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Earthquake Engineering

Aris Theophilou
Associate Lecturer University of Surrey BEng (Hons) MEng (Structural) MEng (Geotechnical) MICE CEng a.theophilou@surrey.ac.uk

Dr Marcus Matthews Module Coordinator

Senior Lecturer University of Surrey m.matthews@surrey.ac.uk

Unit 6 - Syllabus
Seismic behaviour of buildings Steel structures design to EC3 and EC8
Beam design Column design Joint checks Beam-column connections

Moment resisting frames Concentrically braced frames Eccentrically braced frames Modern trends in seismic design / protection

Lateral Force Resisting Systems

Moment-resisting frames Eccentrically braced frames

Concentrically braced frames

Hybrid (dual) systems

Energy Dissipation Mechanism

Seismic design central aspects
Avoidance of hinge formation on columns Increased shear forces due to hinge formation Sufficient ductility of system member rotational ductility

Beam Design
Maximum developed plastic bending moment resistance Mpl,Rd affected by
Slenderness Lateral torsional buckling Axial force

EC3 and EC8 provisions

For MRF with q 4 Class 1 sections must be used, EC8, clause 6.5.3(2) EC8 states that beams should be verified for lateral torsional buckling to EC3 Design for bending moment resistance M Ed EC3, clause 6.2.5(1) 1.0 M pl , Rd provided that

N Ed 0.15 N pl , Rd

EC3, clause 6.2.4(1)

Beam Design
EC3 and EC8 provisions
Design for shear resistance Design for VEd which is the design shear force that results from the seismic design situation through an elastic analysis Design for VEd,E

VEd , E V pl , Rd

VEd ,G + VEd , M V pl , Rd


EC8, clause 6.6.2(2)

where VEd,G is the design shear force due to the gravity actions and VEd,M is the design shear force when Mpl,Rd is reached M pl , Rd , A + M pl , Rd , B VEd , M = L Design shear resistance EC3, clause 6.2.6(2) 3 M 0 where M0 = 1.0 is the material partial factor, EC8, clause 6.1(1)

V pl , Rd =

Av f y

Column Design
EC3 and EC8 provisions
Design forces Design axial force N Ed = N Ed ,G + 1.1 ov N Ed , E Design bending moment

M Ed = M Ed ,G + 1.1 ov M Ed , E
Design shear force V Ed = V Ed ,G + 1.1 ov V Ed , E where ov = 1.25 is the overstrength factor, EC8, clause 6.2(3) is the minimum value of Mpl,Rd / MEd for all connected beams where MEd is the bending moment of the seismic design situation, EC8, clause 6.2(3) NEd,G , MEd,G , VEd,G are the forces due to the non-seismic actions of the seismic design situations, EC8, clause 6.2(3) NEd,E , MEd,E , VEd,E are the forces due to the design seismic actions, EC8, clause 6.2(3)

Column Design
EC3 and EC8 provisions
Design shear force check V Ed 0.5 V pl , Rd EC8, clause 6.6.3(4)

Design for bending moment and axial force Class 1, I sections Effect of axial force can be ignored when the following criteria are satisfied N Ed 0.25 N pl , Rd EC3, clause

N Ed

0.5 hw t w f y


Design plastic moment resistance due to axial force NEd 1 N Ed / N pl , Rd EC3, clause M N , Rd = M pl , Rd (1 0.5 a ) A 2bt f where a= 0.5 A Design axial force resistance A fy EC3, clause 6.2.4(2) N pl , Rd =


Rotational Ductility
Rotational ductility is the rotational capacity of plastic hinges before failing Rotational ductility
= u y

where y is the curvature at yield point and u is the curvature at ultimate point Rotational ductility relationship to behaviour factor for reinforced concrete structures if T1 > TC = 2 q0 1 EC8, clause Not explicit requirement for steel structures in EC8
= 1 + 2 (q0 1)
TC T1 if T1 < TC

Beam-Column Joint
Need to avoid the formation of plastic hinges on columns as they cause a very unstable mechanism Only locations plastic hinges are permitted are the bases of ground storey columns and where they are discontinued in the above storey EC8 checks


1.3 M Rb

EC8, clause

Needs to be conducted for both axes and both directions Mcolum





Beam-Column Connections
Connections are the elements that connect the beams and the columns. Bolted connections, welded connections Plastic hinges are not permitted to develop within connections Need to be stronger than connecting elements by about 20% Typical modes of failure
Column web yielding, point A and diagonal Column web buckling, point A and diagonal Column flange flexural failure Column shear yielding Weld fracture V ,M

Nc1, Vc1, Mc1 A Vb1, Mb1


Nc2, Vc2, Mc2

Concentrically Braced Frames

Generally smaller drifts than moment-resisting frames Main problem is ductility Yielding of diagonal braces is intended to take place before the connection failure or yielding/buckling of beams and columns Ductile behaviour is attributed primarily to the tensile yielding of diagonal braces. Need to ensure that the yielding levels are similar under load reversals. Check condition
A+ A A+ + A 0.05
1 2

A: horizontal projection area of tension braces, EC8, clause 6.7.1(3)

Design checks
N Ed 1.0 N pl , Rd

Slenderness ratios 2 (V braces, non-X braces), 1.3 (X braces) Design axial forces for beams and columns
N Ed = N Ed ,G + 1.1 ov N Ed , E

Eccentrically Braced Frames

Braces frame into beams Link is the portion of beam in which plastic hinge develops Link subjected to bending and shear forces Short links associated with shear plastic deformation Long links associated with flexural plasticity and plastic hinges Diagonal braces and columns should be designed for unfavourable combinations of axial forces, bending moments and shear forces: N Ed = N Ed ,G + 1.1 ov N Ed , E EC8, clause 6.2(3)
M Ed = M Ed ,G + 1.1 ov M Ed , E V Ed = V Ed ,G + 1.1 ov V Ed , E

Modern Trends
Transmissibility chart covered in Unit 2

Modern Trends
Base isolation

Modern Trends
Energy dissipation devices Viscoelastic and frictional dampers

Modern Trends
Tuned mass damping

Coursework B - Guidance
Use response spectrum Type 1 (easier - not mandatory). Conduct the seismic design situation analysis using two primary loadcases (1) gravity actions (e.g. VEd,G) and (2) seismic actions (e.g. VEd,E). Combine the results. Check the column bending moment resistance. Consider the combined effect of bending moment and axial force on columns. Use any computer program you like. Include only printout of the structural analysis results preferably in shematic form. State all assumptions with reference to Eurocode. ALWAYS make full reference to Eurocode provisions. ALWAYS write the units.

Recommended Studying
Eurocode 3, BS EN 1993-1-1:2005
Reading: 6.1, 6.2.1, 6.2.3, 6.2.4, 6.2.5, 6.2.6, 6.2.9 Accessible through MyAthens>British Standards Institution> (bsol.bsigroup.com)

Eurocode 8, BS EN 1998-1:2004
Reading: 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8

Thank you!