,., . E \\ ).ot ';;:,
( Nn) tv,.._ x Nr-- -;
A strain of African Clawed Toad, Xenopus faevis, exists ln which there Is only one nucleolus ( NN i lNA: l I\ A- 3
Mr r e\.
1
j
"-!

I , .
ln the nucleus of each cell instead of the usual two. When such animals are mated, J
approximately one quarter of the offspring have two nucleo!t per nucleus, one half have one I ! 2 ; I J
'-Gill:)
3
Uver cells were homogenized and their organelles separated in a centrifuge. Three main
types of organelles were identified when the separation was completed.
nucleolus per nucleus, and one quarter have no ffiicleo!i at all. (c. 0 # 1 1
Tadpoles v.;thout about four days after hatching because they tack ',;; W
Large, mainly spherical organelles, rel)lains Intact when separated. -3> I\ \A. C U 11.d
Smal!er, elongated organelles with characteristic folded Inner membranes. •lltk1
Very small particles present In very large numbers . ...J> h. b.,
A and are unable to undergo cell division. ;-> Which one of the following best describes the organelles Obtained?
B go!g! apparatus and are unable to secrete metabolites.
C riboSomes and are unable to manufacture proteins.
0 yolk and are unable to feed.
2 The following diagram !llustrates the types of membrane phospholipids found in the Intact
erythrocytes (red blood cells).
100
.J
80

:§. 40
PC
bilayer nail
faelngeek
sutfaca

! I Ill
PE
I :f"rr--f
0 20 ......:
- N •
40 l.
&
80
80
100
Which of the following statements correctly Identifies '#ith the graph?
A
B
c
D
2
3
4
of the total membrane phospholipids contain choline and 20'% contain
ethanolamine. /
24% of PC and 80% of PE make up part of the inner membrane phospho!lp!ds.
Most PC is confined to the outer surface of the erythrocytes whl!e most of the PE
and PS are confined to the inner surface of the erythrocytes.
Membranes, in general, can be concluded to be asymmetric. /
1 and 2 only
2 and 3 only
1 and 4 only
2 and 4 only
Ji
f./\<1..""'-.1 -\1-0.. """""" r-M-
Y (>\!.. ,;.J
f'r'· flltot.'p·;,u· 1)
1\0'1-
.--

u.r f& '!r \&..JU'
lt»A!Jf
4
5
CoOtaln of Krebs cYCle-- sJte-of p-rOtein svnthesls
A 3 2 1
B 1 2 3
c 2 1 3
D 1 3 2
A tadpole's tail is gradually broken down during metamorphosis into an adult frog. Which
organelle Increases In number in the cells of the tail at this time?
A Endoplasmic reticulum
B Pinocytlc vesicle
C Lysosome- C..f\)r;a.,·f\ c_,_;c\ dv'-l
J
D Golgi apparatus 'CI
c
The diagram shows two molecules.
r)..
OH OH
What Is formed >Mlen a large number of these molecules are condensed?
A Amylose -"> t>(. ( ( , If) V. S: rN 7.-- ·
B Cellulose I
C Phospholipid
0 Protein

A
[Turn over
g
6
7
: :··
4
l\? '>".
The figure below shows part of the molecular structure of a polysaccharide. tJ'

. )-o ... ! rQ ;
"/"Yl .ol /Yl .ol
uo· "o-( "o--(
j Key:
Which of the following statements are true?
6
5
The curve X shows the activity of an enzyme at 20QC. Curves A to D show the effect of
different conditions on the activity of the enzyme. (}> Q
Which curve shows the effect of Increasing the temperature by 10QC and adding extra
substrate?
Amount of
product
l'¥-<f f,J
,1''1''"'''!;;,,,,
I' "" "'
,..
...... -.......... .... ,. B
,t {... .., ..... -. -.. - ·-....
( /'
• ,1'
J ,,, c


