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Training: Use of membranes in the maple syrup field

Prepared by: Rock Gaulin Pierre Courtois

Training plan

Membranes used in maple farms Factors influencing membrane clogging When to clean membranes Cleaning procedures High Brix concentration Membrane storage at season end

Membranes used in maple farms

Membranes used in maple farms

Max. cleaning temp. Filmtec Bw 30 45 C

Max. cleaning pH 2-10.5

Max. cleaning temp. 35 C

Max. cleaning pH 1-12

Pressure

Permeate flow produced (GPD) 10 500

Max. operating pressure 600 psi

Material Polyamide Thin-Film Composite Polyamide Thin-Film Composite Polyamide Thin-Film Composite Polyamide Thin-Film Composite Polyamide Thin-Film Composite Polyvinyl Alcohol Derivative Polyamide Thin-Film Composite

Rejection rate

Active surface (sqft) 440

Membrane adaptor diameter 1-1/4"

225 psi

99.0%

Filmtec

Mark I

45 C

2-10.5

35 C

1-12

Na

Na

600 psi

ND*

450

1-1/4"

Filmtec

Nf 270

40 C

2-10

35 C

1-11

75 psi

12 500

600 psi

50.0%

400

1-1/2"

Filmtec

Nf 90

45 C

2-10.5

35 C

1-12

75 psi

7 500

600 psi

85-95.0%

400

1-1/2"

Filmtec

Xle 440

45 C

2-10.5

35 C

1-12

225 psi

12 700

600 psi

99.0%

440

1-1/2"

Hydranautics

PVD1

40 C

2-9

35 C

2-9.5

Na

11 000

400 psi

80.0%

365

1-1/2"

H2O Innovation

H2O 70

45C

2-12

35 C

2-12

100 psi

13 000

600 psi

99.5%

400

1-1/4"

The table above compares the different membranes used in the maple syrup industry. Please note that the maximum cleaning pH depend on water temperature. For organic clogging, it has been shown that a pH 12 cleaning is 9 times more efficient than a pH 11 cleaning.
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Factors influencing membrane clogging

Factors influencing membrane clogging

Non-observance of the membrane s recovery rate Non-observance of the permeate volume produced

per membrane Maintenance of pre-filtration cartridges Feed water quality Operating pressure

Non-observance of the membrane s recovery rate


10 gpm

According to membrane manufacturers, a membrane must

operate with a maximum recovery rate of 15% .


RECIRCULATION or an increase in the NUMBER of
70 gpm 70 % 3 gpm

membranes allows increasing the total recovery rate of a system without damaging the membranes.
60 gpm

Recovery rate calculation:

Recovery rate = Permeate flow/ Total Flow (Concentrate and Permeate) x 100 Ex: Permeate 10 Concentrate 5, 10 /(5+10) = 0.66 x 100 = 66%
70 gpm 7 gpm 30 gpm

42 %

40 gpm

Non-observance of the membrane s recovery rate


The more membranes a system contains, the higher the recovery rate can be. The table below gives a few examples. It is possible to exceed these criteria, but clogging will happen much faster. Please note that the operation of a system cannot be based on the concentrate s Brix concentration, as the latter varies according to feed water quality and water temperature. The operation of a system must be made in accordance with the recovery rate. Number of serial membranes Maximum recommended recovery rate at 8C Concentration if inlet of 2 Brix Concentration if inlet of 2.5 Brix Concentration if inlet of 3 Brix 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

75% 78% 80% 82% 84% 86% 87% 88% 8.0 9.1 10.0 11.1 12.5 14.3 16.7 18.2 21 21

10.0 11.4 12.5 13.9 15.6 17.9 20.8 12.0 13.6 15.0 16.7 18.8 21.0 21.0

H2O Innovation recommends not to exceed 21 Brix in the concentrate.


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Non-observance of the permeate volume produced per membrane


Membranes are designed to produce a maximum volume of Permeate per

minute / day. The average lies around 450 gph. If this maximum volume is exceeded, clogging is accelerated exponentially. Loss of production versus Permeate flow produced
80% 70% 60% 50%

Loss of production % per hour

40% 30% 20% 10% 0% -10% 0


2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Gallons of permeate per minute per membrane This is why it is important to balance the production flow of all membranes.
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Maintenance of pre-filtration cartridges


When pre-filters reach a 40+ psi differential, bypass can happen and some

particles can settle on the membrane; clogging is then irreversible. It is important to use good quality cartridges; H2O Innovation recommends 3M Polyclean or Puretrex cartridges.

