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Introduction to Internet

Internet is a collection of millions of computers around the world that are all connected to one another. It is a global network of computers. These computers are connected through high speed telecommunication devices.


Early 1960 during cold war of Russia and America. American wanted to communicate with Armed Forces. A network of four computers was developed in the beginning. Project handed to DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Project Agency) to connect Defense Companies. Universities and research organizations started their own networks


Www E-mail Telnet FTP Intranet Gopher Chat Group Extranet


It is a collection of millions of websites. A web site contains different web pages containing information. It organizes this information in such a way that user can easily search and access the required information.

Email: Stand for electronic mail. It is the exchange of messages and files using internet. Message can be in the form of graphics, sounds, video clips or simple text. It is the fast way of sending messages anywhere in the world in a very short time. TelNet: A program that is used to connect to a remote computer on internet. A computer can act like a terminal directly linked to the remote computer. It allows a user to logon to a remote computer. The user can logon to the computer and use it as if he is connected to the computer directly.

FTP: Used on internet for sending files from one place to another. Audio, video, graphics and data files can be uploaded or downloaded using this protocol. The process of transferring a file from remote computer to a local computer is called downloading. The process of transferring a file from a local computer is called uploading. Different software is available to use this protocol e.g.: cute FTP and WS_FTP.

Intranet: It is a private and secure business network. It uses Internet technology to provide information to the employees of the organization. The information can be protected from unauthorized users. It is designed to meet the internal needs for sharing information within a single organization or company. Gopher: A menu based system for exploring the internet and its resources. It provides the facilities for search and file retrieval on the internet. It organizes resources in such a way that finding information becomes easier on the internet.

Chat Group: Exchanging view on the internet by typing text messages. It lsa group of users with similar interest. Many users join chat group for exchanging views or talking for fun. The user can interact with one another in real-time. It means that they are online at the same time.

ExtraNet: It is a collection of two or more intranets. It can be accessed by authorized users from outside the organization. Different organizations can use extranet to share the information of their intranets. An organization can apply security Measures to provide limited access to the employees of other organization using the extranet.

Networking Devices

Equipment that connects directly to a network segment is referred to as a device. These devices are broken up into two classifications. 1. End-user devices 2. Network devices End-user devices include computers, printers, scanners, and other devices that provide services directly to the user. Network devices include all the devices that connect the end-user devices together to allow them to communicate

Network Interface Card

A network interface card (NIC) is" a printed circuit board that provides network communication capabilities to and from a personal computer. Also called a LAN adapter.

Connects a group of Hosts



Switches add more intelligence to data transfer management

Routers are used to connect networks together Route packets of data from one network to another Cisco became the de facto standard of routers because of their high-quality router products Routers, by default, break up a broadcast domain

LANS are designed to: Operate within a limited geographic area Allow multi-access to high-bandwidth media Control the network privately under local administration Provide fuH-tirne_conriCliyity to local services Connect physically adjacent devices

WANS are designed to: Operate over a large geographical area Allow access over serial interfaces operating at lower speeds Provide full-time and part-time connectivity Connect devices separated over wide, even gtobal_ajeas



Communication Server


Metropolitan Area Networks
A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a hybrid between a LAN and a WAN. Like a WAJbJ, it connects two or more LANs in the same geographic area. A MAN, for example, might connect two different buildings or offices in the same city. However, whereas WANs typically provide low-to medium-speed access, MANs provide high-speed connections, such as Tl (1.544Mbps) and optical services.

The OSI Model

The OSI model is a seven layers model that allows communication across all types of computer systems openly. Provision of communication services between computers of Different origin. Allow vendors to enter the market by using their own implementation and protocols Based on a Proposal developed by ISO. Once very promising (in early 90's) But too complex with tons of specifications and was proposed by a large committee with different ideas. Moved too slowly, but meanwhile the TCP/IP Protocols Ware in widespread use, and now becomes the standard.

Layers of the OSI Model

7. Application 6. Presentation 5. Session 4. Transport 3. Network 2. Data Linked 1. Physical

Functionalities of the Layers Physical Layer

Moves the information between two systems connected by physical link

Mechanical Electrical Functional Procedural

Functions of Physical Layers

Physical Characteristics of interface and media o Characteristics of the interface between the devices and the transmission medium. o Type of the transmission medium.