1 The structure contains / y._ cJ lv. (,
2 The polysaccharide, which is an Important food source for animals, can be (_().('..(\
0
T e..,
digested by humans. \..<. se.-t<.\. ._./
3 The polysaccharide may associate in groups to form microfibri!s, which are h1.4 fV'..CII'\J
arranged in larger bundles to form macroflbrits. V ·
®
DNI'
r<.f.\'
If- .... r ,..._
/
/ .... ..
1 / .. .. ....
/// X D
}
I/
"

g
A 1 and2
8 2 and 3
C 1 and3
D All of the above
c
The enzyme rennin is found in gastric juice of young mammals. It causes the clottiilg of r
protein. The activity of rennin was investigated by recording the time taken for rennin to I\
milk in different condilions. The table shows the different conditions used and the results of c.\
the Investigation.
0
../
'=-Q/1.'"'""""

Tube Solutions added to 10cm" of milk at Time for milk
No. 2% Water Calcium Calcium Lead Hydrochloric to clotfmln
rennin nitrate citrate nitrate acid

1 Scm 2 em'
2 Scm
3 Scm 2cm
4 Scm 2cm 2cm
2cm 1
2cm 2cm No clot fonned
2cm No clot formed
25

Pb'-+it 1-u<;? .,.,f.;,\
(I,.:.
s Scm 2cm
6 Scm 2cm
What ls the correct conclusion?
A· Hydrochloric acid is necessary for the activity of rennin.
6 Nitrate ions inhibit the activity of rennin,
C Calcium ions increase the activity of rennin.
0 Citrate ions are necessary for the activity of rennin.
Ov'"'f"."j
<: (, tj\1

+o
2cm 10
2cm 2
L
4- (v.-:. -t- C« s
're;A.v. <.t ..::::. ) { (_, f"""" 1er
'--

\ '

/>z I 0.. Tn f f1 "' "!.
Tlmo
0 J.,·,
9 How do cells at the completion of meiosis compare vvith cells that have replicated their DNA
and are just about to begin, meiosis?
10
11
A They have half lhe amount of cytoplasm and half the amount of DNA.
B They have half the number of chromosomes and one·fourth the amount of DNA.
C They have half the number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA.
D They have the same number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA.
If cells !n the process of dividing are subjected to colchicine, a drug that interferes vvith the
functioning of the spindle apparatus, at which stage wru mitosis be
-It
13
A Anaphase
6 Prophase
C Metaphase
D Telophase
M '-"' rJ
Jt"'lf a. t-
1--J l-.<t1" rf""Jt.
c
at Its completion, produce
[5,
;;! '*' ,._. "'-f\ v\4
8
ct( 11-£ ""CD
.:::::.. ( [Turn over
cJ ... tJ""
t;for.A I ,
c "" .. M.•; • ,.,.(...
X
'-:'
" '
•'
12
Av4- - LIGrA
' S'f-o£ <.<>d""'
""'f''-tf>'c}J_ ;_, V"


h(jl,;"'/"'-- tysine.
The diagram shows the first five codon of an mRNA molecule and the first five amino
acids of the encoded polypeptide.
UAU - CUC - AUG
tyrosine leucine methionine
As a result of a mutation, a dipeptide was produced Instead of the normal polypeptide.
The triplets on the DNA strand complementary to the stop codon on mRNA are ATT, ATC
and ACT.
Which statement explains why a dipeptide was produced? UG-A
>H
A The DNA triplet coding for lysine is changed from TIC to ATC. Co d--o"
B The DNA triplet coding for lysine is changed from MG to ATC.
C The DNA triplet coding for cysteine Is changed from ACA
0 The DNA triplet coding for cysteine Is changed from AGA to ATG.
c
13 A number of molecules other than tRNA and mRNA are Involved during translatiOn.
The diagram shows some of these molecules and nuc!eotldes in the codon and anticodon
positions.
AT( 1 . CTh\ '
bond 4
14
15
7
I
Pyrimidine bases contain 4 carbon atoms and RUrine bases contain 5.
How many carbon atoms are there in a nucleotide
A 4
B 5
c 9
D 10
®
/('
0
{-Jac4<;;:;j
gc_ K
5c.
Which of the following Is not required for RNA splicing to occur?
5"'""" (...._

