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discovery) is the process of analyzing data from different perspectives and summarizingitintousefulinformation informationthatcanbeusedtoincrease

ABSTRACT: The mainaimofthepaperistohelp

physically challenged people to fulfill their dreams. In particular, we are interested in road following and directionchangetasks,andinanalyzing the influence of extrinsic camera parameter perturbations on vehicle behavior. We use automatic highways thathelpthevehicletomoveitselfusing sensors that are used in highways. We are going to use data mining concepts for thevehicle toreachthedestination correctly using bar coding techniques. Thisprovesthatthevisuallychallenged personscanusethiswithoutothershelp to migrate from places. Data mining (sometimes called data or knowledge

revenue,cutscosts,orboth.Datamining is used in many fields; we have made use of this data mining process in a automatedcarwhichwillbeaboonfor physicallychallengedpeople.Usingdata miningtheexactdestinationoftheuser can be achieved by the automated car using some sensors. Using bar coding techniquetheexact

address of the destination can be reached. Data mining is the umbrella term forprocessesdesignedtoidentify and interpret data for the purpose of discerning actionable trends and formulating strategies based on those trends.


Dataminingistheexplosionofdatain modern society, and the corollary that mechanical production of data has created the need for mechanical consumptionofdata.Mostorganizations have large databases that contain a wealth of potentially accessible information. The unbridled growth of data willinevitable lead tosituationin which it is increasingly difficult to access the desired information: it will alwaysbelikelookingforaneedleina haystack,onlytheamountofhaywillbe growingallthetime.Theanalogythat, withacomputer,youcanautomatically find the tons of datadebris in your databaseisofcourseveryattractive.The various types of neural networks are explainedanddemonstratedapplications of neural networks are described, historicalbackgroundisprovided.

Oneoftheexistingoursimilartooursis asmartcar,whichisusedtoovercome thetrafficproblems.Althoughthepublic maybeloathefacingit,theunimpeded mobilityoftheautomobileconsidereda basic birthright by many people is threatened by trafficchoked roadways. The traditional solution has been to constructmoreandlargerroadways,but thatisnolongerseenasaviableoption by transportation planners, due to the highfinancial,social,andenvironmental costs of such giant projects. More efficientuseoftheexistingroadnetwork usingadvancedtechnologyseemstobe theanswer,butexactly whatformthat system should take is the subject of intensedebateamongthediversegroups that comprise the country's transportation communityfederal,

state, and local government agencies; industry; academia; trade associations;


and consumer and publicinterest groups. One approach would be to developautomatedhighwaysthatfeature alaneorsetoflanesonwhichvehicles equipped with specialized sensors and wirelesscommunicationssystemscould travelundercomputercontrolatclosely spaced intervals, perhaps in small convoys or "platoons." Vehicles could be temporarily linked together in communications networks,whichcould allow the continuous exchange of information about speed, acceleration, braking, obstacles, andsoforth.butin thisworkdataminingtechniqueshasno role. This is just a solution for traffic problemsbutithasnoworktodowith challengedpeople.

The distance between the vehicles is fixedsincethevehiclesareautomatedit avoidsaccidents.thevehicleconsistsof sensors that responds to highway sensors.Herebarcodescannersareused where it converts the databases into barcodes,whichisusedtoidentifythe places correctly. Here the data mining techniqueisusedthatisusedtoidentify andrefinethedatafromthedatabases. Theplacesshouldalsocontainthedatas informofbarcodessothatifthecars barcodematcheswiththatofaparticular placeitstops.sothiswouldbehelpfulto challengerstogooutinvehiclewithout thehelpofothers. Here different lanes are used for differentkindofvehicles.Aspeciallane isusedforautomatedvehiclesthathelps tousesensorstosensetheenvironment.

Herewearegoingtodevelopautomated highwayofdifferentlanesusingsensors.