Representation of bits How bits are encoded into signals to transmit Encoding types. Data Rate number of bits send each second - transmission rate bit duration

Functions of Physical Layers

Synchronization of bits o Asynchronous or synchronous transmission Line Configuration o point-to-point o multipoint - shared Physical Topology o Bus, Ring, Star, Mesh Transmission Mode o Simplex, Half duplex, Full Duplex

Data Link Layer

Makes the raw transmission facility of the physical layer as a reliable link and responsible for node to node delivery.

Functionalities of Data Link Layer

Farming o Divides the stream of bits received from the network layer into manageable units - frames. o Create and recognize frame boundaries. Attach special bit pattern at the beginning and end. Physical Addressing o Adds the physical address of the source and destination to deliver the frame to its proper receiver. Flow Control o keeps a fast transmitter from flooding a slow receiver

Functionalities of Data Link Layer

Error Control Adds mechanism to detect error and retransmit damaged or lost frame. Prevent duplication of frames.

Access control When two or more devices are connected to the same link, data link layer also control the access to the common media.

Piggybacking In full duplex communication both data and acknowledgements are sent in the same frame.

Network Layer
Responsible for the source-to-destination delivery of a packet possible across multiple networks (links).

Functionalities of Network Layer

Logical Addressing
Adds another level of addressing that is globally unique Divided into two parts: Network ID, Host ID Segmentation and Reassembly If necessary divides a packet into smaller units and reassemble it Routing Based on the logical address delivery packets from one computer to another Determine the best path from source to destination Congestion Control

Transport Layer
Responsible for source-to-destination delivery of the entire message Exchange of data between end systems Error free In sequence No losses No duplicates Quality of service

Functions of Transport Layer

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Service point Addressing Delivery the data to a specific process of the destination computer. Segmentation and Reassembly Message is divided into transmittable segments, each containing a sequence number and reassemble at the destination. Connection Control Connection Oriented Connectionless

Functions of Transport Layer

Flow Control End to end flow control Error Control End to end error control

Session Layer
Session binds two application processes into a cooperative relationship for a certain time.

Provides administrative service that handles the establishment (binding) and

release (unbinding) of a connection between two presentation entities

If the connection is cut off, session layer figure it out and initiate the attempts to reconnect.

Functions of the Session Layer

Dialog Control Allow two systems two enter into a dialog. Allow half duplex or full duplex communication

Synchronization Add checkpoints into a stream of data. If a crash happens during transmission retransmission starts after the checkpoint that has successfully transmitted.

Presentation Layer
Serves as a translator between the application and the network. Concerned with the syntax and semantics of the information.

Functions of Presentation Layer

Translation Change information into stream of bits. Use common format Encryption Encrypt and decrypt the information for security Scrambling of password Compression

Compressed and decompressed

Application Layer
Application Layer provides interfaces to the software that enable programs to use network services. Network Virtual Terminals File Transfer, access and managements Mail Services Directory Services.

What is e-commerce? E-commerce is online shopping via internet. It is any commercial activity conducted electronically, particularly via private or open networks, such as internet. The key point of this definition is that e-commerce is a confluence of business operations with electronic and network technologies. Combining a range of processes, such electronic data interchange (EDI), electronic mail (E-MAIL), World Wide Web (WWW) and internet applications, e-commerce provide ways to exchange information between individuals, companies and countries. Ecommerce is the movement of business on to the World Wide Web. E-commerce

companies core business process of buying, selling goods, services and information over the internet.

Advantages of e commerce. 24*7 operations: Round-the-clock operation is an expensive proposition in the in the brick and-mortar world, while it is natural in the click-and-conquer world. Global-reach: The net is being inherently global; reaching global customers is relatively easy on the net compared to the world of bricks. Cost of acquiring serving and retaining customers: It is relatively cheaper to acquire new customers over the net, thanks to 24*7 operations and its global reach. Though innovative tools of push technology, it is also possible to retain customers loyalty with minimal investments. An extended enterprise is easy to build: The internet provides an effective way (often less expensive) to extend the enterprise beyond the narrow confines of the organization. Disintermediation: Using the internet, one can directly approach the customers and suppliers, cutting down on the number of levels and in the process, cutting down the costs. Improved customer service to the clients: It results in higher satisfaction and more sales. Knowledge of customer behavior:

Companies can track a host of behaviors on websites visited, length of stays on a site, page views on a site, contents of wish lists and shopping carts, purchases, dollar amounts purchases. Write about the disadvantages of e-commerce.