-·· {-o""fv\
5 (. -t' SC. "'-lo C..
=
'L>
A lntrons
B Small nuclear rlbonucleoprotelns -:>
C 5' and 3' splice sites
::. !I if l ,· c..<.-o ( w·-< ..
v
D 5' modified guanosine cap .., 1\\\
.ri _.,; ,, . ...........,
16 lPTG Is an analogue of lactose that binds to the lac repressor In the same fashion as
allolactose. However, it cannot be metabolized by E. coli cells, which :iA 1''1
were grovm In the absence of lactose and glucose, were Initially supplemented with IPTG,,...:il" Ol\
After 10 minutes, glucose was added to the cells. 10 minutes after glucose waS auoeb, l tt
, .1-L cAMP was added to the cells. ';&. N C. t:...P =":> laC ,1; '-
A ell var• L. .., '" ""f<i17"
A () Which of the following graphs best represents how the concentration of lac operon mRNA
C 1 I' varied during the experiment?
-€fl6rff'j AMP ... -. 2
-'""'rL 9,f /A
I] V' ljbJ\ Cone. or lac
Cone. otlac'
9
ope.ron
UAC
_-_-_.._- UAG
AUC

----- I
Cod. •"-.
initial stage last stage
Which of the following Is correct?
1)
operon
t mRNA
0
Cone. of lac' C
operon
mRNA
0
10
Time {min)
10
Time {min)
20
20
mRNA
0
Cone. of lac'
0
operon
mRNA
0

10 20
Time {min)
b
10 20
Time (min)
Yl'\ P-rJ 1\
s:. Q.i:.i ;ft1
v \\\ [Turn over

17
18
19
20
8
The following events occur In the extension of telomeres.
1
2
3
4
5
Further extension of 3' end of telomere.
Translocation of telomerase to end of telomere.
Reverse transcription to extend the 3' end of the telomere.
Complementary base·palrlng of RNA template with end of
telomere. /1'\ {.r<..l'Q
DNA polymerase catalyses formation of complementary strand to form double·
stranded DNA

-to
;l-o "' "\ A l t""' (
fq.P'V"
.2.
In which order do these events take place?
A32451
B34215
C42351
043215
1> ctZ"/'""'
Besides the ability of some cancer cells to overproliferate, what else could logically result in
a tumor?
A Metastasis
B Changes in the order of cell cycle stages
C Lack of appropriate cell death -7 • . ; c.«,.. vz.r
D Inability to form spindles
02.-L/.('
c
...... "'-
/ -feA,o,.._._..........,_
,', 1\o ((A
Which of the following il!ustrates a frame shift mutation on a segment of DNA 'Nhlch reads

A TACACdi§)fG C S"\'?J;-;f,-\e_c.(
B TACACGCTG A
C GTGGCACAT I ,
D r::_ , _, • ,.(
« .
'\... r,c,1'+---'"" ""'\"\ ,
Rhabdoviruses infect human cells. The gerome of rhabdoviruses consists of aGingle-- _.. { • .1-
stranded RNA molecule .......tlose sequence is complementary to the RNA sequence which rJ'VL.I w-\1 \Jt
functions as a messenger RNA) How is the messenger RNA produced !n such cells by • - -.)
rhabdovlrus? / <1\
•• \.aer
A Host cell RNA polymerase activity t
B One portion of the Infecting RNA Is directly translated by host cell ribosomes.
C Reverse transcriptase activity <'
D. The infecting virus particle contains an RNA polymerase. lA
V L .5 -\r ""-"'.
1>
J
(Z.NA- fi...Nr>r
+Vf-
t"lb o So>\1\!1..-