The car will drive very close to each other at highway speeds, using video

imagingtokeeplanesaswellasvideo registration and infrared signals to maintain a safe distance. This technology is the first step toward car platoon. The distance of the vehicles remainsconstantwiththehelpofsensors used in automated highways. So the sensors detect the distance and keep track of the vehicles distance so that crashesofthesevehiclescanbeavoided sincedriverdoesnotplayanyroleinit. thecarrunsduetospecialsensorsand uses artificial intelligence to stop at specificplacessuchastrafficsignals.

solvethisproblem. The traditional solution has been to constructmoreandlargerroadways,but thatisnolongerseenasaviableoption by transportation planners, due to the highfinancial,social,andenvironmental costs of such giant projects. More efficientuseoftheexistingroadnetwork usingadvancedtechnologyseemstobe the answer. Basic to these automated highway schemes are computer simulationstoindicatethatsuchsystems may be the least expensive way to increase highway throughput. we are alsogoingtouseautomatedvehicleson this automated highway to reduce the accidentstakingplace. Futurehighways mayincorporateautomatedvehiclelanes accessible from validation/transition lanes,whichwouldcheckeachvehicle's computerized driving system. An

DATAM INING: Automatedcar

Usingdataminingmodelswearegoing to develop an automated vehicle using barcodescannersthatwouldbehelpful inautomaticallylocateaplaceusingthe databases.Growingtrafficcongestionis choking overloaded roads. Intelligent vehiclesandautomatedhighwayscould


solution to future traffic problems, but technicalfeasibilityhasnotbeenproven beyond a few lab and controlled test trackdemonstrations. Theaddressshouldbesensedandusing data mining model it is converted into barcodesusingbarcodescanners.Then the houses should contain the same address in front of it in barcodes. The vehiclewhilemovingsensethebarcodes usingsensorsandwhenthebarcodeof carmatchesthebarcodeoftheplacethe carstops.





Target Detector . This is the bottomlayer,whichprovidesthe functionality of perfect sensors, outputtingexactrangeandrange ratewithrespecttothedetected vehicle(ifany).Thismeansthat noiseisn'tdealtwithatthislevel. TheTargetDetectortypeshould be considered private and shouldn'tbeusedbytheSmart AHS user. It is intended to be usedbysensordesignersonly.

ASmartAutomaticvehiclehasoneSEP and zero or more sensors. Four sensor links areprovidedintheVehicle type: frontSensor,rearSensor,leftSensorand rightSensor.Othersmaybeaddedinthe subtypesofVehicle. SmartAutomated vehicle provides the

Sensor Model. This is the middle layer, which works as a filter.Theperfectresultsofthe

lowerlevelaredistortedinaway thatdependsonthemodel.Noise canbeaddedbothtorangeand range rate and false alarms can

also be generated. The Sensor Modeltypeshouldbeconsidered privateandshouldn'tbeusedby the SmartAutomated vehicle user.Itisintendedtobeusedby sensordesignersonly.

environment:Theseincludebothactive sensorssuchaslaserandradar,aswell aspassiveonessuchasstereovision. *Shortrangesensorsthatdetectobjects in the immediate vicinity of the ego vehicle:Again,theseincludebothactive sensorssuchassonar,andpassiveones suchascapaciflexor.Thesesensorsare typically used to check blind spots or parkingspacesbeforeattemptinglateral maneuvers. * Sensors that measure the relative velocityofasensedvehicle:Somerange sensors(suchasDopplerradar)dothis Automatically. For other sensors, this may involve sophisticated processing (suchasopticalflow),orrequire Differentialrangemeasurements. Positioning sensors that enable estimation of current egovehicle location: These include onboard systemssuchas

Sensor. This is the top layer, which is used to hide the complex details of the lower levelsfromtheuser(infactitis the only public part of the architecture). Themainfunction ofthistypeisthatofsettingup thelowerlevelmechanismsand of providing the user with the results coming from the middle layer

Assuggestedbythishierarchy,sensors can be classified into the following classes: * Longrange sensors that measure the distancetoanobstacleorvehicleinthe

encoders, in addition to the Global PositioningSystem(GPS). TheSensorabstractsuperclassrequires thefollowinginputs:

between the two cars. This method assumes that cars havecircular shapes. Rangerateisthedifferencebetweenthe speed of the detected vehicle and the speedofthecurrentvehicle. Thetargettypeencapsulatesthedetected vehicle.Ithasthefollowingoutputs:

timersample_timer Vehiclevehicle VREPvrep SEPsep


A few sensors have been implemented on top of the described architecture. Theirsourcecodecanbestudiedasan exampleofimplementation.