Disadvantages of e-commerce: Business often calculates the return on investment before committing to any new technology. This has been difficult to do with commerce, since the costs and benefits have been hard to quantify. Many firms have had trouble in recruiting and retaining employees with technological, design, and business process skills needed to create an effective e-commerce atmosphere. Another problem facing firms that want to do business on the internet is the difficulty of integrating existing databases and transaction processing software designed for traditional commerce into a software that enables e-commerce. Many business face cultural and legal obstacles in conducting commerce. Some consumers are still somewhat fearful of sending their credit card numbers over the internet. Other consumers are simply resistant to change and are uncomfortable viewing merchandise on a computer screen rather than in person. E business model: It is based on the relationship of transaction parties and transaction types. A business model is the method of doing business by which company can sustain itself. The business model spells out how a company makes money by specifying where it is positioned in the value chain. Classification by revenue model: Product sales model: charges customers directly for products or services that they buy.

Subscription model: That changes a fixed monthly or annual rental for the service Transaction fee model: That charges a service fee based on volume and value of the transaction offered ADVERTISE SUPPORT MODEL: That charges advertisers instead of charging users. Sponsorship model: That provides sponsorship by companies for non-financial reasons. Classification by distribution channel: Direct marketing: Where manufacturers such as dell, Nike, Lego or Sony market directly from company sites to individual customers. Pure-play e-tailers: Who have no physical stores, only an online sales presence.Amazon.com is an example of such a model. Click-and-mortar retailers: Who are traditional retailers with a supplementary website, like Walmart.com.

Give the reasons why one should opt for B2C. B2C e-business includes retail sales, often called e-retail and other online purchases .many people were excited about the use of B2C on the internet, because this new communication medium allowed business and consumers to get connected in entirely new ways. Some of the reasons for choosing B2C are:

Inexpensive costs, big opportunities: once on the internet, opportunities are immense as companies can market their products in the whole world without much additional cost. Globalization: Even being in a small company, the web can make you appear to be a big player which simply means that the playing field has been leveled by e-business. The internet is accessed by millions of people around the world and definitely, they are all potential customers. Reduced operational cost: Selling through the web means cutting down on paper costs, customer support costs, advertising costs and order processing costs. Customer convenience: Searchable content, shopping carts, promotions and interactive and user-friendly interfaces facilitate customer convenience, thus generating more business. Customers can also see order status, delivery status, and get their receipts online. Knowledge management: Through database systems and information management you can find out who visited your site, and how to create, better value for customer.

How does B2C work? B2C e-commerce is more than just an online store. It really is about managing the entire process, but just using technology as a tool for order processing and customer support. Visiting the virtual mall: The customer visits the mall by browsing the online catalogue- a very organized manner of displaying products and their related information such as price, description and availability. Customers registers:

The customer has to register to become a part of the shopper registry. This allows the customer to avail of the shops complete services. Customer buys products: Through a shopping cart system, order details, shipping charges, taxes, additional charges and price totals are presented in an organized manner. Merchant process the order: The merchant then processes the order that received from the previous stage and fills up the necessary forms. Credit card is processed: The credit card of the customer is authenticated through a payment gateway or a bank. Other payment methods can be used as well. Such as debit cards, prepaid cards, or bank-to bank transfers. Operations management: When the order is passed on to the logistics people, the traditional business operations will still be used. Things like inventory management, total quality management, warehousing, optimization and project management should still be incorporated even through it are an e-business. Getting the product to the customer is still the most important aspect of e-commerce. Shipment and delivery: The product is then shipped to the customer. The customer can track the order/delivery as virtual malls have a delivery tracking module on the website which allows a customer to check the status of a particular order. Customer receives: The product is received by the customer, and is verified. The system should then tell the firm that the order has been fulfilled. After sales service:

After the Sale has been made, the firm has to make sure that it maintains a good relationship with its customers. This is done through customer relationship management or CRM.

