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# Basic Proportionality Theorem (or Thales Theorem)

## Theorem: In a triangle, a line drawn parallel to one side, to intersect the

other sides in distinct points, divides the two sides in the same ratio.

## Given: A Triangle ABC . D and E are any two points on AB and AC

respectively such that DE parallel to BC .

To prove: =
DB EC

## Proof: Since DE parallel to BC , Therefore Area of Triangle DEB = Area of

Triangle DEC … (1)

( Since triangles on same base and between the same parallels are equal in
area)

Also, = 2
ar (Triangle BDE ) 1 × BD × EF
2
(Since Area of a Triangle = 1 × base × altitude )
2

or = … (1)
ar (Triangle BDE ) BD

Similarly,
= … (3)
ar ( Triangle CDE ) CE

or = [from (1)] … (4)
ar (Triangle BDE ) CE

=
DB EC

## Corollary: In a Triangle ABC , if a line DE parallel to BC intersects AB in D

and AC in E, then

AB AC AB AC
(1) = (2) =

(1) = or =

DB EC
+1 = +1

DB + AD EC + AE
or =

AD + DB AE + EC
or =

AB AC
or =

(2) =
DB EC

+1 = +1
DB EC
AD + DB AE + EC
or =
DB EC

AB AC
or =

## Theorem: Converse of Basic Proportionality Theorem

If a line divides any two sides of a triangle in the same ratio, then the line
must be parallel to the third side.

Given: Triangle ABC in which a line ' l ' intersects AB in D and AC in E. Such
that =
DB EC

To prove: DE paralell to BC

Proof: Let line ' l ' is not parallel to BC. Then, there must be another line
through D which is parallel to BC. Let DF parallel to BC .

## Using Basic Proportionality Theorem, we have

=
DB FC

But = (given)
DB EC

AF AE
Therefore =
FC EC
Adding ‘1’ to both the sides, we get

AF AE
+1 = +1
FC EC

AF + FC AE + EC
=
FC EC

AC AC
=
FC EC

or FC=EC

But this is true only if F and E coincide, that is, DF coincides with DE.

Hence DE parallel to BC
SOLVED EXAMPLES

1. Using Basic Proportionality Theorem, prove that the line drawn from the
mid-point of one side of a triangle parallel to another side bisects the third
side.

Sol:

Given: Triangle ABC in which D is the mid point of AB and the line DE is drawn
parallel to BC, meeting AC in E.

To prove: AE=EC

## Proof: Since DE parallel to BC , therefore

= (By Basic Proportionality Theorem)
EC DB

= =1 ( Since AD = DB )
EC DB

Therefore AE = EC

## i.e. E is the mid of point of AC.

2. If the diagonals of a quadrilateral divide each other proportionally, prove it
is a trapezium.

Sol:

AE DE
that = .
EC EB

## Construction: Draw EF parallel to BC

DE DF
This implies = … (1) (Basic proportionality theorem)
EB FC

DE AE
But = (given) … (2)
EB EC

AE DF
Therefore = (from 1 and 2)
EC FC

## Now, EF parallel to AD and EF parallel to BC

Hence ABCD is a trapezium

## Note: Trapezium is a four sided figure (quadrilateral) in which a pair of opposite

sides is parallel to each other.

3. If three or more parallel lines are intersected by two transversals, prove that
the intercepts made by them on the transversals are proportional.

Sol:

Sol:

## Given: Transversals PQ and RS cut three parallel lines l1 , l2 and l3 at A, B and C

and D, E, F respectively.

AB DE
To prove: =
BC EF

respectively.

## Proof: AD parallel to GE and AG parallel to DE , ⇒ AGED is a parallelogram

Therefore AG = DE … (1)
Again, GE parallel to HF and GH parallel to EF , ⇒ GHFE is a parallelogram

Therefore GH = EF … (2)

AB AG
Now in Triangle ACH , BG parallel to CH , Therefore = (By basic
BC GH
proportionality theorem)

AB DE
or = [by using (1) and (2)]
BC EF

AB DE
Hence =
BC EF

## 4. In Triangle ABC , D and E are points on the sides AB and AC respectively

and DE parallel to BC. . If AD=8cm, BD=4cm and AE=12cm. Find AC.

Sol:

Let EC= x cm

## Using Basic Proportionality Theorem, we have

=
DB EC
8 12
or =
4 x

By cross multiplication

8 x = 48

48
x= = 6 cm
8

Therefore EC= x =6 cm
Now AC = AE+EC

or AC= 12+6= 18 cm

Sol:

PS PT
=
SQ TR
4 + x x +1
or =
SQ TR

4 + x x +1
or =
12 8

## By cross multiplication, we get

8(4 + x) = 12( x + 1)

or 32 + 8 x = 12 x + 12

or 8 x − 12 x = 12 − 32

or −4 x = −20

or 4 x = 20

20
or x = = 5 cm
4

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