The timer type is used to select a sampling time for the sensor. The outputsofthesensorarethefollowing:

numberrange numberrangeRate targetdetectedTarget

range_sensor : it detects the nearest vehicle around it (by "aroundit"wemeanthevehicles intheprevious,currentandnext cell). No noise is simulated, so detections are perfect. Two 7

Rangeisthedistanceinmetersfromthe detected vehicle. Actually the range is calculatedbysubtractinghalfthelength ofthefollowingcarandhalfthelength of the leading car from the distance

additional parameters can be providedasinput:


minimum range of detection





maximum range of detection.


maximum range of detection targetdetectorsensorsisusedtodetect thetargetandusedtolocatethetarget.

symboldirection:thiscan be assigned the value $frontor$rear,depending onthedesireddirectionof detection.

The lowest level of the architecture fulfillsthepurposeofdetectingtargetsif any.Itdoesnotsimulateanynoise.Its function is purely geometric: e.g. to understandwetheravehicleexists,that falls within the sensor range. For this reason TargetDetectors can be

RadarSensor : it detects the nearest vehicle in the area defined by the following parameters,usingaradarsensor model. Three additional parameters can be provided as input:

number fov: field of visionangle

categorized according to the shape of theirdetectionfield.




Vehiclevehicle VREPvrep SEPsensor_ep sensorenclosingSensor timersample_timer

Onthislevelit'sjustasignalto notify that the values in the outputsarereadytoberead. updateUpperLevels>idle {enclosingSensor:values_updated} Itgoesbacktotheinitialstate. Reading the values from the TargetDetectorcanbedoneintwoways. Theeasiestwayisviaaflow:
flow default{ range=range(targetDetector); rangeRate=rangeRate(targetDetect or); };

Theoutputsarethesameasthesensor class.Theyareactuallyprocessedbythe upper level before being passed to the sensor.Threetransitionstakeplace.Itis importantthatallofthembepresent: idle>update{sample_timer:timer_tick} It takes place when the timer ticks.Itdoesthedetectionwork andupdatestheoutputstoreflect theresultsofthedetection. update>updateUpperLevels {enclosingSensor:update_values} This one is needed to synchronizewiththeupperlevels oncethecomputationisfinished.

The second one is via transitions such as:

idle>update{update_values}, update>idle{values_updated};

Implementing sensors brought up a performance problem. How is asensor to determine whether a car is within range?

Theeasiestsolutionistolookforsucha carinthesetofallthecarsintheworld. Thisisobviouslyveryexpensive.

SEPsep:=create( SEP, the_vehicle:=self, current_segment:=starting_ segment, current_section:=starting_ section, current_cell:=cells (starting_section)[0]);

To avoidthis, roadsections have been subdivided in cells. Each cell corresponds to a set of vehicles. Cars movefromcelltocell:whentheycrossa cellborder,theyaddthemselvestothe new cell and remove themselves from the old one. The SEP takes care of updatingthecells.Themeansbywhich thistaskisperformedishiddenfromthe user.Alltheuserhastoknowishowto instantiatetheSEPandhowtoconnectit totheothercomponents. If the instantiation happens inside the vehicle, thecreate statement looks like this(fromnowontheitalicfontisused to denote a reference to a specific

TheinputsoftheSEPcanbesetwiththe followingconnections:
rxp(sep)<rxp(vrep); ryp(sep)<ryp(vrep); rzp(sep)<rzp(vrep); current_lane (sep) < lane (vrep); current_segment(sep)<segment (vrep); current_section(sep)<section (vrep); followLane(sep)<followLane (vrep); the_vehicle(sep)<self; vehicle_sensors(sep)<{...};



numbercurrent_cell_number set(Vehicle)current_cell set(Vehicle)previous_cell set(Vehicle)next_cell set(Vehicle)overlap_cell

difference between the GPS and the encoder system is the noise characteristics; the rest of the information is provided by the simulationenvironment.Minoradditions inthecodegiveninenablestheuserto emulate error accumulations for the deadreckoning sensor. Assume that a vehicle is travelling along a straight segment of road. We assume that the positiondatacanbesampledatarateof 0.1sec (10Hz). The mean and variance forthemeasurementnoiseintheencoder is taken as 103m and 4106m respectively, while these values for a differential GPS is approximately 0m and9102m.Wehavealsoassumedthat the variance of the GPS readings increaseto0.81mwhenthereis10%or greater precipitation in the segment currently traveled by the vehicle. (The precipitation isdefinedasapercentage

