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# Cavendish 1798 Earth's Density Historical Mistake

## By real time physics founder Joe Nahhas joenahhas1958@yahoo.com

Abstract: Nobel Prize winner physics is based on space - time travel and space - time

travel is the measurement error when measuring the motion of one object (Mercury) around another object (Sun) from a third Place (Earth). Space - time physics is not an expression of physical reality but an expression of classical physics artifacts. Mercury's
perihelion can be at least solved from 100 different physics concepts using 100 different formulas from 100 different physicists from 100 different periods of time in human history and "density" concept is no exception. 2012 Nobel: Nobel

committee on physics is the following physicists: Sweden King, Bjrn Jonson; Lars Brink; Brje Johansson; Per Delsing; Anne L'Huillier; Lars Bergstrm

Nobel physics is based on space - time travel and space - time travel is not any science Page 1

The Nobel committee (above) promoted "Macdonald Physicists" like Einstein (Relativity), Plank (quantum), Bohr (atom); Schrdinger (atomic structure); Reines (dark energy); etc and claim that Newton's physics cannot explain Nobel physics. Newton's physics can explain all 112 years of Nobel physics. Nobel physics is Newton's physics Artifacts. Newton's physics is under developed and Nobel physics is 100 % fiction due to 500 years of Technical Errors. Cavendish used Hooke's law, the torque on the torsion wire is proportional to the deflection angle of the balance.

The torque is where is the torsion coefficient of the wire. The torque is L F = With F = G m M/r2 Then = L G m M/r2

## The quanitiy S = r The speed is = Limit ( S/ t) = r Limit ( / t) = r (d /d t) = r t0 t0 Page 2

The acceleration = (d / d t) = r (d / d t) = r (d2 /d t2) = r The torque = F r = m r = m r2 (d2 /d t2) = I (d2 /d t2) = - ; I = mr2 Or, (d2 /d t2) + [(/I)] 2 = 0 Or; + (/I) = 0 And = A sine [(/I)] t And = (d /d t) = A (/I) cosine [(/I)] t And = (d2 /d t2) = - [(/I)] A sine [(/I)] t = - (/I) By definition: the period T = 2(I/)

I = m(L/2)2 + m(L/2)2 = 2 m (L/2)2 = m L2/2 T = 2(I/) =2 (mL2/2 ) T2 = (mL2/2 ) And = (mL2/2 T2) L G m M/r2 = = (mL2/2 T2) G = (2 2Lr2/MT2) The force F = m = m g = G m M/R2 = G m M earth/R2earth M = g R2/ G M earth = g R2earth/ G (4/3) d earth R3earth = g R2earth/ G And earth's density d earth = (3g/4G R earth) = 5515 Kg/m3
By definition pressure = force divided by area, or P = F/A. The area of an object is constant and pressure is directly proportional to force. Then P1 = (F 1/A) and P2 = (F2/A) and the difference in pressure is P2 - P1 = (F2 - F1)/A, or, F = F2 - F1 = A (P2 - P1) = A p, or, gravitational force F is pressure difference or gravitational voltage. An object with constant area in atmospheric pressure has a force on it due to atmospheric pressure When another object is brought into the vicinity of another object it reduces the atmospheric pressure between them pulling the two objects together due to higher pressure on the opposite sides of the two spheres and creating an easy route between them more of a negative voltage. The reason an object falls to earth is because of the atmospheric pressure along an object path is least resistive along the line Earth - Object line. Force is a direct contact concept; the balls never touched in this experiment; what is clear in this experiment is air touched the both balls. Earth has no effect on the balls. The formula: d
earth

= (3g/4G R

earth)

## = 5515 kg/m3 is Cavendish error.

Who said that Earth exerts a force on objects? Air or atmosphere exerts pressure on objects due to direct contact and not Earth!

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GM/ R2 = g = R/t2 GM = R3/T 2 The mass M is not the mass of Earth but the mass M of the atmosphere Inertial Mass of a spherical atmosphere is M = (2/5) (4/3) d at R3at G [(2/5) (4/3) d at R3at] = R3at /T 2 G = 1/ (2/5) (4/3) d at T 2 R3at /T 2 = constant
If a car moves from point A to point B its visual changes from C to D.