I fr/AN).._ L(for.. k w-e-vi-
'- OVI -"rwf.r)
21
9
Which of the following statements about the life cycle of the Human Immunodeficiency

The HIV particles recognise the host cell through the containing proteins
or lipids on the membrane of the host cell.
2 The genome of HIV consists of 2 copies of linear, RNA enclosed In
a icosahedra apsid r2.r1 A
3 The viral N ch enters the host cell's nucleus will be Integrated 1 Into the
genetic rna nal of the host cell using the host cell's enzY!lle. lntegrase.
4 The viruses are released from the host ce!l -A, · 1
A 1 and 3 bvct..:f-
1
·.,..,.., c
B 2and4 J
C 1,3and4
D All of the above
22 In the lytic life cycle of phages,
23
A only the nucleic acid of the phage enters the host eel!. ( CP.,{ S ; ,J..
8 the enUre phage Is taken Into the bacterium.
c DNA replication is not part of the life cycle.
D phage DNA Is Incorporated Into the host cell's genome.

A
Staphylococcus aureus is a common bacterium, found on human skin. There are many
strains of S. aureus. The antibiotic methicillin was then used to treat Infection by S. aureus.
Now there are at least 15 different strains of MRSA (methiclll!n resistant Staphylococcus
aureus).
Which of the follov.ring are valid reasons for the emergence of 15 different strains of
MRSA? 'f... ,...., .:<..
1 The bacteria mutated when lt was exposed to methicill!n, thus becoming resistant.
2 The bacteria underwent sp011taneoos mutation and some strains haP,pened to .be t",
resistanttomethlctl!in. '-> v'<'.n.::t..J..:. '"/;...;.p-v·la: ...._
3 The bacteria may have been exposed to a virus that carried a methicl!l!n-resi!ltan •
gene and underNent specialized transduction. "'---?> 9V\.t!..\\ o:. .vt? ,.,....,
4 The antibiotic caused the bacteria to produce methicillin-resistant proteins.
A 1and2
4> ,..,.,.... r o 5 s : t. "-

B 2and3
&
C 2,3and4
0 (\ -h "'\, i 0 ;:. (. 't.> "'-
D 1,2and4
vJWCN;
\-'\ '-'l.l,- v-
b , . '1-
'I' \11 Q V..S )) \ j 1"\
[Turn over
10
JS (4C (c.. :
17
:
t.. ,,,,;_, ..
'\ huio
24 Two unlinked loci affect mouse fur colour. CC or Cc mice are agouti, Mice with genotype
cc are albino because all pigment production and deposition of pigment in hair Is blocked.
At the second locus, the B allele (black agouti coat) is dominant to the b allele (brown
agouti coat).
A mouse 'With a black agouti coat Is mated with an albino mouse of genotype bbcc. Half of
the offspring are albino, one quarter are black agouti, and one quarter are brown agouti.
What Is the genotype of the black agouti parent?
. :t- A
"'-''t\1\"'
BbCc
BbCC
A
,· .,.e_ c
3
..._tb•;,o 0
...
BBCc 1,
BBCCJ
cf 131'>
wit/
,..,-r e brow,..
cc..
'2.--
B IU-CV?
25
26
Which terms appropriately describe this situation? &
Dihybrid inheritance and linkage only L ? ;:>
0
----? (. C
E lstas1s only fJ - I>
inka ,d!hybridinhe(
•J .. \I.· e ale es, dihybrld r-A-""7--c. s. .... ......._
q"" -r L., -_:::)
Pollen from a tomato plant with yellow flowers and red fruit was transferred to a pure .. bred
plant \\lith white flowers and yellow fruit. Seeds were co!!ected and grown, giving 200 plants
with the fo!!o>Mng phenotypes.
Yellow flowers and red fruit
Yellow flowers and ve!!ow fruit
White flowers and red fruit
White flowers and Yellow fruit
What explains these results?
A Epistasis between Joel
B Co-dominance of alleles
C Multiple alleles
D Cross-over between linked genes
87
13 1 '""-
......,.\..l;;,dv"--rJ
17
83
D
27 If the frequency of a particular allele that is present in a small, isolated population of alpine
plants decreases due to a landslide that leaves an even smaller remnant of surviving
plants bearing this allele, then what has occurred?
A A bottleneck event ,... LL (c:::..
B Geneticdrifl- (f\Cl'"'-.,Lo..-? !;,"'J '-'-/\"-'-' 1>
C ,.fl., .,_ Jc-
(_13_
c__.bb @IT;:
r 11
._r/....o""'( ,d.