simulationexampleisgiveninorderto distinguish between different types of sensorsusedforthesamepurpose,and toindicatethesimilaritiesbetweentheir simulation models. Assume that a vehicle is equipped with a differential) global positioning system, and an on boardsensorsuchasanencoderfordead reckoning.Asmentionedabovethesame noisestructureisusedforbothsensors bysettingthemeanandvarianceofthe noisemodelaccordingtoempiricaldata. Although the real implementation is much more different, we use the same simple functional model with minor differences for both sensors. The main


current SmartAHS platform14.) The same faultmodel descriptions can be usedforothersensors..

readinganddecodingabarcode.There are pen type readers (i.e. bar code wands),laserscanners,CCDreadersand camerabasedreaders.


Principles of bar code reading
Abarcodeconsistsofwhiteandblackbars. Data retrieval is achieved when bar code scannersshinealightatabarcode,capture thereflectedlightandreplacetheblackand whitebarswithbinarydigitalsignals. Reflections are strong in white areas and weak in black areas. A sensor receives reflectionstoobtainanalogwaveforms. Theanalogsignalisconvertedintoadigital signalviaanA/Dconverter.(Binarization)

Thefourthandnewesttypeofbarcode reader currently available are camera based readers that use a small video camera to capture an image of a bar code.Thereaderthenusessophisticated digital image processing techniques to decodethebarcode.Videocamerasuse thesameCCDtechnologyasinaCCD bar code reader except that instead of havingasinglerowofsensors,avideo camerahashundredsofrowsofsensors arrangedinatwodimensionalarrayso thattheycangenerateanimage. The factors that make a bar code readableare:anadequateprintcontrast between the light and dark bars and

"4" of Data retrieval is achieved when a code CODE 39 systemisdeterminedfromthedigitalsignal obtained.(Decodingprocess)

Therearecurrentlyfourdifferenttypes ofbarcodereadersavailable.Eachuses a slightly different technology for


having all bar and space dimensions withinthetolerancesforthesymbology. Itisalsohelpfultohavesharpbaredges, few or no spots or voids, a smooth surface and clear margins or "quiet zones" at either end of the printed symbol.

reader,thedatagoesintothecomputer just as if it were typed in on the keyboard.Thismakesitextremelyeasy tointerface thebarcodereadertoany applicationthatiswrittentoacceptthe keyboarddata The keyboard wedge interface is extremelysimplehoweverithasafew drawbacks.Ifyouswipeabarcode,the cursorhastobeinthecorrectinputfield inthecorrectapplicationotherwiseyou end up reading bar code data into whateverapplicationhasthefocus.This cancauseallsortsofpotentialproblems as you can imagine. The keyboard outputalsoislimitedinthatyoucannot modify the data in any way before sending it into the program that is to receive the data. For example, if you neededtoparseabarcodemessageinto multiplepiecesorremovesomeofabar codemessageoraddinadateortime


All application programs support bar code reading as long as you have the right equipment. Bar code readers are available with two types of output either "keyboard wedge" output or RS232output.Thebarcodereaderswith keyboard wedge output plug directly intothekeyboardportonyourPCand theyalsoprovideapigtailconnectorso thatyoucanpluginyourkeyboardatthe same time. When youscan abarcode with the keyboard wedge bar code


stampyouwouldnotbeabletowitha normal keyboard wedge reader. Theotherpossibleoutputoptionistoget a bar code reader with an RS232 or "Serial" interface. With these types of barcodereaders,youconnectthereader toanavailableserialportonthebackof your PC. You would then need a program called a "Software Wedge" to take thedatafromthebarcodereader andfeedittotheapplicationwhereyou wantthedatatogo

symbologiesweredesignedtomeetthe needs of a specific application or industry. For example the UPC symbologywasdesignedforidentifying retail and grocery items and PostNET was designed to encode Zip Codes for theUSPostalService.Thefollowingisa detailed description of the most commonly used bar code symbologies. Allofthefollowingtypesofbarcodes arefullysupportedbyBCoderPro,the TALBarCodeActiveXcontrolandthe TALBarCodeDLLs. CODE 39 (Normal and Full ASCII