Give the different types of auction brokers. English auction: The English auction is one of the most common auction formats. It is also known as the open-outcry auction or the ascending-price auction. It is frequently used for selling art, wine and other physical goods, which do not have a limited lifetime. The English auction is defined in the following way: the auctioneer starts off the auction with the lowest acceptable price or the reserve price. He then receives bids from the bidders until the point from which indicates that the highest bidder will receive the item in exchange for the sum of money he bid for. Dutch auction: The Dutch auction was developed in the Netherlands to auction flower and other products with a limited life.it is also known as the descending price auction. In a Dutch auction, the opening price is set extremely high. The price then decends with a predefined amount predefined time intervals, until a buyer claims the product to be mine. First-price sealed-bid auction: First-price sealed-bid auction has the main characteristic of not being an open-cry auction, like the English or Dutch auction , and thus the individuals bids are hidden from the other bidders. This auction has two different phases- a bidding phase in which all the bids are collected, and a resolution phase in which the bids are opened and the winner is determined. During the bidding phase, each bidder submits his bid, which is based on his own valuation. The bidder is thus totally ignorant of all the other bids that have been submitted. The resolution phase works like this all the bids are opened and sorted from the highest to the lowest bid.

Vickrey auction: William vickrey , the winner of the 1996 Nobel prize in economics developed the vickrey auction. It is also called the uniformed second-price auction. In a vickrey auction the bids are sealed and each bidder bids from his own intuitive knowledge ignorant of all the other bids. What is different in this auction format compared to the first-price sealed-bid auction is that, the winning bidder will pay the price of the second highest bid, which is the same as the highest unsuccessful bid. Thus the winner pays less than what he has bidden. Write about the types of aggregators model. The aggregators are the connectors between the buyers and sellers. They are involved in the overall process of selection, organization, matching the buyers requirement. There are four types of aggregators such as the following: Content aggregators: They are among the first large scale sites on the web and mostly represent large publishing companies e.g. pathfinder.com. Their basic challenge is that content has to be attractive enough to make the site viable. For example: espncricinfo.com that gives every news about the cricket.

BASIC ELEMENTS OF A COMMUNICTION SYSTEM Communication is the process of transferring messages from one point to another. Three basic elements of any communication system are: A sender (source), which creates the message to be transmitted A medium which carries the message. A receiver (sink), which receives the message.

Data transmission modes

Data transmission is the flow of data between two points .There are three waysormodes, of transmitting data from one point to another. These are simplex, half duplex and full duplex.

Simplex: If transmission is simplex, communication can take place only one direction. Devices connected to such a circuit are either a send-only or a receive only device. For example, a data collection terminal on a factory floor (send only), or printer (receive only). Half duplex: A half-duplex system can transmit data in both directions, but only in one direction at a time. Hence, a half-duplex line can alternately send and receive data. It requires two wires this is the most common type of transmission for voice communication because only one person is supposed to speak at a time. Full duplex: Data flows in both directions simultaneously. Modems are configured to flow data in both directions.by directional both directions simultaneously.

Data Transmission speed A term to describe the data handling capacity of a communication system is bandwidth. Bandwidth is the range of frequencies that is available for transmission of data. Depending on their transmission speeds, communication channels (paths) are grouped into the following three basic categories:

Narrowband: Narrow or sub voice grade channels range in speed from 45 to 300 baud. They are used for handling low data volumes, and are adequate for low-speed devices. They are used mainly for telegraph lines and low speed terminals.

Voice band: Voice band channels handle moderate data volumes, and can transmit data at speeds up to 9600 baud. They are so called because their major application is for ordinary telephone voice communication. They are also used for data transmission from slow I/O devices to CPU or vice versa. Broadband: Broadband or wideband channels are used when large volumes of data are to be transmitted at high speed. These systems provide data transmission rates of 1 million baud or more. A company might use a broadband facility for high-speed computer-to-computer communication or for simultaneous transmission of data to several different devices. Twisted pair wire: A twisted pair wire consists to two bunches of thin copper wires, each bunch enclosed separately in a plastic insulation, then twisted around each other to reduce interface by adjacent wires. It is also called unshielded twisted pair cable because other than the plastic coating around the two individual bunches of copper wires, nothing shields it from outside interference. UTP cables are commonly used in local telephone communication and short distance digital data transmission.

Coaxial cable: Coaxial cables are groups of specially wrapped and insulated wire lines, which are able to transmit data at high rates. They consist of a central copper wire surrounded by a pvc insulation over which a sleeve of copper mesh is placed. The metal sleeve is again shielded by an outer shield of thick PVC material. The signal is transmitted by the inner copper wire, and is electrically shielded by outer metal sleeve.

