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Grihya Sutras, Part 2 (SBE30): pastamba's Ya<I>g</I><I></I>a-Paribhsh-Stras: Stras 1-25 Page 1 of 8

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The Grihya Sutras, Part 2 (SBE30), by Hermann Oldenberg, [1892], at sacredtexts.com

p. 314 p. 315

PASTAMBA'S YAGA-PARIBHSHSTRAS.
_________________

GENERAL RULES OF THE SACRIFICE.


1

STRA I.
We shall explain the sacrifice.

1c

Commentary. Yaga, sacrifice, is an act by which we surrender something for the sake of the gods. Such an act must rest on a sacred authority (gama), and serve for man's salvation (sreyortha). The nature of the gift is of less importance. It may be purodsa, cake; karu, pulse; smnyya, mixed milk; pasu, an animal; soma, the juice of

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the Soma-plant, &c.; nay, the smallest offerings of butter, flour, and milk may serve for the purpose of a sacrifice. Yaga, yga, yagana, and ishti are considered as synonymes.
2

STRA II.
The sacrifice is for the three colours or castes (varna), for Brhmanas and Rganyas, also for the Vaisya.

2c

Commentary. Though the sacrifice is meant for the three castes, here called varna, i.e. colour, the third caste, that of the Vaisya or citizen, is mentioned by itself, while the two castes, the Brhmanas and Rganyas (the Kshatriyas or nobles), are mentioned together. This is done because there are certain sacrifices (bahuyagamna), performed by Brhmanas and Rganyas together, in which Vaisyas take no part. In the Skhyana-stras, I, 1, 3, also
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the Vaisya is mentioned by himself. In Ktyyana's Stras, however, no such distinction is made. and we read, I, 6, Brhmanarganya-vaisynm sruteh. Women, if properly married, are allowed to participate in sacrifices, but no one is allowed to be accompanied by a Sdr woman, even though she be his wife. Properly a Brhmana should marry a wife of his own caste only. A Kshatriya may marry a woman of his own or of the Brhmana caste. A Vaisya's proper wife should be taken from his own caste. See, however, Manu III, 12 seq. The four castes, with the Sdra as the fourth, are mentioned once in the Rig-veda, X, yo, 12. The opposition between ryas and Sdras occurs in the Atharva-veda, XIX, 62, &c., and in most of the Brhmanas. In the Satapatha Brhmana we read of the four castes, Brhmana, Rganya, Vaisya, and Sdra, and we are told that none of them vomits the Soma. Ktyyana excludes from the sacrifice the agahna, cripple, shanda, eunuch, and all asrotriyas, persons ignorant of the Veda, which would bar, of course, the whole class of the Sdras, but they are also specially excluded. Concessions, however, had to be made at an early time, for instance, in the case of the Rathakra, who is admitted to the Agnydhna, &c. This name means chariot-maker, but padeva, in his Mmms-nyyapraksa, remarks that, though rathakra means a chariot-maker etymologically, it should be taken here as the name of a clan, namely that of the Saudhanvanas (MS. Mill 46, p. 13b). Deva, in his commentary on the Ktyyana-stras, makes the same remark. See also Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 12 seq. These Saudhanvanas, often identified with the Ribhus, are evidently the followers of Bribu,