c. c.
.s:..r
s r R '""-(.,
1/l"'c k... -n (;.<.z
:;;:; ..> c; JV-'!-
28 Members of two differen(spec!es possess 'a structure that they use In a
similar fashion to perform same function. Which Information would best help distinguish
between an explanation based..c1:i']Ciiii0ogy versus one based on convergent evolution?
- t.- ..J"f' • I(
A The two species Hve at great distance from each other. <._ CA..' \ f Sf/.
8 The two species share many proteins in common, and the nucleotide sequences that
13
code for these proteins are almost Identical.
C The sizes of the structures in adult members of both species are similar In size.
0 Both species are well adapted to their particular environments.
29 What is necessary for an organism changes in Its internal environmel"Jt?
A A communication system between rec-eptorsru;; effectors. ? f
B A communication system involving nerve ceifs. ---:::; \
0
A. \.1..1 ..&.£-Negative feedback from receptor to effector. \.t VV'
. .a.u Positive feedback from effector to receptor. , .. S
1
"
1
" _,. c"'-
• "'1 t....orM..•--t.. S"-+ f'o''4'
u.,J{.s
A
30 How are the oroduction of glucose and glycogen affected by the hormones glucagon
.
ns
ili
uc
Ji
15
31 The diagram below represents the synapse between twa mammalian myelinated
neurones, X and Y. The arrows show the direction of impulses.
X
r
y
j)
The transmission of impulses across the synapse is brought about by the
A breakdown of terminal membrane of X.
0 AU of the 'C.J:.j
' 1;, .$.'1IA.<>k\U. J . 'r
. "'-"'r «LA'...? • \, J.,J::I • J-
fYIP.fi 1'.5 Q_,J o\v.._k..IM. r- J. J... 'P"'"' .>1' r \t
8 passage of electric current between X andY.
C release of sodium Ions from X.
0 secretion of a chemical from X.
..!-.-. [Turnover
7 f\Q-U.f" I . "t'' A.>\< \ \ v '
''-"' ,.j v.JL -to
( 's "'"' c.-\.-JL(V\.1
12
f:J!(;,rf =.--."-o-t-" (1A.c> h. )""'-.,
\!;;;'
,? --;_)No f:.f'S" f {'J-o ft, 'f
13
;32 Tetrodotoxin, a puffer fish toxin, blocks volta e· ated
spider's venom causes the vo!taga..gated cal ium c nne
to aceMcbgl!ne receptors. hat -- ' L
35 The diagram shows the electron transport chain embedded in the thylakold membrane.
if each toxin is applied?
6: L •
le.'-'-"'-!YW'-'""'
"1vl \'*-'1
tJ<
'!L
Tetrodotoxin Black \\lidow spider's Crotoxln
exo '-'ffos;_r
"1 j,.""-I ,._,
.. DCMU
""T'\. Q A .(!_

_Paraquat
·. '\. .(!_
U'-"- +
'0';, J.
I(<> ...-+"-

33
venom
A block action potentials reduce transmission of
alona axon imoulse across svnaose
B increase transmission of reduce transmission of
impulse across synapse impulse across synapse
c block action potentials increase transmission of
alona axon imoulse across svnaose
D reduce transmission of block action potentials
__ across svnaose alono axon
A opening of voltage-gated sodium channels,
B exocytosis of synaptic
C opening of voltage-gated calcium channels
increase transmission of
lmoulse across svnaose
block action potentials
along axon
reduce transmission of
Impulse across svnaose
Increase transmission of
imoutse across svnaose
0 an action potential to be generated at the post-synaptic membrane.
c
c
34 The diagram below shows the Krebs Cycle.
Pyruvate (P) ,
t 1 (... "' \:- f'--,.. "-
zymeA Acetyl coen
t 2 (.C