Coaxial cables offer much higher bandwidths than UTP cables, and are capable of transmitting digital signals at rates of 01 megabits per second. They are extensively used in long distance telephone lines and as cables for cable tv. Microwave system: Another popular transmission media is microwave. This is a popular way of transmitting data, since it does not incur the expense of laying cables. Microwave systems use very high frequency radio signals to transmit data through space. However at microwave frequencies, the electromagnetic waves cannot bend or pass obstacles like hill. Hence it is necessary for microwaves transmission to be in line of-sight. In other words the transmitter and receiver of a microwave system. This may not be possible for very long distance transmission. Moreover, the signals become weaker after traveling a certain distance and require a power amplification. In order to overcome the problems of line-of sight and power amplification of weak signals, microwave systems use repeaters at intervals of about 25 to 30 kms in between transmitting and receiving stations.

Communications satellite:
A satellite is an object that goes around, or orbits, a larger object, such as a planet. While there are natural satellites, like the Moon, hundreds of man-made satellites also orbit the Earth. Components of a satellite

communication capabilities with earth a power source a control system to accomplish its mission

Several repeater stations are normally required for long distance transmission, which increases the cost of data transmission between two points, which

increases the cost of data transmission between two points, which normally impossible for microwave communication. This problem is overcome by using satellites.

A communication satellite is basically a microwave relay station placed in the outer space. These satellites are launched either by rockets or space shuttles, and are precisely positioned 36,000 kms above the equator with an orbit speed, which exact matches, the earth rotation speed. Since satellite are positioned in geosynchronous orbit, it is stationary relative to earth, and always stays over the same point on the ground. This allows a ground station to aim its antenna at a fixed point in the sky. Each satellite can receive and retransmit signals to slightly less than half of the earths surface. Therefore, at therefore, at least three satellites are needed in geosynchronous orbit to provide worldwide data transmission service. Satellite communication systems have following advantages: A satellite, which is essentially a microwave relay station visible from any point of a very large area, can be used for data transmission between any two randomly chosen points in that area. Data transmission costs are independent of the distance between two points as long as the two points are within the area covered by satellite. A satellite having many transponders has enormous data communication capability. Error direction is trivial in a satellite communication system because a transmitting station can receive back its own transmission and check whether the satellite has transmitted the information correctly. If not, it can retransmit the data.

A satellite communication system, however, suffers from the following disadvantages: The initial cost of placing a satellite into its orbit is very high. Owing to the travel of microwave signal from the sending earth station to the satellite and then back to the receiving earth station, there is a 270msec propagation delay between the sender and receiver of any information. The manner in which a satellite communication system works , any data sent to the satellite for transmission, automatically gets broadcast to all receiving stations within the satellites range. Hence, special security measures are needed to prevent unauthorized tempering of information. Atmospheric disturbances, like thunder and lightning affect the -band transmission of a satellite communication system. Hence-band transmission is recommended during bad weather. Optical fibers:
A technology that uses glass (or plastic) threads (fibers) to transmit data. A fiber optic cable consists of a bundle of glass threads, each of which is capable of transmitting messages modulated onto light waves.

Optical fibers have following advantages: Large bandwidth: Optical fibers can transmit massive amounts of data at very high speed and long distances. They can have 10 to 100 times greater bandwidths than the best coaxial cables. Low loss: As compared to electrical signals, light signals can travel at very high speed with no significant loss of intensity over long distances. Immunity to electromagnetic interface:

Because they are made of insulators, optical fiber transmissions are not affected by magnetic or electrical interference. Small size and lightweight: Fiber optic cables are much smaller in size and lighter in weight than copper wires or coaxial cables. The use of smaller and lighter fiber optic cables is very effective. Security: Optical fiber offers increased security against unauthorized tempering of information since it is extremely difficult and expensive to tap optical signals. Safety and electrical insulation: Optical fibers, being insulators, provide electrical isolation between the source and the destination. Hence, they present no electrical spark hazards and can be safety used in those places where it is unsafe to use electrical conductors. Analog and digital signals transmission: Both analog and digital signals can be transmitted by the use of optical fibers. In analog transmission the light is varied continuously. On the other hand, in digital transmission the light source is turned on or off. Optical fibers, however, suffer from the following disadvantages: Optical fibers, beingfragile, cannot be turned at sharp corners. They can turn only those corners, which have radius of at least few inches. This creates problem in the physical laying of the fiber optic cable. Aligning and joining two fiber optic cables is not so simple and easy as for twisted copper wire pairs or coaxial cables. It requires special equipment to do so. When multiple paths exist between the source and destination nodes of a packet, any one of the paths may be used to transfer the packet. The two popularly used routing algorithms are:

Source routing: In this method, the source node selects the entire path before sending the packet. That is, all intermediate nodes, via which the packet will be transferred to its destination,are decided at the source node of the packet, and this routing information is included along with the packet. Hop-by-hop routing: In this method, each node along the path decides only the next node for the path. That is,each node maintains information about the status of all its outgoing channels and the adjacent nodes, and then selects a suitable adjacent nodes, and then selects a suitable adjacent node for the packet and transmits it to that node. The routing decisions are typically based on the channel availability and the readiness of the adjacent nodes to receive and relay the packet.