B
1 = 1 is self evident; 2 = 2 is self evident; A = A is self evident B = B is self evident; add and subtract A B = A + (B - A); divide by A (B/A) = 1 + (B - A)/A; multiply by C (B/A) C = C + [(B - A)/B] C --------------------- Nahhas 5th grade equation- 1 D = D is self evident; add and subtract C D = C + (D - C) ----------------------------------- Nahhas 5th grade equation- 2 Compare equation - 1 with equation - 2 Page 4

## = "Macdonald" physics and Physicists = Nobel physics and physicists

If an object moves from point A to point B measured by a human from a third place its visual changes from size C to size D Humans measure a planet orbit (1) around the Sun (2) from Earth (3) The measurement error is: D - C = [(B - A)/B)] C = measurement error = Nobel Or (C - D)/D = (A - B)/B = Or D/D = B/B; Divide by t (1/D) ( D/ t) = (1/B) ( B/ t) Limit [(1/D) ( D/ t)] = Limit [(1/B) ( B/ t)] = +/- ( + ) t 0 t 0

## Distance is A; real time distance is B = A e - / + ( + ) t

With = 0; B = A e
- /+

t
- /+

In general if an object moves from A to B, the visual of A is B = A e In general real time distance r

= r0 e - /+ t

From Kepler's law areal velocity is constant, or, r02'0 = r2'= h = constant.

Where ' = angular velocity And ' = '0 (r/ r0)2 = '0 (r/ r0)2 And ' = '0 e - /+2 t The orbital period T is related to the angular velocity ' by ' = 2 /T And 2 /T = (2 /T 0) e - /+2 t Page 5

## = '0 (e - /+ t) 2 = '0 e - /+2 t

And T = T 0 e - /+2 t
And T = T0 (cosine 2 t +/- sine 2 t) = T x +/- Ty Along the line of measurement: T x = T 0 cosine 2 t T x = T 0 [1 - 2 sine 2 t] T x - T 0 = - 2 T0 sine 2 t And (T x - T 0)/T0 = - 2 sine2 t T x = T x is self evident; add and subtract T0 T x = T0 + (T x - T0); divide by T0 (T x / T0) = 1 + (T x - T0)/ T0; multiply by C (T x / T0) C = C + [(T x - T0)/B] C --------------------- Nahhas 5th grade equation- 1 D = D is self evident; add and subtract C D = C + (D - C) ----------------------------------- Nahhas 5th grade equation- 2 Compare equation - 1 with equation - 2

## D - C = [(T x - T 0)/ T 0)] C = measurement errors = Nobel physics R3at /T 2 = constant

r = r0 e - /+ t
T = T 0 e - /+2 t
Or, the visual artifacts of R3at /T 2 = constant = [R03at /T0 2] [e - /+ 3 t/ e - /+4 t]
The Distance visual to Time (angle) to distance visual has a power of (3/4). The visual index of refraction (1.000277) measurement goes in power ratio of - (3/4)

## G = 1/ (2/5) (4/3) d at Te 2; Te = sidereal period or earth's spin period

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G = 1/ (2/5) (4/3) d at Te 2 (n a) - Where air density d at = 1.2041 km/m3 Te = 86164.09724 seconds And air index of refraction n a = 1.000277 G = 1/ (2/5) (4/3) (1.2041) (86164.09724) 2 (1.000277) - G = 6.67384 x 10-11

## There are many applications like Mercury's Perihelion

Joe Nahhas' 5th grade, July 21st 1969, solution of Mercury's perihelion A = Sun - Mercury distance = 58.2 x 109 meters; B = Sun Earth distance = 149.6 x 109 meters Sun - Mercury Period in seconds = 88 days x 24 hours x 60 minutes x 60 seconds Planet Mercury angular velocity around the Sun Is 0'= 2 x /88 x 24 x 60 x 60 radians per period Planet Mercury angular velocity around the Sun in arc second per century 0' = (2 x /88 x 24 x 60 x 60) (180/ ) (36526/88) (3600) 0'= 70.75 arc sec per century. If C = 70.75 arc sec per century measured from the Sun, then how much it is diminished if measured from Earth? A = 5.82 x 109; B = 149.6 x 109; C = 70.75 And the answer is [(B - A)/B] C = [(5.82 x 109 - 149.6 x 109)/ 149.6 x 109] (70.75) = 0.61 x 70.75 = 43 arc sec per/100 years same numbers as Einstein's numbers Now let us use this formula and expose Cavendish Error: (T x - T 0)/T0 = - 2 sine2 t

The ratio of Earth density to Air density = de/ d at = (5515)/ (1.2041) The density to dimension ratio is 1/3
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## Real time kinematics of a sphere

