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GLOBAL INVESTMENTS IN R&D

This fact sheet presents the latest UIS S&T data available as of July 2011. A snapshot of R&D expenditure The most commonly used indicators to monitor resources devoted to R&D worldwide are gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) expressed in PPP$ and R&D intensity (percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) devoted to R&D activities). The information presented here illustrates global and regional trends in the allocation of R&D resources. The UIS releases data on resources devoted to R&D twice every year in August and December. For developing countries, however, data are collected on a biennial basis. To stay informed of the latest data releases, sign up for the UIS email alert service (http://www.uis.unesco.org). Figure 1 presents the distribution of R&D expenditure in the world by main regions/countries in terms of gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD). Figure 1. Where are R&D investments made? Shares of world R&D expenditure (GERD) by principal regions/countries, 2002 and 2007 (%)*
2002
40.5% 37.9%

2007

45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

37.7% 34.9%

35.1% 32.6%

32.2%

27.1%

30.2% 27.4%

26.1% 23.1%

13.7% 12.9%

8.9%

5.0%

5.1% 6.3%

7.2% 6.3%

4.8% 3.7%

3.9% 3.4%

2.8% 3.0%

2.3% 2.4%

1.6% 2.2%

2.0% 2.0%

1.8% 1.9%

1.6% 1.8%

1.4% 1.6%

0.9% 0.9%

0.6% 0.9%

0.9% 0.8%

0.5% 0.5%

0.3% 0.4%

0.3% 0.3%

0.1% 0.2%

0.2% 0.2%

0.1% 0.1%

0.1% 0.1%

Arab States (Africa)

Arab States (Asia)

Other in Asia

South Africa

NIE Asia

North America

Argentina

Americas

Russian Fed.

Other SSA

United Kingdom

CIS Europe

United States

CEO Europe

European Union

Germany

Source:

UNESCO Institute for Statistics estimates, August 2010.

Abbreviations: CIS Europe: Commonwealth of Independent States in Europe; CEO Europe: Central, Eastern and Other in Europe; CIS Asia: Commonwealth of Independent States in Asia; NIE Asia: Newly Industrialized Economies in Asia including Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore; Other Asia: This excludes Japan, China, India and Israel; Other SSA: This excludes South Africa; LAC: Latin America and the Caribbean. GERD: Gross domestic expenditure on R&D. PPP$: Purchasing power parity dollars.

CIS Asia

Asia

Africa

LAC

Israel

Europe

China

Oceania

France

Japan

Mexico

Egypt

India

Brazil

0.1% 0.1%

UIS Fact Sheet, August 2011, No. 15

Figure 2. Which regions are most R&D intensive? Gross domestic expenditure on R&D as a percentage of GDP by principal regions/countries, 2007 or latest year available
5.0% 4.5%
3.4% 2.7% 4.8%

4.0% 3.5% 3.0% 2.5% 2.0% 1.5% 1.0% 0.5%

2.6%

2.5%

2.1%

2.0%

1.9%

1.8%

1.8%

1.8%

1.7%

1.6%

1.6%

1.4%

1.2%

1.1%

1.1%

1.1%

0.9%

0.8%

0.6%

0.5%

0.4%

0.4%

0.4%

0.3%

0.3%

0.2%

0.2%

NIE Asia

WORLD

LAC

0.0% Asia China South Africa India Japan United Kingdom Russian Fed. Oceania Germany Americas Israel CEO Europe United States North America European Union CIS Europe Europe France Brazil

CIS Asia

Africa

Egypt

Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics estimates, August 2010.

Figure 2 illustrates the distribution of R&D intensity in main regions/countries. This indicator reflects R&D intensity by presenting R&D expenditure relative to the size of the regional or national economy. Figure 3. A snap-shot of R&D intensity Gross domestic expenditure on R&D as a percentage of GDP, 2009 or latest available year

0.00%0.25% 0.26%0.50% 0.51%1.00% 1.01%2.00% 2.01% and above Data not available

Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, July 2011.

UIS/FS/2011/15

Arab States (Africa)

Arab States (Asia)

Other in Asia

Other SSA

Argentina

Mexico

0.1%

Figure 3 illustrates the percentage of GDP devoted to R&D activities. This indicator reflects national R&D intensity by presenting gross domestic R&D expenditure relative to the size of the national economy. The 2007 regional averages are: 2.6% for North America; 0.6% for Latin America and the Caribbean; 1.6% for Europe; 0.4% for Africa; 1.6% for Asia; and 1.9% for Oceania.

Figure 4 illustrates the worlds top leaders in R&D expenditure, measured in US dollars at purchasing power parity (PPP$) for the latest year available. PPP$ better reflects the real value of investments and allows for more comparability by eliminating differences in price levels among countries. Essentially, this means that a sum of money converted into US dollars at PPP rates will buy the same basket of goods and services in all countries. Figure 4. Worlds top 10 leaders in R&D investment GERD (000, PPP$), 2009 or latest available year

33,368,083 40,610,639 43,906,413 47,953,451

24,935,470

24,752,618

398,194,000

83,974,765 121,369,732
United States-1 France Canada Japan-1 Rep. of Korea-1 Italy

148,719,235

China-1 United Kingdom

Germany Russian Fed.

Note: Source:

-1 = 2008 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, July 2011.

