1) 5 = -2x + 1 2x = -4 x = -2 Therefore the point of intersection is (-2,5) EXERCISE: Find the point of intersection of the straight lines 3y = x + 2 and y + 3x + 4=0

gradient m1 gradient m2

gradient m1 gradient m2

1 7 Ans: , 5 5

7. PARALLEL LINES AND PERPENDICULAR LINES

m1 = m2

The two lines are parallel if: and only if MBI:Module 6:Addmaths Kelas Ibnu-Sina

The two lines are perpendicular if and only if SMK SEMERAH BP2010

16 m1 m2 = 1

Additional Mathematics : Form 4

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry

Examples 1. Determine whether the straight lines 2y x = 5 and x 2y = 3 are parallel. 2y x = 5, 1 1 5 y = x + , m1 = 2 2 2

Solution

x 2y = 3 1 1 3 y = x , m2 = 2 2 2 Since m1 = m 2 , therefore the straight lines 2y x = 5 and x 2y = 3 are parallel. 2. Given that the straight lines 4x + py = 5 and 2x 5y 6 = 0 are parallel, find the value of p. Step1: Determine the gradients of both straight lines. 4x + py = 5 y=

4 5 4 x + , m1 = p p p

2x 5y 6 = 0 2 6 2 m2 = y= x , 5 5 5 Step 2: Compare the gradient of both straight lines. Given both straight lines are parallel, hence

m1 = m2 4 2 = p 5

p = -10

EXAMPLE: Find the equation of the straight line parallel to the straight line y = 2 x 3 and passing through the point ( 1, 5 )

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Additional Mathematics : Form 4

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry

1. 2.
3.

Steps Obtain gradient from the equation and write down the point (x1,y1) Substitute into the equation y y1 = m ( x x1 ) Solve the expression

Solutions m=2 x1=1, y1=5 y5=2(x1) y 5 = 2 x 2 y = 2 x 2 + 5 y =2x+3

EXERCISE 1

1. Find the value of k if the straight line y = kx + 1 is parallel to the straight line 8x 2y + 1 = 0.

Ans: k = 4

2. Given a straight line 3y = mx + 1 is parallel to

x y + = 1. Find the value of m. 3 5

Ans: m = 5 3. Given the points A(1, 2), B(4, -3),C(5, 4) and D(h, -1). If the straight line AB is parallel to the straight line CD, find the value of h.
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Additional Mathematics : Form 4

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry

Ans: h = 8 4. Find the equation of a straight line that passes through B(3, -1) and parallel to 5x 3y = 8.

Ans:

3 y = 5 x 18

5. Find the equation of the straight line which passes through the point A(-2, 3) and is parallel
to the straight line which passes through the points P(1, 2) and Q(5, 1).

Ans: 4 y = 10 x 8. PERPENDICULAR LINES.


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Additional Mathematics : Form 4 Example 1. Determine whether the straight lines 3y x 2 = 0 and y + 3x + 4 = 0 are perpendicular.

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry Solution 3y x 2 = 0 y=

1 2 1 x + , m1 = 3 3 3

y + 3x + 4 = 0 y= 3x 4, m 2 = 3

1 m1 m2 = (3) = 1. 3
Hence, both straight lines are perpendicular. EXAMPLE: Find the equation of the straight line which passes through the point ( 1, 2 ) and is perpendicular to the straight line 3 x + 2 y + 1 = 0 Steps Obtain gradient from the equation Solutions 3x+ 2y+1=0 2y =3x1

3 1 x 2 2 3 Gradient, m = 2 Obtain gradient for the perpendicular line by 3 2 m1 = m2 = m1 m2 = 1 2 , 3 y=


and write down the point (x1,y1) Substitute into the equation y y1 = m ( x x1 ) x1=1, y1=2

y2=
y =

2 ( x 1) 3

2 4 x+ 3 3

EXERCISE 2

1. The equations of two straight lines are


lines are perpendicular to each other.

x y + = 1 and 3x 5y = 8. Determine whether the 3 5

2. Find the equation of the straight line which passes through point (2, 3) and perpendicular of
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Additional Mathematics : Form 4 the straight line 2y + x = 4.

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry

Ans: y = 2 x 1

3. Given the points A(k, 3), B(5, 2), C(1, -4) and D(0, 6). If the straight line AB is perpendicular
to the straight line CD, find the value of k.

Ans: k = 15 4. Find the value of h if the straight line y hx + 2 = 0 is perpendicular to the straight line 5y + x + 3 = 0

Ans: h = 5

9. PROBLEM INVOLVING THE EQUATIONS OF STRAIGHT LINES.


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Additional Mathematics : Form 4

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry

Examples 1. Given A(3, 2) and B(-5, 8). Find the equation of the perpendicular bisectors of the straight line AB.