1- Real time distance 1 =1 is self evident; 2= 2 is self evident; A = A is self evident; B = B is self evident A = A; add and subtract B; then, A = B + (A - B); divide by B (A/B) = 1 + (A - B)/B; multiply by D (A/B) D = D + [(A - B)/B] D --------------------------------- Equation - 1 C = C is self evident; D = D is self evident Or C = C; add and subtract D C = D + (C - D) ----------------------------------------------- Equation - 2 Comparing equations 1 and 2 yields, (1) AC = BD; (2) D = D; and (3) C - D = [(A - B)/B] D ----------------------------------------Equation - 3 Or (C - D)/D = (A - B)/B Or D/D = B/B; Divide by t (1/D) ( D/ t) = (1/B) ( B/ t) Limit [(1/D) ( D/ t)] = Limit [(1/B) ( B/ t)] = ( + ) t 0 t 0

## Distance is r0; real time distance is r = r0 e ( + ) t ------------- Equation - 4

2- Real time velocity With r = r0 e ( + ) t Then velocity = d r / d t = v= [v0 + r0 ( + )] e ( + ) t --------------- Equation - 5 Page 8

## 3- Real time acceleration With v= [v0 + r0 ( + )] e ( + ) t Acceleration = d v/ d t = [ 0 + 2 v0 ( + ) + r0 ( + ) 2] e ( + ) t ---Equation - 6

4 - Real time circle

Distance r = r0 e ( + ) t------------------------------------------------------ Equation - 7 A - Circumference of a circle C = 2 r = 2 r0 e ( + ) t ------------------ Equation - 8 B - Circumference of a circle velocity C' = 2 v

## C'=2 [v0 + r0 ( + )] e ( + ) t --------------------------------------------Equation - 9

C - Circumference of a circle acceleration C" = 2 = 2 [ 0 + 2 v0 ( + ) + r0 ( + ) 2] e ( + ) t ------------------------- Equation - 10 D - Area of a circle A = r2 = r02 e 2 ( + ) t E - Area of a circle velocity A' = 2 r v

## A ' = 2 [(r0.v0) + r02 ( + )] e 2 ( + ) t ---------------------------------- Equation - 11

F - Area of a circle acceleration = 2 [v2 + r ] = 2 {[v0 + r0 ( + )] 2 + r0 [ 0 + 2 v0 ( + ) + r0 ( + ) 2]} e 2 ( + ) t = 2 [v02 + r0 0 + 4 r0 v0 ( + ) + 2 r02 ( + ) 2] e 2 ( + ) t---------- Equation - 12
5 - Real time sphere

Distance r = r0 e ( + ) t--------------------------------------------------------Equation - 13 Circumference = 2 r0 e ( + ) t ---------------------------------------------- Equation - 14 A - Surface area of a sphere S = 4 r2 = 4 r02 e 2 ( + ) t ----------------- Equation - 15 B- Surface area of a sphere velocity S'=8 r v

## S'= 8 [(r0.v0) + r02 ( + )] e 2 ( + ) t-------------------------------------Equation - 16

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C - Surface area of a sphere acceleration S" = 8 [v2 + r ] = 8 [v02 + r0 0 + 4 r0 v0 ( + ) + 2 r02 ( + ) 2] e 2 ( + ) t---------- Equation - 17 D - Volume of a sphere V = (4 /3) r3 = (4/3) r03 e 3 ( + ) t --------------------------------------------------------- Equation - 18 E - Volume of a sphere velocity V' = 4 r2 v = 4 r02 [v0 + r0 ( + )] e 3 ( + ) t------------------------------------------ Equation - 19 F - Volume of a sphere acceleration V" = 4 [2 r v2 + r2 ] = 4 {2 r0 [v0 + r0 ( + )] 2 + r02 [ 0 + 2 v0 ( + ) + r0 ( + ) 2]} e 3 ( + ) t = 4 [2 r0 v02 + 4 r02 v0 ( + ) + 2 r03 ( + ) 2 + r02 0 + 2 r02 v0 ( + ) + r03 ( + ) 2] e 3 ( + ) t = 4 {[2 r0v02+ + r02 0] + 6r0 2 v0 ( + ) + 3 r0 3 ( + ) 2} e 3 ( + ) t Equation - 20

## The relevant equation is

Distance r = r0 e ( + ) t--------------------------------------------------------Equation - 13 Areal velocity S'= 8

## [(r .v ) + r02 ( + )] e 2 ( + ) t------------------Equation - 16

0 0

(8 ) visual error The ratio of Earth density to Air density = de/ d at = (5515)/ (1.2041) The density to dimension ratio is 1/3; (de/ d at) -3