UIS/FS/2011/15

Which sectors invest the most in R&D? Figures 5, 6 and 7 illustrate R&D expenditure broken down by source of funds (%). This refers to total gross intramural expenditure on R&D during a given period, financed by different sectors of the economy (business enterprise, government, higher education, or private non-profit organizations) or from abroad, and expressed as a percentage. Figure 5. Funding in the Americas GERD by source of funds, 2009 or latest available year
Business enterprise Private non-profit 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Ecuador-1 Colombia Bolivia-7 Chile-5 Cuba-1 United States-1 El Salvador-1 Uruguay-1 Brazil-1 Costa Rica-1 Argentina-1 Mexico-2 Canada Panama Paraguay-1 Guatemala-1 Government Abroad Higher education Unknown

Figure 6. Funding in Europe GERD by source of funds, 2009 or latest available year
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% TFYR Macedonia-7 Austria+1 Russian Fed. Albania-1 Iceland-1 France-1 Slovakia United Kingdom+1 Rep. of Moldova Luxembourg-2 Slovenia Portugal-1 Estonia Bulgaria-1 Belgium-2 Romania Malta Turkey Lithuania Croatia Belarus Ukraine Netherlands-2 Germany-1 Czech Rep. Switzerland-1 Norway-2 Cyprus-1 Spain-1 Denmark Greece-4 Hungary Finland Ireland Sweden Poland Serbia Latvia Italy-1 Business enterprise Government Higher education Private non-profit Abroad Unknown

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Figure 7. Funding in Africa, Asia and the Pacific GERD by source of funds, 2009 or latest available year
Business enterprise 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% South Africa-2 Zambia-1 Armenia Philippines-2 Indonesia-8 Australia-1 Ethiopia-2 Thailand-4 Mongolia Tunisia India-2 Rep. of Korea-1 China, Hong Kong Mozambique-2 New Zealand-2 Singapore-1 Madagascar-2 China, Macao Burkina Faso Kazakhstan-1 Kyrgyzstan-4 Cambodia-5 Mali-2 Uganda Sri Lanka-1 Senegal-1 Ghana-2 China-1 Laos-7 Iran-1 Morocco-3 Nigeria-2 Viet Nam-7 Malaysia-3 Brunei-5 Kenya-2 Japan-1 Israel-2 Gabon Azerbaijan Tajikistan Lesotho Tanzania-2 Pakistan Kuwait Government Higher education Private non-profit Abroad Unknown

Note: Source:

+1 = 2010, -1 = 2008, -2 = 2007, -3 = 2006, -4 = 2005, -5 = 2004, -7 = 2002, -8 = 2001. UNESCO Institute for Statistics, July 2011.

Which sectors receive the most investment? Figures 8, 9 and 10 depict R&D expenditure broken down by sector of performance (%). This refers to total gross intramural expenditure on R&D during a given period by institutions corresponding to each sector (business enterprise, government, higher education and private non-profit organizations), independent of the source of funds and expressed as a percentage. Figure 8. A breakdown of R&D investment in the Americas GERD by sector of performance, 2009 or latest available year
Business enterprise Private non-profit 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Ecuador-1 Trinidad/Tobag o-1 Panama Colombia Canada Costa Rica-1 Uruguay-1 Argentina-1 Paraguay-1 Chile-5 Bolivia-7 Brazil-5 Guatemala-1 Mexico-2 United States-1 El Salvador-2 Peru-5 Government Unknown Higher education

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Figure 9. A breakdown of R&D investment in Europe GERD by sector of performance, 2009 or latest available year
Business enterprise Government Higher education Private non-profit Unknown

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Luxembourg Switzerland-1 Finland+1 Austria Sweden Germany Belgium Denmark Ireland Slovenia Malta Russian Fed. United France Czech Rep. Hungary Ukraine Iceland-1 Norway Belarus Spain Italy Netherlands Portugal Estonia Slovakia Croatia Romania Turkey Latvia Bulgaria TFYR Poland Greece-2 Lithuania Cyprus Serbia Rep. of Montenegro-2 Albania-1 Bosnia/Herze

Figure 10. A breakdown of R&D investment in Africa, Asia and the Pacific GERD by sector of performance, 2009 or latest available year
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% South Africa-2 Sudan-4 Morocco-3 Tunisia Botswana-4 Kenya-2 Uganda Ghana-2 Mali-2 Zambia-1 Senegal-1 Burkina Faso-2 Seychelles-4 Mozambique-2 Ethiopia-2 Tanzania-2 Nigeria-2 Madagascar Lesotho Malaysia-3 Israel Japan-1 Rep. of Korea-1 China-1 Singapore-1 Philippines-2 Thailand-2 China, Hong Kong Laos-7 India-2 Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Azerbaijan Sri Lanka-1 Viet Nam-7 Indonesia-8 Cambodia-7 Iran-1 Mongolia China, Macao Brunei-5 Armenia Tajikistan Pakistan Georgia-4 Australia-1 New Zealand-2 Business enterprise Government Higher education Private non-profit Unknown

Note: Source:

+1 = 2010, -1 = 2008, -2 = 2007, -3 = 2006, -4 = 2005, -5 = 2004, -7 = 2002, -8 = 2001. UNESCO Institute for Statistics, July 2011.

For more information, please consult the UIS website at www.uis.unesco.org to access the database and subscribe to an email alert service concerning the Institutes latest publications and data releases.

UIS/FS/2011/15