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Basic Proportionality Theorem (or Thales Theorem)

Theorem: In a triangle, a line drawn parallel to one side, to intersect the


other sides in distinct points, divides the two sides in the same ratio.

Given: A Triangle ABC . D and E are any two points on AB and AC


respectively such that DE parallel to BC .

AD AE
To prove: =
DB EC

Construction: Join BE and CD. From E, draw EF ⊥ AB .

Proof: Since DE parallel to BC , Therefore Area of Triangle DEB = Area of


Triangle DEC … (1)

( Since triangles on same base and between the same parallels are equal in
area)

1 × AD × EF
ar ( Triangle ADE )
Also, = 2
ar (Triangle BDE ) 1 × BD × EF
2
(Since Area of a Triangle = 1 × base × altitude )
2

ar (Triangle ADE ) AD
or = … (1)
ar (Triangle BDE ) BD

Similarly,
ar (Triangle ADE ) AE
= … (3)
ar ( Triangle CDE ) CE

ar (Triangle ADE ) AE
or = [from (1)] … (4)
ar (Triangle BDE ) CE

From (2) and (4), we have

AD AE
=
DB EC

Corollary: In a Triangle ABC , if a line DE parallel to BC intersects AB in D


and AC in E, then

AB AC AB AC
(1) = (2) =
AD AE DB EC

Proof: From basic proportionality theorem, we have

AD AE DB EC
(1) = or =
DB EC AD AE

Adding ‘1’ to both sides we have

DB EC
+1 = +1
AD AE

DB + AD EC + AE
or =
AD AE

AD + DB AE + EC
or =
AD AE

AB AC
or =
AD AE

AD AE
(2) =
DB EC

Adding ‘1’ to both sides, we have

AD AE
+1 = +1
DB EC
AD + DB AE + EC
or =
DB EC

AB AC
or =
AD AE

Theorem: Converse of Basic Proportionality Theorem

If a line divides any two sides of a triangle in the same ratio, then the line
must be parallel to the third side.

Given: Triangle ABC in which a line ' l ' intersects AB in D and AC in E. Such
AD AE
that =
DB EC

To prove: DE paralell to BC

Proof: Let line ' l ' is not parallel to BC. Then, there must be another line
through D which is parallel to BC. Let DF parallel to BC .

Using Basic Proportionality Theorem, we have

AD AF
=
DB FC

AD AE
But = (given)
DB EC

AF AE
Therefore =
FC EC
Adding ‘1’ to both the sides, we get

AF AE
+1 = +1
FC EC

AF + FC AE + EC
=
FC EC

AC AC
=
FC EC

or FC=EC

But this is true only if F and E coincide, that is, DF coincides with DE.

Hence DE parallel to BC
SOLVED EXAMPLES

1. Using Basic Proportionality Theorem, prove that the line drawn from the
mid-point of one side of a triangle parallel to another side bisects the third
side.

Sol:

Given: Triangle ABC in which D is the mid point of AB and the line DE is drawn
parallel to BC, meeting AC in E.

To prove: AE=EC

Proof: Since DE parallel to BC , therefore

AE AD
= (By Basic Proportionality Theorem)
EC DB

AE AD
= =1 ( Since AD = DB )
EC DB

Therefore AE = EC

i.e. E is the mid of point of AC.


2. If the diagonals of a quadrilateral divide each other proportionally, prove it
is a trapezium.

Sol:

Given: A quadrilateral ABCD in which diagonals AC and BD intersect at E, such


AE DE
that = .
EC EB

To prove: ABCD is a trapezium

Construction: Draw EF parallel to BC

DE DF
This implies = … (1) (Basic proportionality theorem)
EB FC

DE AE
But = (given) … (2)
EB EC

AE DF
Therefore = (from 1 and 2)
EC FC

or EF parallel to AD (converse of basic proportionality theorem)

Now, EF parallel to AD and EF parallel to BC

Therefore AD parallel to BC
Hence ABCD is a trapezium

Note: Trapezium is a four sided figure (quadrilateral) in which a pair of opposite


sides is parallel to each other.

3. If three or more parallel lines are intersected by two transversals, prove that
the intercepts made by them on the transversals are proportional.

Sol:

Sol:

Given: Transversals PQ and RS cut three parallel lines l1 , l2 and l3 at A, B and C


and D, E, F respectively.

AB DE
To prove: =
BC EF

Construction: Draw AH parallel to DF meeting the lines l2 and l3 at G and H


respectively.

Proof: AD parallel to GE and AG parallel to DE , ⇒ AGED is a parallelogram

Therefore AG = DE … (1)
Again, GE parallel to HF and GH parallel to EF , ⇒ GHFE is a parallelogram

Therefore GH = EF … (2)

AB AG
Now in Triangle ACH , BG parallel to CH , Therefore = (By basic
BC GH
proportionality theorem)

AB DE
or = [by using (1) and (2)]
BC EF

AB DE
Hence =
BC EF

4. In Triangle ABC , D and E are points on the sides AB and AC respectively


and DE parallel to BC. . If AD=8cm, BD=4cm and AE=12cm. Find AC.

Sol:

Let EC= x cm

Using Basic Proportionality Theorem, we have

AD AE
=
DB EC
8 12
or =
4 x

By cross multiplication

8 x = 48

48
x= = 6 cm
8

Therefore EC= x =6 cm
Now AC = AE+EC

or AC= 12+6= 18 cm

5. In figure 6-8, Triangle PQR, ST parallel to QR . Find x?

Sol:

Since ST parallel to QR , using Basic Proportionality Theorem, we have

PS PT
=
SQ TR
4 + x x +1
or =
SQ TR

4 + x x +1
or =
12 8

By cross multiplication, we get

8(4 + x) = 12( x + 1)

or 32 + 8 x = 12 x + 12

or 8 x − 12 x = 12 − 32

or −4 x = −20

or 4 x = 20

20
or x = = 5 cm
4

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