To enable longer intervals between replacements of filters, H2O Innovation

recommends to add a bag in series with the other cartridges. The cartridge lifetime will be increased up to 4 times.

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Feed water quality


Maple water contains various micro-organisms (polysaccharides, bacterial

metabolites). These organisms fix on the membrane surface and create a glue which is called bio-film. The bio-film is very hard to remove with traditional cleaning products. It requires a radical treatment. To limit bio-film, it is important not to allow water to get warmer in basins. The higher the temperature in the basins, the fastest the cellular division. This is why it is important to rinse thoroughly your system after each use.

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Operating pressure
Contrary to popular belief, operating pressure isn t a factor of membrane

clogging. But a misuse of the maximum recovery or volume principles can entail an increase in membrane pressure, which is often considered as being the problem, whereas it is only the result.
The table below shows osmotic pressure versus feed water concentration.

Brix Concentration

Osmotic pressure (psi)

3.5 % 8% 12 % 14.5 % 17 % 20 % 25 % 30 %

40 psi 100 psi 145 psi 185 psi 225 psi 275 psi 380 psi 500 psi

The Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure necessary to produce a drop of water at given concentration and temperature.

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When to clean membranes?

Loss of Pure Water Permeability PWP


Here is an easy way to determine if your membranes need cleaning. Please

note that it is important to know the initial PWP. (The initial PWP is measured at the beginning of the season, and updated after each cleaning).
PWP = Pure Water Permeability, i.e. the quantity of Permeate produced in a

pure water at given concentration and temperature.


When the PWP reaches 15% , you have to initiate a cleaning sequence. If the

PWP is over 20%, it will be hard to properly clean the membrane (see table below).

PWP
25 20 15
PWP PEP

10 5 0
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PWP
When to measure the PWP? It is recommended to measure the PWP after 6 hours of continuous

operation, or when operating pressure has increased by 20%, as well as at the beginning or at the end of each production period.
Procedures: Rinse the membranes with permeate for 15 minutes or until the

conductivity is less than 10 microsiemens. H2O Innovation recommends rinsing with recirculation pumps, so that it takes less time. Adjust membrane pressure to 150 psi (H2O Innovation recommends a 150 psi PWP); at 150 psi, the permeate flow is very close to the actual production flow. Read and note down the total permeate flow for each membrane if possible;. Read and note down the water temperature. Use the correction table to adjust your PWP to 13C.

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PWP Calculation
Example of data: PWPinitial = 25 gpm at 150 psi at 13C Current data: 150 psi, 14 gpm of permeate, 3C PWP = permeate flow/ temperature correction factor PWP = 14 gpm / 0.742 = 18.8 gpm (flow at 13 C)

Yield loss calculation: 100%-((PWP/PWPinital)) x 100) = yield rate in % ( 18.8 / 25) x 100 = 75.4 % of yield 100 % 75.4 % = 24.6 yield loss in %
In this case, a cleaning is essential because loss has exceeded 15%.

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Temperature Correction Factor


PWP in cold water: 13C as reference temperature

Temperature C
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Correction Factor
0.672 0.695 0.718 0.742 0.766 0.790 0.816 0.842 0.866 0.893 0.919 0.946 0.973

Temperature C
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Correction Factor
1.000 1.028 1.055 1.084 1.112 1.142 1.170 1.200 1.229 1.259 1.289 1.319 1.350
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Cleaning procedures

Standard cleaning
Necessary tools:
pH meter

Conductivity meter
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Standard cleaning

Standard cleaning cycle Fill the cleaning tank Add 350 ml of Lavasol VII or 700 ml of Bio-Membrane for every 100 litres of permeate in the cleaning tank, or adjust the solution at pH 12 or (see table to know cleaning temperatures for each membrane). Then, launch the cleaning mode. To get an optimal cleaning, the flow must be fast so as to create a membrane washout effect. H2O Innovation recommends to use the pressure pump in cleaning mode so as to increase the flow (washout effect), but if your separator doesn t allow a cleaning under 100 psi, the cleaning must be done without the pressure pump. Re-circulate the cleaning solution until temperature reaches a maximum of 45 C (please validate with the informative table on membranes). Rinse the system for 15 minutes or until conductivity is less than 10 microsiemens. Measure the PWP. If gains are not sufficient, you can clean again with Lavasol VII or Bio-Membrane.

