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COLD WORKING strength (directional) surface hardness + wear resistance surface finish & tolerance No oxide layer Some

too brittle to be coldworked Subsequent operations difficult Large parts need energy corrosion resistance electrical resistance Needs annealing to relieve stress HOT WORKING metal cracking Grain refinement possible No annealing needed power Repairs casting defects ductility Faster Oxide layer Some metals cannot Expensive ROLLING

TENSILE DRAWING For very small diameter To reduce cross section of bars and tubes Seamless tubes of very high strength Stronger than cold rolling Best straightness Must be done COLD Directional properties

WELDING Low carbon steels excellent for welding Higher carbon steel and iron need special techniques Non-ferrous need special techniques Quick, convenient Cheap Only affect the weld area microstructural properties Dependent on human factors Defects are common (porosity, inclusions)

LASER BEAM WELDING For inaccessible parts cause tiny Energy easily controlled (Advantages same as Electron Beam except EBW need vacuum) SAND CASTING No size limit Cheap No directional properties Can make complicated shapes Good for m.p. metals Rough surface Slow

FORGING Strongest of all manufacturing processes Durable, reliable Very strength toughness fatigue strength surface hardness wear resistance Suitable for mass production Any metal can use Creates fibrous structure which cannot be removed

GAS WELDING For thin sheets Cheap, portable No electricity needed Metal with high heat conductivity conducts heat away ARC WELDING Thicker sections Will burn thin sections Faster and greater depth of penetration Must have heat conductivity Slow

Poor dimensional tolerances DIE CASTING Ideal for m.p. materials production rate surface finish and tolerances Can be used for non-ferrous metals alloying One directional Parting line (MOST CASTING)


To thickness Only ductile metals can be cold rolled Zn & Mg cannot Cold rolling Shining surface + small thickness Better homogeneity tough Cheaper than extrusion For thin materials Cold Hot

Expensive Hammer Forging Drop Forging

Flux corrode aluminium RESISTANCE WELDING Ideal for steels high resistance Impossible for low resistance metals Both metal must about same thickness Localized heat Fast No filler metal Easily automated High cost Difficult to join different thickness SUBMERGED ARC WELDING Automatic feed Molten flux forms protective coating welding speed

Finer grain size tougher Cleaner Dense structure, free of defects production rates Best mechanical properties for casting Accurate CONTINUOUS CASTING For recycling Dont need to cast ingots Fully automated Cheap Quick INVESTMENT CASTING Very surface finish Complicated shapes tolerances Can use high m.p. metals Good for Tungsten and Cobalt (hard to machine) Expensive Limited size Slow

Superior mechanical properties Comparatively high production rate High density Press Forging

Better homogeneity Better dimension Better than hammer forging For finishing, secondary and larger sections More expensive Upset Forging Done along its length Roll Forging

EXTRUSION For soft material and uniform cross section Create tube with no seam No point of weakness Steel hard to extrude unless want seamless Prefer rolling

SHEET METAL WORKING Usually mild steel Start with blank or sheet metal to form thin metal products Usually done cold unless sheet too thick RUBBER PAD FORMING

Lots of space and $ Automation necessary FRICTION WELDING Can join dissimilar metals Fast Only for ROUND sections METAL INERT GAS WELDING

Can produce hollow sections Good dimensional accuracy (straight) Surface defects when metal leaves chamber Direct

Indirect Impact Hot

No need die SHEARING Trim out smaller sheet Fast Blanking (save round part) Piercing (throw round part)

No need to remove flux Ideal for sheet metal & positional work Dont need to replace electrode (TIG) More flexibility (TIG) More expensive

ALL CASTING SHRINKS POOR TOLERANCE Casting defects porosity, cracking (fast cooling)

Long pieces of uniform cross section Cold Hydrostatic

All casting not very strong

Less likely to crack Very thin tube + brittle materials High reduction in crosssectional area POWDER METALLURGY Strength determined by density m.p. materials can fabricate below m.p. Close to final shape Non-metallic constituents can be added tolerances No waste speed cost Die must be simple & one direction Size limited by dies PLASTICS Colour choices Thermal insulation Electrical insulation Corrosion resistance Light Easy to process Cheap Rigid, transparent or translucent plastics can be made Cannot repair Absorbs odours Not for temperature THERMOFORMING Thermoplastics only Similar to sheet metal forming Steel, stainless steel: COLD ROLLING CALENDARING Thermoplastics only Similar to rolling Thinner than Extrusion TIPS Pipe and tube Material Aluminium, copper, brass: EXTRUSION

|Softer, lower m.p. Cheaper

CASTING For prototyping Thermoplastics and thermosets Cheap

|When welding might have air trapped For low strength application only |Steel is expensive for extrusion

Brittle tensile strength ductility, fatigue Difficult for low m.p. melt Cannot be cold-worked or bent INDUCTION WELDING OF COLD ROLLED STRIP Low cost Will have seam Low strength Welded by Electrical Resistance welding Not good for good conductors (REFER BOOK. SHORT CHAPTER)

