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Influencing buyer behavior A. Cultural factors 1. 2. 3. B. Culturevalues, perceptions, and preferences that are the most fundamental determinant of a persons wants and behavior Subculturesnationalities, religions, racial groups, geographical regions Social classhierarchically ordered divisions in a society; members share similar values, interests and behavior (see Table 6-1) Reference groupsall groups that have an influence on attitudes or behavior Familythe most influential primary reference group Roles and statusesactivities a person is expected to perform and the status associated with each Age and life-cycle stagepeople buy different goods over their lifetime Occupation and economic circumstances a) b) Blue collar versus white collar Spending income, savings and assets, debts, borrowing power, and attitude toward spending versus savingall impact product choice

Social factors 1. 2. 3.


Personal factors 1. 2.


Lifestylepattern of living as expressed by activities, interests, opinions Psychographicsthe science of using psychology demographics to better understand consumers (VALS) Personality and self-conceptpersonality characteristics that influence buying behavior (self-confidence, socialibility, etc., and ties to brand personality Psychological factors a) b) c) d) Motivationcorrelated to the strength of a need (Freud, Maslow, Herzberg) Perceptionselective attention, selective distortion, selective retention Learningchanges in behavior arising from experience Beliefs and attitudesa belief is a descriptive thought a person holds about something; an attitude is a persons enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluations, emotional feelings, and action tendencies toward some object or idea

4. 5.



Buying decision process A. B. Buying rolesfive different roles: initiator, influencer, decider, buyer and user Buying behavior

1. 2. 3. 4. C.

Complex buying behaviorhigh involvement, significant difference among brands Dissonance-reducing buying behaviorhigh involvement, little or no perceived difference among brands. Purchase is fairly quick Habitual buying behaviorlow involvement, little or no brand difference Variety-seeking buying behaviorlow involvement but perceived significant brand differences. May occur to relieve boredom Problem recognitiondifference between actual state and desired state Information searchboth internal and external sources Evaluation of alternativesdifferent process for every consumer, involves weighing product attributes and their ability to deliver benefits Purchase decisionform a preference and intention to buy. Actual purchase can be influenced further by attitudes of others and unanticipated situational factors Post purchase behavior a) Post purchase satisfactionunderstanding the differences between buyer expectation and the products perceived performance. Minimizing the gap and achieving truthful representation Post purchase actionssatisfaction or dissatisfaction will lead to subsequent behavior that can have both positive and negative effects Post purchase use and disposallearning more about use and disposal aids follow-on marketing and to enhance ecological awareness Health modelmoving people to adopt healthful behaviors (smoking, diet, exercise) Customer activity cycle modelmapping the pre, during, and post phases of behavior toward a specific task

Stages in the buying decision process 1. 2. 3. 4.





Other models of the buying decision process a)