NETWORK TOPOLOGIES The term network topology refers to the way in which the nodes (computers or other device that need to communicate) of network are linked together. The four major ones are star network, ring network, completely connected network, and multi-access bus network. The choice of network topology for installing a computer network depends upon a combination of factors, such as: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The desired performance of the system. The desired reliability of the entire system. Size (number of nodes and their geographical distribution) of the system. Expandability of the system. Cost of the components and services required to implement the network. Availability of communication lines. Delays involved in routing information from one node to another.

Star Network

Multi computer are connected to a host computer. That is the computers in the network are not linked directly to each other and can communicate only via the host computer.

Host computer

Figure: A star configuration of computer network Advantages

1. Star topology has minimal line cost because only n 1 line are required for

connecting n nodes. 2. Transmission delays between two nodes do not increase by adding new nodes to the network, because any two nodes may be connected via two links. 3. If any of the local computers fails, the remaining portion of the network is unaffected. Disadvantage 1. The system crucially depends on the central node. If the host computer fails, the entire network fails.

Ring Network
Each computer has communicating subordinate, but there is no master computer for controlling other computers. A node receives data from one of its two adjacent nodes. The only decision a node has to take is whether the data is for its own use.

Figure: A ring configuration of computer network

Advantage 1. The ring network works well where there is no central site computer system. 2. It is more reliable than a star network because communication is not dependent on a single host computer. If a link between any two computers breaks down, or if one of the computers breaks down, alternate routing is possible. Disadvantage 1. In a ring network, communication delay is directly proportional to the number of nodes in the network. Hence, addition of new nodes in the network increases the communication delay. 2. The ring network requires more complicated control software than star network.

Completely Connected Network

A completely connected network has a separate physical link for connecting each node to any other node. Hence, each computer of such a network has a direct dedicated link, called a point to point link, with all other computers in the networks.

Figure: A completely connected computer network

Advantage 1. This type of network is very reliable, as any link breakdown will affect only communication between the connected computers. 2. Each node of the network need not have individual routing capability. 3. Communication is very fast between any two nodes. Disadvantage

1. It is the most expensive network from the point of view of link cost. If there are n nodes in the networks, n(n-1)/2 link are required. Hence, the cost of linking the system grows with the square of the number of nodes.

Multi-access Bus Network

In which a single transmission medium is shared by all nodes. That is, all the computers are attached to the same communication line (channel). It is also appropriate when satellite communication is used.


Single communication line Shared by all nodes

Figure: A multi-access bus network

Advantage 1. It helps in reducing the number of physical lines 2. The failure of a computer does not affect the communication among other computers in the network. 3. Addition of new computer to the network is easy

Disadvantage 1. All computers in the network must have good communication and decisionmaking capability. 2. If the communication line fails, the entire system breaks down.


Networks are broadly classified into two types: local-area network (LANs) and wide-area network (WANs). The key characteristics, which are often used to differentiate between these two types of network, are as follows: 1. Geographic distribution: A LAN is restricted to a limited geographic coverage of a few kilometers, but a WAN may extend over several thousand kilometers. Therefore, LANs typically provide communication facilities within a building or a campus, whereas WANs may operate nationwide or even worldwide. 2. Data rate: Data transmission rates usually much higher in LANs than in WANs. Transmission rate in LANs usually range from 10 Megabit per second (Mbps) to 1 Gigabit per second (Gbps). On the other hand, transmission rate in WANs usually range from 1200 bit per second to 2 Mbps. The date transmission rates are continuously for both LANs and WANs with the advancements in technology. 3. Error rate: LANs generally experience fewer data transmission errors than WANs do. Typically, bit error rates are in the range of 10 -18 to 10-12 with LANs as opposed to 10-5 to 10-7 with WANs.