Barcodesarelikeaprintedversionof theMorsecode.Differentbarandspace patterns are used to represent different characters. Sets of these patterns are groupedtogethertoforma"symbology". There are many types of bar code symbologies each having their own specialcharacteristicsandfeatures.Most

versions) The Normal CODE 39 is a variable length symbology that can encode the following44characters: 1234567890ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQ RSTUVWXYZ.*$/+%.Code39isthe mostpopularsymbologyinthenonretail


world and is used extensively in manufacturing, military, and health applications.EachCode39barcodeis framed by a start/stop character represented by an asterisk (*). The Asteriskisreservedforthispurposeand may not be used in the body of a message. BCoder automatically adds thestartandstopcharactertoeachbar code therefore you should not include themaspartofyourbarcodemessage. If you select the NORMALversion of CODE 39 and your bar code text containslowercasecharacters,BCoder willconvertthemtouppercase.Ifyour bar code message contains any invalid characters, BCoder will prompt you with a warningmessage(iftheEnable Invalid Warning Messages option is selectedinthePreferencesmenu).

UPCAwithSupplementalUPCE UPCAisa12digit,numericsymbology used in retail applications. UPCA symbolsconsistof11datadigitsandone checkdigit.Thefirstdigitisanumber systemdigitthatnormallyrepresentsthe type of product being identified. The following 5 digits are a manufacturers code and the next 5 digits are used to identifyaspecificproduct. UPC numbers are assigned to specific products and manufacturers by the UniformCodeCouncil(UCC).Toapply for a UPC number or for more information,youcancontacttheUCCat 8163OldYankeeRoad,SuiteJ,Dayton, OH45458Tel:9374353870 WhenspecifyingUPCAmessages,you normallyspecify11digitsandletyour barcodeprintingsoftwarecalculatethe 12thcheckdigitforyou.(AllTALbar

UPCA, UPCE, and UPC Supplementals:


code software products automatically calculatecheckdigitsforyou.) UPCE is a smaller seven digit UPC symbology for number system 0. It is often used for small retail items. For UPCEbarcodes,younormallyspecify 6 digits andlet yourbarcode printing software calculate the seventh check digitforyou. Both UPCA and UPCE allow for a supplementaltwoorfivedigitnumberto be appended to the main bar code symbol.Thissupplementalmessagewas designed for use on publications and periodicals.Ifyouenterasupplemental message,itmustconsistofeithertwoor fivenumericdigits.Thesupplementalis simplyasmalladditionalbarcodethatis addedontotherightsideofastandard UPCsymbol. Differences between Type A and

TypeE UPCE is also called "zero suppressed UPC" because UPCE compresses a normal 12 digit UPCA number into a six digit code by "suppressing" the numbersystemdigit,trailingzerosinthe manufacturerscodeandleadingzerosin theproductidentificationpartofthebar codemessage.Aseventhcheckdigitis encodedintoaparitypatternforthesix main digits. UPCE can thus be uncompressed back into a standard UPCA12digitnumber. ThemaindifferencebetweenaUPCA symbolandaUPCEsymbolisthesize. BelowisaUPCAbarcodeontheleft andthesamedataencodedasaUPCE symbolontheright. UPCA These two bar codesUPCE areequivalent.


Althoughthedataminingtoolsmarketis relativelysmallatthesametimethedata mining application solution market is growingexponentially.Atleastapartof this growth is attributed to the widespreadadoptionoftheInternetand theinevitableascendanceofallformsof ebusiness.So,althoughitisdifficultto predict the future, lets look at some prevailing trends that rely on or otherwise take advantage if the data warehousing and data mining technologies.Soitisusefulforpeopleto justlocatetheplacesandtravelatless risk and gives comfortable travel for people those who thought that without others help they cant travel in cars. Thus these will help physically challenged people to gain confidence thattheycandoanythinginthisworld. 4AN










MORTON,H.2NDEDITION 5Developments in autonomous vehicle navigation. Stefan Neuber,JosNijhuis,