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mentioned RV. VI, 45, 31; 33, and wrongly called Bridhu in Manu X, 107; see M.M., Hist. of A.S.L., p. 494. In the SkhyanaSrauta-stras, XVI, 11, 11 (ed. Hillebrandt), he is rightly called Bribu. In later times Rathakra is the name of a caste, and its members are supposed to be the offspring of a marriage between a Mhishya and a Karan. A Mhishya is the son of a Kshatriya and a Vaisy,
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a Karan the daughter of a Vaisya and a Sdr. Sudhanvan also is used in Manu X, 23, as the name of a caste, namely the offspring of fallen (vrtya) Vaisyas. Another exception is made in favour of a Nishdasthapati, a Nishda chieftain. If it meant a chieftain of Nishdas, it might be meant for a Kshatriya who happens to be a chieftain of Nishdas. Here it is meant for a chieftain who is himself a Nishda, a native settler. He is admitted to the Gavedhuka sacrifice. Again, although, as a rule, the sacrificer must have finished his study of the Veda and be married, a sacrifice is mentioned which a Brahmakrin, a student, may perform. The case thus provided for is, yo brahmakr striyam upeyt, sa gardabham pasum labheta. As these sacrificers are not upanta, and therefore without the sacred fires, their sacrifices have to be performed with ordinary fires, and the sacrificial offerings, the purodsas, are not cooked in kaplas, jars, but on the earth, while the avadnas (cuttings), heart, tongue, &c., are sacrificed in water, and not in fire. The Nishda chieftain has to learn the necessary Vedic verses by heart, without having passed through a regular course of Vedic study. The same applies to women, who have to recite certain verses during the sacrifice. That certain women are admitted to the sacrifice, is distinctly stated by Ktyyana, I, 1, 7, str kvisesht.
3

STRA III.
The sacrifice is prescribed by the three Vedas.

3c

Commentary. In order to know the whole of the sacrifice, one Veda is not sufficient, still less one skh (recension) only. The sacrifice is conceived as a whole, and its members (agas) are described in different parts of the three Vedas.

STRA IV.

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By the Rig-veda, the Yagur-veda, the Sma-veda (is the sacrifice prescribed).
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STRA V.
The Darsa-prnamsau, the new and full-moon sacrifices, are prescribed by the Rig-veda and the Yagur-veda.

STRA VI.
The Agnihotra is prescribed by the Yagur-veda.

STRA VII.
The Agnishtoma is prescribed by all.

7c

Commentary. By saying all, the Atharva-veda is supposed to be included, at least according to one commentator. The Agnishtoma requires sixteen priests, the Pasu sacrifices six, the Kturmsyas five, the Darsa-prnamsas four.

STRA VIII.
With the Rig-veda and Sma-veda the performance takes place with a loud voice (ukkaih).

8c

Commentary. Even lines of the Yagur-veda, if they are contained in the Rig-veda and Sma-veda, would have to be pronounced with a loud voice. Certain mantras, however, are excepted, viz. the gapa, abhimantrana, and anumantrana-mantras.

STRA IX.
With the Yagur-veda the performance takes place by murmuring (upmsu).

9c

Commentary. This murmuring, upmsu, is described as a mere opus operatum, the words being repeated without voice and without thought. One may see the movements of the vocal organs in murmuring, but one should not hear them at a distance. If verses from the Rig-veda or

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Sma-veda
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occur in the Yagur-veda, they also have to be murmured. See Kty. I, 3, 10.
10

STRA X.
With the exception of addresses, replies, choosing of priests (pravara), dialogues, and commands.

10c

Commentary. As all these are meant to be understood by others, they have therefore to be pronounced in a loud voice. The address (sruta) is om srvaya; the reply (pratysruta) is astu sraushat 1; the choosing of priests (pravara) is agnir devo hot; a dialogue (samvda) is brahman prokshishymi, om proksha; a command (sampresha) is prokshanr sdaya.

11

STRA XI.
In the Smidhen hymns the recitation is to be between (the high and the low tone).

11c

Commentary. The Smidhens are the hymns used for lighting the fire. One commentator explains antar, between, as between high tone (krushta) and the murmuring (upmsu). Another distinguishes three high tones, the krushta (also called tra or krauka), the madhyama, and the mandra, and assigns the madhyama to the Smidhen hymns. The mandra notes come from the chest, the madhyama notes from the throat, the uttama notes from the head.

12

STRA XII.
Before the gyabhgas (such as the gya-portions at the Darsaprnamsa), and at the morning Savana (oblation of Soma), the recitation is to be with the soft (mandra) voice.
p. 320

12c

Commentary. The pronunciation is loud, ukkaih, but soft, mandra. Satyavrata restricts this rule to the passages mentioned in Stra X. He also treats the second part of Stras XII, XIII, and XIV as separate Stras.