= [(5515)/ (1.2041)] -3

In an inverse square law the visual error is 8 = (de/ d at) -3 / 8 = {[(5515)/ (1.2041)] -3/8 } (T x - T 0)/T0 = - 2 sine2 t; t = Arc tan [(de/ d at)-3/8 ] (T x - T 0)/T0 = - 2 sine2 Arc tan [(de/ d at)-3/8 ]
Planet Mercury angular velocity around the Sun in arc second per century 0' Page 10

= (2 x /88 x 24 x 60 x 60) (180/ ) (36526/88) (3600) 0'= 70.75 arc sec per century. (T x - T 0)/T0 = - 2 sine2 Arc tan [(de/ d at)-3/8 ] Planet Mercury perihelion measured in arc second per century: [(T x - T 0)/T0] 0'= - 2 sine2 Arc tan [(de/ d at)-3/8 ] 0 [(T x - T 0)/T0] 0'= - 2 sine2 Arc tan {[(5515)/ (1.2041)] -3/8 } 0 = (70.75) {- 2 sine2 Arc tan {[(5515)/ (1.2041)] -3/8 }} = 43 In Picture:
Earth

Mercury

SUN

Real time physics and astronomy is the mathematical formulation of human perception of physical nature based on physical nature self evident definitions like distance, time, velocity, acceleration, mass, state, momentum, force, energy, etc.., and the peel off physical nature's deceptions. 500 years of Modern and 113 years of Nobel Prize winner physical sciences including physics astronomy chemistry and biology are based on relativistic measurements and are a description of physical nature's deceptions or artifacts or measurement errors when measuring the motion of one object (planet Mercury) around another object (Sun) from a third place (Earth). Page 11

Newton's equation is solved wrong for 350 years and the correct solution deletes 112 of Nobel science and scientists: F = -G m M/r2; r > 0
Physics Faculty wrong solution of ellipse, r (, 0) = a (1 - 2)/ (1 + cosine ) Correct solution is a rotating ellipse, r (, t) = [a (1-)/ (1+ cosine )] ( + ) t Newton's equation in polar coordinates F = m ;

Eq-1 Eq-2

## With m (r" - r ') = - Gm M/r2 And 2 r' ' + r "= 0

A - Real numbers or time independent solution Eq-2: 2 r' ' + r "= 0 Multiply by r> 0 Then 2 r r' ' + r2 "= 0 Or, d (r')/d t = 0 And integrating: r' = h = constant With m (r" - r ') = - Gm M/r2 Then, (r" - r ') = - GM/r2 Let u = 1/r; r = 1/u; r' = h = /u And r' = d r/d t = (d r/ d u) (d u /d ) (d / d t) = (- /u ) (d u /d ) ' = (-'/u ) (d u /d ) = - h (d u/ d ) And r' = d r/d t = - h (d u/ d ) And r" = d r/ d t = d (d r'/ d t)/ d t = d [- h (d u/ d )]/ d t Page 2

Multiply (d / d ) Then r" = d r/ d t = {d [- h (d u/ d )]/ d t} (d / d ) = ' {d [- h (d u/ d )]/ d } = - h (d u/ d ) = (- h/r) (d u/ d ) = - h u (d u/ d ) And r" = d r/ d t = - h u (d u/ d ) With d r/dt - r ' = - G M/r2 Eq1

And - h u (d u/ d ) (1/u) (h u) = - G M u2 Then (d u/ d ) + u = G M/h2 And u = G M/h2 + A cosine The r = 1/u = 1/ (G M/h2 + A cosine ); divide by G M/h2 And r = (h2/G M)/ [1 + (A h2/G M) cosine ] With; h2/G M = a (1 - 2); (A h2/G M) = This is Newton's equation classical solution Or, r = a (1 - 2)/ (1 + cosine ); definition of an ellipse ------------- I Newton's time independent solution B - Real time or complex numbers solution: Newton's equation in polar coordinates F = m ;

## = [r" - r '] r1 + [2 r' ' + r "] 1

Eq-1 Eq-2

With m (r" - r ') = - Gm M/r2 And 2 r' ' + r "= 0 Eq-2: 2 r' ' + r "= 0 Separate the variables: 2 r' ' = - r " Or 2(r'/r) = - ("/') = - 2 ( + )