Solution The gradient of AB, m1 = The gradient of the perpendicular line = m 2

m1 m2 = m2 =
The midpoint of AB = The equation of the perpendicular bisector, =

1.

EXERCISE 3: Given that PQRS is a rhombus with P(-1, 1) and R(5, 7), find the equation of QS.

Ans: y = 6 x 2. ABCD is a rectangle with A(-4, 2) and B(-1, 4). If the equation of AC is 4x + 7y +2 = 0, find (a) the equation of BC. (b) the coordinates of points C and D.

3.

Ans:a) 2 y = 5 3x ; b) C(3, 2), D(0, 4) PQRS is a rhombus with P(0, 5) and the equation of QS is y = 2x + 1. Find the equation of the diagonal PR.

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Additional Mathematics : Form 4

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry

Ans: 1 y = x+5 2 4. A(2, k), B(6, 4) and C(-2, 10) are the vertices of a triangle which is right-angled at A. Find the value of k.

Ans: k = 2, 12 10. EQUATION OF A LOCUS a. Locus of a point that moves in such a way that its distance from a fixed point is a constant.

EXAMPLE: Find the equation of locus of a moving point, P such that the distance from P to A(5,1) is 4 units. Steps Locate a fixed point (x1,y1) Locate the distance, d required Substitute into formula Distance, Solutions x1=5, y1= 1 d = 4 unit
( x 5 ) 2 + ( y 1 )

d = ( x x1 ) 2 + ( y y1 ) 2
Square both sides and Simplify the equation

=4

( x 5) 2 + ( y 1) 2 = 16 x 2 10 x + 25 + y 2 2 y + 1 = 16 x 2 + y 2 10 x 2 y + 10 = 0

EXERCISE 4
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Additional Mathematics : Form 4 1.

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry

Find the equation of the locus point M which moves such that its distance from each fixed point is as follows.

a. 5 units from A (-2,1)

Ans: x 2 + y 2 + 4 x 2 y 20 = 0 b. 7 units from B (-3,-1)

Ans: x 2 + y 2 + 6 x + 2 y 39 = 0

b. Locus of a point that moves in such away that the ratio of its distances from two fixed points is a constant. EXAMPLE: A point P moves such that it is equidistant from points A (2,-1) and B (3,2). Find the equation of the locus of P. Steps Let the coordinates of P be (x,y) Determine the ratio of the distances Substitute into formula Distance, Solutions x1=2, y1= 1 x2=3, y2= 2 Distance of AP = Distance of BP AP = BP

d = ( x x1 ) 2 + ( y y1 ) 2
Square both sides and simplify the equation

( x 2) 2 + ( y + 1) 2

( x 3) 2 + ( y 2) 2
2x + 6y = 8 x + 3y = 4

x 2 4x + 4 + y 2 + 2 y + 1 = x 2 6x + 9 + y 2 4 y + 4

EXERCISE 5 1. A point P moves such that it is equidistant from points A (3,2) and B (2,1). Find the
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Additional Mathematics : Form 4 equation of the locus of P.

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry

x+ y =4
2. Given points R(4,2), S(-2,10) and P (x,y) lie on the circumference of diameter RS. Find the equation of the moving point P.

Ans

Ans: x 2 + y 2 2 x 12 y + 12 = 0 3. Find the equation of the locus of point P which moves such that its distance from point A(4, 5) is twice its distance from point B(-6, 5).

Ans: 3 x 2 + 3 y 2 40 x 30 y + 203 = 0 SUMMARY m = gradient and c = y-intercept are given m = gradient and one point 25 y- y = m (x x ) SMK SEMERAH BP2010 (x1,y1) are given 1 1

MBI:Module 6:Addmaths : Kelas Ibnu-Sina

Additional Mathematics : Form 4

Topic 6: Coordinate Geometry

y = mx + c
Example: Given m = 2, (0,4) Equation : y = 2x + 4 EQUATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE

Example: Given m = 2, (3,1) Equation: y -1 = 2(x 3)

Given the line is parallel to y -axis Example: The line passes through (3,2) and parallel to y-axis Equation: x = 3

x=b

y=a
Given the line is parallel to x -axis Example: The line passes through (3,2) And parallel to x-axis Equation: y = 2

y y1 x x1

Example: Given (3,1) and (4, 5) Equation:


y 1 5 1 = x 3 43

y 2 y1 x 2 x1

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