4. Communication link: The most common communication links used ib LANs are twisted pair, coaxial cable, and fiber optics. On the other hand, since the sites in a WAN are physically distributed over a large geographic area, typically communication links used in WANs are telephone lines, microwave links, and satellite channels. 5. Ownership: A LAN is typically owned by a single organization because of its limited geographic coverage. A WAN, however, is usually formed by interconnecting multiple LANs each of which may belong to a different organization. 6. Communication cost: The cost to transmit data in a LAN is negligible, since the transmission medium is usually owned by the user organization. However, with a WAN, this cost may be very high because the transmission media used are leased lines or public communication systems, such as telephone lines, microwave links, and satellite channels.

Networks that share some of the characteristics of both LANs and WANs are sometimes referred to as metropolitan area network (MANs). Ethernet is the most widely used LANs technology. The network topology used for Ethernet is multi-access bus topology.

A protocol is a set of formal operating rules, procedures, or conventions that govern a given process.

Roles of a communication protocol In any computer network, a communication protocol normally performs the following functions for the efficient and error-free transmission of data.

1. Data sequencing: It refers to breaking a long message into smaller packets of fixed size. Data sequencing rules define the method of numbering (or sequencing) packets to detect loss or duplication of packets, and to correctly identify packets. Which belong to the same message. 2. Data routing: Routing algorithms are designed to find the most efficient paths between the source and destination nodes of a message. They can handle varying degree of traffic on the present network configuration with optimal time utilization. 3. Data formatting: Data formatting rules define which group of bits or characters within a packet constitutes data, control, addressing, or other information. 4. Flow control: A communication protocol also prevent a fast sender from overwhelming a slow receiver. It ensures resource sharing and protection against traffic congestion by regulating the flow of data on the communication lines. 5. Error control: These rules are designed to detect error in messages and to ensure transmission of correct messages. The most common method for correcting is to retransmit the erroneous message block. This method requires coordination between the sender and receiver nodes, so that the block having error is discarded by the receiver nodes and is retransmitted by the sender node. 6. Precedence and order of transmission: these rules ensure that all nodes get a chance to use the communication lines and other resources of the network based on the priorities assigned to them. 7. Connection established and termination: These rules define how connections are established maintained and terminated when two nodes of a network want t communicate with each other. 8. Data security: Providing data security and is also built into most communication software packages. It prevents access of data by unauthorized users. 9. Log information: Several communication software are designed to develop log information, which consists of all jobs and data communications tasks that have taken place. Such information may be used for charging the users of the network based on their usage of the network resources.

model B2C B2B



description Sells products or service directly to the customers Sells products or services to other business or brings multiple buyers and sellers together in central marketplace. Business selling to local, state , and federal agencies. Consumer sells directly to other consumers. Consumers fix price on their own,which business accept or decline.

examples Amazon.com SHOP2gather.com


ebay.com Priceline.com






Brokerage model:

The characteristics of brokerage model are as follows: The price discovery mechanism is its key principle. It is a meeting point for sellers and buyers. Auctions and exchanges are the modes of transactions. It is a free market Consists of global network of buyers and sellers It is a virtual marketplace enabled by the internet. It encompases all types of organizations now.

Advantages of brokerage model: C2C tradingAllows buyers and sellers to trade directly bypassing intermediates, and Reduces cost for both the parties. Global reach Trading convenience,which Allows trading at all hours and Provides continually updated information. Sence of community through direct buyer and seller communication. Efficient access to information Allevation of the risks of anonymous trading.

Information flow




Flow of products/services

Web pricing model: CPM or impression only(set costs-per thousand of guranted AD views) Click-through(the advertiser pays based on the number of times the banner is clicked by the user) Sponsorships(Package deals of impressions and click through ) Cost-per-lead(the advertiser pays when a viewer registers or submits personal information) Cost-per-sale(agreed upon charge for the viewers who actually purchase a product or service based on the AD.) Straight revenue sharing deals(the publisher receives a commission which is paid upon sales from an ad.)

Subscription model: Users aree charged a periodic- daily,monthly, or annual- fee to subscribe to a service.

Content services: Provide text,audio, or video conten to userfs wwho subscribe for a fee to gain access to the service. Persion-to-person: Networking service are cconduits for the distribution of user submitted information,such as individual searching for formal schoolmates. Example: schoolmates.com, google.com Trust servies: Come in the form of membership associations that abide by an explicit code of conduct, and in wwhich members pay a subscription fee. Example: truste.com Internet service providers: Offer network connectivity and related services on a monthly subscription. Example: America online.