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13

STRA XIII.
Before the Svishtakrit (at the Darsa-prnamsa) sacrifice, and at the midday Savana, the recitation is to be with the middle voice.

14

STRA XIV.
In the remainder and at the third Savana with the sharp (krushta) voice 1.

14c

Commentary. The remainder refers to the Darsa-prnamsa sacrifice, the three Savanas to the Soma sacrifice. Satyavrata takes all these rules as referring to the cases mentioned in Stra X.

15

STRA XV.
The movement of the voice is the same.

15c

Commentary. In the three cases mentioned before, the voice moves quickly, when the words are to be pronounced high; slowly, when low; and measuredly, when neither loud nor low.

16

STRA XVI.
The Hotri-priest performs with the Rig-veda.

17

STRA XVII.
The Udgtri-priest with the Sma-veda.
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18

STRA XVIII.
The Adhvaryu-priest with the Yagur-veda.

19

STRA XIX.
The Brahma-priest with all.

19c

Commentary. 'With all' means with the three Vedas, because the Brahma-priest, or superintendent of the whole sacrifice, must be acquainted with the three Vedas. Others would include the Atharva-veda.

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20

STRA XX.
When it is expressly said, or when it is rendered impossible, another priest also may act.

20c

Commentary. Vipratishedha is explained by asambhava and asakti.

21

STRA XXI.
The priestly office (rtvigya) belongs to the Brhmanas.

21c

Commentary. Sacrifices may be performed for Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and, in certain cases, even for others, but never by any but Brhmanas. The reason given for this is curious,because Brhmanas only are able to eat the remains of a sacrifice. See Satap. Br. II, 3, 1, 39; Ktyyana IV, 14, 11; also I, 2, 8, cont.

22

STRA XXII.
For all sacrifices the fires are laid once.

22c

Commentary. The sacrificial fires have to be arranged for the first time
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by a peculiar ceremony, called the Agnydhna. They are generally three (Tret), the Grhapatya, the father; the Dakshina, the son; and the havanya, the grandson. The first laying of the Grhapatya fire-altar takes place in spring for a Brhmana, in summer for a Rganya, in winter for a Vaisya.
23

STRA XXIII.
If it is said, guhoti, 'he sacrifices,' it should be known that sarpir gya, melted butter, is meant.

23c

Commentary. Sarpis is here taken as an adjective, running; yad asarpat tat sarpir abhavat. gya is explained as navantavikradravyagtyavakanah sabdah, i.e. a word signifying any kind of substance made of fresh butter. In the Aitareya-Brhmana I, 3, we read gyam vai devnm

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surabhi, ghritam manushynm, ayutam pitrnm, navantam garbhnm, 'gya is sweet or fragrant to the gods, ghrita to men, ayuta to the manes, navanta to children.' Here the commentator explains that gya is butter, when melted (vilnam sarpis), ghrita, when hardened. Ayuta, sometimes called astu, is butter, when slightly melted, nishpakva, when thoroughly melted. According to Ktyyana I, 8, 37, gya is of different kinds. It may be simple ghrita, which, as a rule, should be made of the milk of cows. But in the absence of gya, the milk of buffaloes (mhisha), or oil (taila), or sesam-oil (grtila), or linseed oil (atassneha), &c., may be taken.
24

STRA XXIV.
If it is said, guhoti, it should be known that the Adhvaryu is meant as performer.

24c

Commentary. Though there is a man who offers the sacrifice, yet the actual homa, the throwing of butter &c. into the fire, has to be performed by the Adhvaryu priest.
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25

STRA XXV.
Likewise, the spoon (guh) as the vessel.

25c

Commentary. Guh, the spoon, is so called because it is used for pouring out (guhoti, homa).

Footnotes
319:1 See Hillebrandt, Das Altind. Neu- and Vollmondsopfer, p. 94. 320:1 See on this, Rig-veda Prtiskhya 13, 17; sval. I, 5, 27; Skh. I, 14; Hillebrandt, l.c. p. 103. Next: Stras 26-50

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