Creep under load Weak mechanical properties Deteriorate under Sun


For high strength use, EXTRUSION or MENNESSMANN create seamless tubes

INJECTION MOLDING Thermoplastics only Similar to die casting Large scale production Will have parting line

LAMINATING Coating Plane flat sheets only REINFORCED MOLDING Making composites Not limited to plane flat sheets FOAM MOLDING Create sponge-like material

For raw material must always HOT ROLL Normally the raw material comes in big blocks Hot roll faster in reducing size

Cold rolling always the BEST and CHEAPEST for bar with uniform cross section quick mass production

Die casting more expensive than sand casting ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING Used to make molds Harden before machine All automated Can machine hard material tolerance No mechanical strains TRANSFER MOLDING Same as Compression No flash STAINLESS STEEL COMPRESSION MOLDING Thermoset only Similar to press forging Large scale but slower than Injection BRASS Corrosion resistant Strong Durable Gold Expensive If diameter >10mm, cannot extrude directly Forging even more expensive

Workpiece must be electrically conductive Very slow Electrode wear poor tolerance WIRE CUT EDM High precision machining Complicated profiles

Can mold small intricate parts

Silver Durable

REACTION INJECTION MOLDING Hybrid of Compression and Injection

Corrosion free Expensive

MILD STEEL EXTRUSION Thermoplastics only Very large scale No need high temperature BLOW MOLDING MEDIUM CARBON STEEL Thermoplastic only Strong Large scale Expensive ROTATIONAL MOLDING Thermoplastics only Cheap Slow Small scale ALUMINIUM Corrosion resistant Strong Not as shiny Cheap Strong Corrodes

THERMOPLASTICS Acetal (Polyacetyl) Very strength but not boiling water Used for load-bearing components

Polypropylene Stronger Can stand boiling water Soft Floats in water

Epoxy High strength Very chemically inert Very corrosion resistant Dimensionally very stable Excellent adhesive Tends to be brittle

Acrylic Most transparent Became opaque from UV

More expensive

Refer book for LDPE (extremely cheap), HDPE, UHMWPE and PP


Cellulosics Extremely cheap Comes in many forms Transparent unless altered Polyurethane Replacement for rubber Used in non-foam (solid) form

Phenolic Excellent chemical, electrical and heat resistance Extremely hard and brittle

Polyesters Fluorocarbons Can stand temperature and corrosive environments coefficient of friction surface energy (non-stick) Expensive Heaviest of all common plastics Styrenes Cheap Transparent for low and sub-zero temperature Non-toxic Will get dented Brittle Polyurethane Flexible Last much longer than Styrofoam More expensive weathering characteristics Corrosion resistance




Nylon Excellent toughness & wear resistance coefficient of friction Cheap Used for load bearing if dimensions not critical Poor dimensional stability

Opaque Impact resistant Cannot stand boiling water

Soft and rubbery Often used to replaced rubber when temperature is encountered Convenient for making large objects and for joining/sealing purposes

SAN Transparent Can stand boiling water

Aramids Very strength and stiffness Bulletproof

More brittle

Vinyls (PVC) Cheapest

Polyesters Polycarbonate impact stress Can stand boiling water Transparent

Transparent Rigid and hard Cannot stand boiling water

THERMOSETTING RESINS Generally can be used at higher temperatures but brittle

PET High boiling point but changes shape

Amino Plastics (Formaldehyde) Polyolefins Corrosion resistant Non-toxic Waxy surface Hard surface Wear resistant Strong Stain resistant

Caseins Polyethylene Very light Can stand very corrosive materials Cannot stand boiling water High flexural strength Tough Obsolete and seldom used


For small ae / dt

Shear plane model

Rotational motion of the workpiece at V relative to the tool Material removal rate
ae-depth of cut| ap-width of


Machining time

tm=lw+dtVfif face milling

Chip cross-section area Ac Undeformed chip thickness The apparent shear strength of the material s on the shear plane

where f is the feed per revolution

f =Vfnw
Material removal rate

kr is the major cutting edge angle

Machining time

Zw=AcVav=fapVav =fapnw(dm+ap)
lw is the length of the drilled hole nt is the rotational frequency of the tool

Power required Material removal rate

Pm= psZw ps specific cutting energy

Electrical power consumed

Pe=Pmm Vertical milling

Maximum undeformed chip thickness

=af=fN=VfNntif face milling



Specific cutting energy

Specific cutting energy ps :

Economics of metal cutting operation Average cost per workpiece Average cost per workpiece

Depreciation time

Tool cost a) Regrindable tools

(b) Disposable inserts

Number of tools required

Minimum Cost Cutting speed

Tool changing time

t = tool life Tool life

Machine Tool Maximum Power Restriction

Machining time

c, and are constants

Minimum Production Time where Cutting speed

Maximum Force Restriction

Tooling cost and tool changing cost per workpiece

Tool life

Surface Finish

R is tool nose radius

Number of tools per workpiece

Estimation of cost Factors Total Machine and Operator Rates

Total production time = no. of pieces x (loading time + tool return time + rough cut time + finish cut time) tmr=Volume of removed materialZw