Oxalosucdnate "": C:, (._ CO "2.-
NfiP'( ····-
Malate (S) J 4
1
I
tarate (R) S (_ ) c..c;.. "';; H
6 n-ketogu --- tJl)
Fumarate 5
.'\ ,.,.{ __ "fc

6
A 1, 4, 5 and 7
B 1,4,5and9
C 2, 4, 5 and 7
D 4,5, 7and9
NAD'?
atoms transferred to I 1
which stages are j-J 6\ 1) rj
At , .-A---
l· Q_ •
\ __
Final electron acceptor
Reducad Electron acceptor
DCMU and paraquat are poisons that disrupt electron transport at the respectlve positions
indicated In the diagram. These two poisons are added separately to Isolated chloroplasts.
Which of the follo'Ning correctly represents the outcomes In the presence of DCMU and
paraquat?
(The sign''+" means produced and the .." means not produced.)
A
B
c
D
DCMUonl ParaOuat onlv
NAOPH 0 en ATP NADPH Oxvaen ATP
+
-
+
. . +
. +
- -
+ +
-
+ + + +
.
.
- - - -
r+11 •
.J; J
N.,
f hkllS
1
J
'\,
fJ(J
e,.t...tM:
rl
v
rJ•

1-\.v"'
No"K ',
k

\{-vV
\Af\.Ar 1J.'.I I
-\-<:, hR.. 'J. '
. C r;., wY-fm lu f./Aprf)
\
1
I J [Turn over
3<P \S $?_- c&f; o;t . z-
cU--sv: t ;s {l'tlw( lA b; _
14

36 With reference to the diagram below, relate processes P, Q, R, S, T to statements 1, 2 and
3.
I Glycogen I
r". /o
Fructose 1 ,6-bisphosphate
-'1' ClOIJ R ::> A \f' \
\...-..,..._\."- ,_ r ---o:> r-.\

1
2
3
Carbon dioxide
and water
,.......::........_....,
I Lactic acid I
Is regenerated v.1thout the use of the electron transport system.
1
_
ATP Is synthesised via substrate-level phosphorylation.-> f"
It can take place under anaerobic conditions.

"::? < l<L $-
8 \,:),., L) ::..s
Which of the follo1Ning options ls correct? '-->
1 2 3
'3 1 )' '-"' _5 """- "' L .... /'"J t '..! o( o ,_, ,-...o}'
A R s T
B T R
p
c None of the above s R
D'-
s Q None of the above
b

{@
15
37 In genetic engineering, a restriction enzyme Is used to cut plasmid DNA at a Specific
target site, The enzyme recognises a sequence of six bases and forms sticky ends.
A
B
c
0
38
oz..
Which diagram of such a cut section of DNA Is correct?
'


cA r" fl.\' (..
,., •. A A T T

:TIAA
A
The figure below shows the results of an RFLP analysts of evidence (E) taken from the
murder scene matched against two suspects S1 and $2.
Probe 1 Probe 2 Probe 3 Probe 4

