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Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology,Allahabad

ASSIGNMENT On NetworK Layer

Q.1 Consider the subnet of Fig.1(a). Distance vector routing is used, and the following vectors have just come in to router C: from B: (5, 0, 8, 12, 6, 2); from D: (16, 12, 6,0, 9, 10); and from E: (7, 6, 3, 9, 0, 4). The measured delays to B, D, and E, are 6, 3,and 5, respectively. What is C's new routing table? Give both the outgoing line to use and the expected delay.

(a) A subnet. (b) The link state packets for this subnet.
Q.2 A datagram subnet allows routers to drop packets whenever they need to. The probability of a router discarding a packet is p. Consider the case of a source host connected to the source router, which is connected to the destination router, and then to the destination host. If either of the routers discards a packet, the source host eventually times out and tries again. If both host-router and router-router lines are counted as hops, what is the mean number of a. (a) hops a packet makes per transmission? b. (b) transmissions a packet makes? c. (c) hops required per received packet? Q.3 The byte-counting variant of the leaky bucket algorithm is used in a particular system. The rule is that one 1024-byte packet, or two 512-byte packets, etc., may be sent on each tick. Give a serious restriction of this system that was not mentioned in the text. Q.4 Convert the IP address whose hexadecimal representation is C22F1582 to dotted decimal notation.

Q.5 A router has the following (CIDR) entries in its routing table: Address/mask Next hop 135.46.56.0/22 Interface 0 135.46.60.0/22 Interface 1 192.53.40.0/23 Router 1 default Router 2 For each of the following IP addresses, what does the router do if a packet with that address arrives? (a) 135.46.63.10 (b) 135.46.57.14 (c) 135.46.52.2 (d) 192.53.40.7 (e) 192.53.56.7 Q.6 ARP and RARP both map addresses from one space to another. In this respect, they are similar. However, their implementations are fundamentally different. In what major way do they differ? Q.7 Do routers have IP addresses? If so, how many? Q.8 What is the 32 bit binary equivalent of IP address 223.1.3.27? Q.9 Suppose there are three routers between a source host and a destination host. Ignoring fragmentation, an IP datagram sent from the source host to the destination host will travel over how many interfaces? How many forwarding tables will be indexed to move the datagram from source to the destination? Q.10 Suppose an application generates chunks of 40 bytes of data every 20 msec, and each chunk gets encapsulated in a TCP segment and then an IP datagram. What percentage of each datagram will be overhead, and what percentage will be application data? Q.11 Suppose host A sends host B a TCP segment encapsulated in an IP datagram. When host B receives the datagram, how does the network layer in Host B know it should pass the segment (that is, the payload of the datagram) to TCP rather than to UDP or to something else? Q.12 Suppose you purchase a wireless router and connect it to your cable modem. Also suppose that your ISP dynamically assigns your connect device (that is your wireless router) one IP address. Also suppose that you have five PCs at home that use 802.11 to wirelessly connect to your wireless router. How are IP address assigned to the five PCs? Does the wireless router use NAT? Why or why not? Q.13 What is an important difference between implementing the broadcast abstraction via multiple unicasts, and the single network-(router-) supported broadcast?

(For question no. 14-33, Refer Book-multimedia communications by Fred Halsall) Q.14 State why the lack of fixed division point within class C addresses with CIDR means a router/gateway is unable to route a packet. Hence explain how this is overcome. Q.15 What are the aims of both the reverse path forwarding algorithm and the spanning tree broadcast algorithm? Q.16 An example of how when using CIDR a host attached to one network can produce a match with the mask of a second network was illustrated in example 9.5(Refer Book-multimedia communications by Fred Halsall) how was this be overcome in practice? Q.17 Explain the meaning of the term IP address class and why these classes were created .Hence, with the aid of the three (unicast) address classes identified in figure 9.5(Refer Book-multimedia communications by Fred Halsall), identify a particular application for each class. Q.18 State the meaning of the following address: 1) An address with a netid of all 0s 2) An address with the netid of all 1s 3) An address with a hostid of all 0s 4) An address of all 1s. Q.19 Explain the meaning of the term dotted decimal. Hence derive the netid and hostid for the following IP addresses expressed in dotted decimal notation: 1)13.0.0.15, 2)132.128.0.148, 3)220.0.0.0 4)128.0.0.0 5)224.0.0.1 Q.20 With the aid of an example, explain why subnetting was introduced. Hence state the meaning of a subnet router and an address mask. Q.21 A site with a netid of 127.0 uses 20 subnet routers. Suggest a suitable address mask for the site which allows for a degree of expansion in the future. Give an example of a host IP address at this site Q.22 Define the term IP address,MAC address and hardware/physical address. Also explain the terms address-pair and ARP cache. Q.23 Explain the role of a proxy ARP.Hence explain how an IP packet sent by a host at one site is routed to a host at different site. Also explain how the reply packet is returned to the host that sent the first packet?

Q.24 Explain how the reverse ARP is used to enable a diskless host to determine its own IP address from its local server. Q.25 With the aid of the routing table entries shown in figure 9.11(Refer Bookmultimedia communications by Fred Halsall), explain the meaning of the terms: (i) Static routing tables, (ii) next-hop routing, (iii) Optionality principle, (iv) Alternative paths Q.26 . With the aid of the broadcast diagram shown in figure 9.12, explain: (i) Why the broadcast following the route via R2 is assumed to arrive first (ii) How duplicate copies of a packet are determined by R3 (iii) How the number of copies of the packet produced is limited (iv) Why flooding is an example of an adaptive/dynamic routing algorithm. Q.27 In relation to the distance vector algorithm , with the aid of the example shown in figure 9.13(Refer Book-multimedia communications by Fred Halsall), Explain : (i) The meaning of the term connectivity/adjacency tableand how the tables contents are obtained (ii) How the final routing table entries for R3 are built up (iii) How a packet from a host attached to a netid3 is routed to a host attached to a netid1 (iv) The limitations of the algorithm including how looping may arise.

Q.28 Assuming the connectivity /adjacency tables given in figure 9.14(a), show how the overall network topology is built up by router R3 using the link state algorithm. Hence derive the contents of netid location table for R3. Q.29 State the reason why classless inter-domain routing (CIDR) was introduced. Q.30 In relation to the link state algorithm, explain why each link state message contains a sequence number and a time out value .How are these used. Q.31 Explain how a packet received by R3 from G3 with a destination id of 1 is routed using source routing. Include how the routing tables you use are derived. Q.32 Using the set of link state, routing and connectivity tables for R1,R2, and R3,explain how a packet received by R3 from G3 with a destination id of 1 is routed using hop-by-hop routing. Q.33 Assuming the initial network topology shown in Fig-9.15(a),use the Dijkstra algorithm to derive the shortest path from R3 to each other router .State the meaning of the terms tentative and permanent relating to the algorithm and the implications of alternative paths/routers.