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Then: (r'/r) = + Or d r/r = ( + ) d t Then r = r 0 ( + ) t And r = r (, 0) r (0, t); r 0 = r (, 0) And r = r (, 0) ( + ) t And r (0, t) = ( + ) t With r (, 0) = a (1 - 2)/ (1 + cosine ) Then, r (, t) = [a (1-)/ (1+ cosine )] ( + ) t ------------- I Newton's time dependent solution = quantum mechanics If time is frozen that is t = 0 Then r (, 0) = a (1-)/ (1+ cosine ) or classical Relativistic is the difference between I and Real II With - ("/') = - 2 ( + ) Then ' = '0 -2 ( + ) t With '0 = h/ [r (, 0)] 2 And '(, t) = [' (, 0)] -2 ( + ) t And, '(, t) = ' (, 0) ' (0, t) And ' (0, t) = -2 ( + ) t At Perihelion: We Have ' (0, 0) = h (0, 0)/r (0, 0) = 2ab/ 0 a (1- ) ; = 2a [ (1- )]/ = 2 [ (1- )]/ Then '(0, t) = 2 With = 0 Page 4

0 = orbital period

0a (1- ) ]

0 (1- ) ]

[(1- )/ 0 (1- ) ] -2 ( + ) t

Then '(0, t) = 2

[(1-)/ 0 (1-) ] -2 ( + ) t

## [(1- )/ 0 (1- ) ] (1 - 2 sine t)

And ' = '0 (1 - 2 sine t) And ' - '0 = - 2 '0 sine t = -2{2 And ' - '0 = -4

## [(1-)/ 0 (1-) ] sine t

With, v = spin velocity; v0 = orbital velocity; 0 = orbital period And 0= tan-1 [(v + v0)/c]; light aberrations ' = ' - '0 = - 4 [(1-)]/

## 0 (1-) ] sine tan-1 [(v + v0)/c]

The angle difference in degrees per period is: = ( ') 0 = (-720) [(1-)/ (1-) ] sine tan-1 [(v + v0)/c] calculated in degrees per century is multiplication = 100 ; using 0 in days (100 /

## 0) = in degrees per century 0) [(1-)/ (1-) ] sine tan-1 [(v + v0)/c]

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= (-72000 /

In arc second per century is multiplying by 3600 = - 3600 x 720 (100 Approximations I With v << c and v* << c Then Sine tan-1 [(v+ v0)/c] (v + v0)/c (Calculated in arc second per century) = (-720x36526x3600/ Approximations II The circumference of an ellipse Is: 2

## a (1 - /4 + 3/16()- --.) 2 a (1- /4); r0 = a (1- /4)

From Newton's laws for a circular orbit: F = [M/m F = - Gm M/r02 = m v0/ r0 Then v0 = GM/ r0 For planet Mercury And v0 = [GM/ r] = [GM/a (1-/4)] G = 6.673 x 10 -11; M = 2 x1030 kg; a = 58.2 x 109 meters; = 0.206 Then v0 = [6.673 x 10 -11 x 2 x1030 /58.2 x 109 (1- 0.206 /4)] And v0 = 48.14 km/sec [Mercury]; c = 300,000 (Calculated in arc second per century) = (-720x36526x3600/

## 0 days) [(1-)/ (1-) ] [(v + v0)/c]

With = 0.206; [(1-)/ (1-) ] = 1.552; v = 3 meters per second = (-720x36526x3600/88) 1.552 (48.143/300,000) = 43 arc second per century Summary = (-720x36526x3600/

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## Newton's equation is: F = -G m M/r2; r > 0

Wrong r = r (, 0) = a (1 - 2)/ (1 + cosine ) ----------------I Correct: r (, t) = [a (1-)/ (1+ cosine )] ( + ) t ------------- II Read my article: 50 Solutions of Mercury's Perihelion www.scribd/joenahhas

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Planet Mercury's Perihelion is a measurements error that can at least be calculated 100 different ways from 100 different physics concepts using 100 different formulas from 100 different periods of time in human history and get the same numbers as Einstein 43 seconds of an arc per century using the formula: D - C = [(B - A)/B)] C = Visual artifact = measurement error = modern + Nobel What is modern and Nobel Physics and astronomy? Big bang no one heard? Dark energy no one can find? Time travel no one can perform? Light constant speed when light speed never been measured? Black holes based on constant light speed and time travel? The Sun is pulling on Earth due to gravity when gravity is measured to be zero outside atmosphere? An atom with atomic parts that have an average life time of 1/ (trillion second) or a universe that is made out of particles that lives dies and rebirth trillion times each second? 500 years of modern and Nobel physics with real numbers physics definitions and complex numbers experimental data and when physics definitions are changed to complex numbers definitions it would toilet flush all Nobel and produce Nobel physicists results using 5th arithmetic of a circle?!. Modern and Nobel Physics and astronomy is based on space - time travel and space time travel is not any science. Modern and Nobel is nothing short of Mafia of physicists with Nobel logo of Fictional Universe = 1/ fictional atom