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Informative table on membranes and cleaning tolerances


Max. Max. cleanin cleaning g temp. pH Max. cleaning temp. Max. cleaning pH Max. Max. cleaning cleaning temp pH

Filmtec

Bw 30 Mark I Nf 270 Nf 90 Xle 440

45 C 45 C 40 C 45 C 45 C 40 C 45 C

2-10.5 2-10.5 2-10 2-10.5 2-10.5 2-9 2-12

35C 35C 35C 35C 35C 35C 35C

1-12 1-12 1-11 1-12 1-12 2-9.5 2-12

25C 25C 25C 25C 25C 25C 25C

1-13 1-13 1-12 1-13 1-13 2-10 1-12

Hydranautics H2O Innovation

PVD1 H2O 70

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Complete cleaning

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Complete cleaning
Fill the cleaning tank. Clean with Lavasol VII or Bio-Membrane at pH 12. After 5 minutes of cleaning, we recommend to measure pH and to add

products if needed. When the membrane is filled with organic waste, the pH tends to decrease because the Bio-Membrane or Lavasol VII active agent binds to this organic matter. Re-circulate the cleaning solution until temperature reaches 45 C. Rinse the system. Measure the PWP. Clean with citric acid, 1 cup for each 40 litres of dead volume. Rinse the system. Measure the PWP. Clean with Oxysan, 700 ml for each 100 litres of total volume. Be careful not to exceed 23C. Soak the system with this solution, between 1 hour and 48 hours. (The longer the soaking time, the more efficient.) Rinse the system. Measure the PWP. Clean with Lavasol VII until temperature reaches 45 C. Repeat cleanings with Lavasol VII and Oxysan until the PWP does not increase any more. Always end with a Lavasol VII cleaning.
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High Brix concentration

High Brix concentration


The table below shows profitability of a high Brix concentrate.

Savings of $10.9 / UK gal. of syrup Evaporation cost ($/UK gal. of syrup)

Oil at $0.75/l
Evap. EE = 75%

Savings of $1.6 / UK gal. of syrup Savings of $0.6 / UK gal. of syrup

$3.2 / UK gal.

$1.6 / UK gal.

$1.0 / UK gal.

Brix
Source: Center ACER

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High Brix concentration


To reach a high Brix concentration, you need to have a minimum number

of serial membranes on your system (see table). It is also possible to go 2 or 3 times through the membranes with smaller devices. Please note that evaporation is not the same at 20 Brix and 8 Brix.

Number of serial membranes Maximum recommended recovery rate at 8C Concentration if inlet of 2 Brix Concentration if inlet of 2.5 Brix Concentration if inlet of 3 Brix

75% 78% 80% 82% 84% 86% 87% 88% 8.0 9.1 10.0 11.1 12.5 14.3 16.7 18.2

10.0 11.4 12.5 13.9 15.6 17.9 20.8 21 12.0 13.6 15.0 16.7 18.8 21.0 21.0 21

The table above shows that a concentration of 20 Brix needs a minimum

of 6 membranes if feed water is at 3 Brix.

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High Brix concentration


1 system of 8 serial membranes

2 systems of 4 serial membranes

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High Brix concentration


1 system of 8 serial membranes with Booster Pump

This kind of system is the most efficient. It allows a continuous operation

while preventing bacteria from proliferating in the basins.


Please note that for cleaning, the system shouldn t have more than 4

serial membranes, otherwise the cleaning will be much less efficient.

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Membrane storage

Membrane storage at end of season


At the end of the season, it is important to clean the membranes. After cleaning, the membrane must be stored in a wet place exempt of

bacterial proliferation.
This is why you have to add an additive such as sodium metabisulfite

(Na2S2O5), or sodium benzoate (Na+ + C6H5COO-). These additives are oxygen scavengers which stop bacterial proliferation.
The package must then be sealed (in a bag or a coffer). Finally, the membrane must be stored in a place where temperature

exceeds 0 C.

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Question?

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