What is the conclusion of the investigation?
A Probability that S1 was at the murder scene is low.
B Probability that 51 was at the murder scene is high.
C Probability that 82 was at the murder scene is !ow.
D Probability that S2 was at the murder scene is high.
D
[Turn over
16
39 Nine skeletons were found in an unidentified grave. To establish the relationship between
these nine individuals, small amount of DNA were Isolated from these skeletons and
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out. Genetic fingerprinting was then carried
out on these DNA.
The chart shows some of the results obtained from the genetic fingerprinting of seven of
the skeletons, three children and four adults. .eJ3 S c..,........,_
O!lU !,.1!!!..1!.?,
All the children on the chart had the same parents. Which of the following show the
B
children's parents?
A Adults 1 and 2
B Adults 1 and 3
C Adults 2 and 4
D Adults 2 and 3
(/o rV' <tC-{- )
f "". t<J\ 5
c (,.. <> s.e.v\
<'\. G c...vvJ"-
r .,.,1
ct OC( t <:.- k.' ( ¢\r"..A
40 Why are somatic line therapies licensed for the treatment of genetic disorders rather than
germ Hne therapies?
A Somatic cell manipulation is more effective than germ eel! manipulation.
B There is no control where the DNA inserts in germ line therapies.
C The transformation is not carried on to the next generation in somatic line therapies.
D Viruses can be used as vectors in somatic line therapies. _J;

g="" I• r--R-
c-. f-f:- e-f'
c
"
9-W-'"' i
End of Paper 1
T t h<'0 \.A!\ { C\_ .:._ -'\\ e.-,
(N
'f\-"--C-t Nf;\ """'-
-
r
tNJC. L


Y\ S .._}
Mr Y'o h,
Which cpmblnatlon correctly matches each biological molecule \vith Its -structural
characteristics? (9JS
4
.. ;\"\._
(\
sucrose glycogen collagen
presence of
A
1-4 glycosidic bond
fibrous up of o-g.lucose
'
presence of
8
globular made up of -glucose
1·2 glycosidic bond
presence of
c
1-4 glycosidic bond
helical made up of fatty acids

lli:1>il1'l&iliiP'!


rl. ( \ h..t:
! ..._tade up of amino acids
.
i\lu )'\ \\"'""-'l "' '•"'J
"o "- c:r.J... s ..,.,...,., c. I ..w- '-l i"' :;..., .Jt"""'
J•
2 The diagram shows the cross section of a micelle that Is formed when phospholipids are
placed ln an aqueous solution.
Which statement explains why such a micelle Is formed in an aqueous solution?
A
El
c

© NJC 2010
Each phospholipid consists of one hydrophilic glycerol backbone, which is best
shielded from the aqueous solution.
Each phospholipid consists of one polar head group, which attracts the polar head
group of other phospholipids nearby due to presence of opposite charges.
Each phospholipid consists of three non-polar tan groups, which cannot Interact
with
.... 9 •
11"\YaYll!'; t. em
G&IS/01/ [Turn over
3
@)
3
The diagram shows the interactions between the active site of phosphollpase and Its
substrate. Of all the amino acids shown, only His311 and His356 actually take part in the
reaction. 1'\'c
What are the roles of the following amino acids In phospholipase?
4 Which observation indicated that facilitated diffusion of a substance was taking place?

B The substances was moving against Its concentration grad.ient only when ATP was
present.
C The substance vkls moving down lts concentration gradient at a decreasing rate.
0 The substance was moving against its concentration gradient only when certain proteins
were present In the eel! membrane.
© NJC 2010 9646/01/ Proiim;nDI)' Exom;na\lon [Turn over

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? I 4 ''I
5 Molecules of a stomach enzvme were immobilised (strongly attached) ln alginate beads and
used in an inves1i"gaUon to determine the identity of four different unknown substances (W,
X, Y, Z) that affected the enzyme activity even when Its substrate was present In excess,
The diagram shows the apparatus used.
20mls,yrlng:e
., a!glnauo bcada with lmmobllil:od om:yme11
capllh.ny rrntt
'"""''"'" tap
In order to allow the enzyme activity to equilibrate, 10ml of substrate solution was poured in
from the top and allowed to drain through the alginate bead column thrice before the
experiment was started,
Fol!o\Ning the equilibration, 10m! of unknown substance W was allowed to drain through the
alginate bead column fully before another 1Om I of substrate solution was drained through
the column to allow the enzymes to react with the substrates. The concentration of product
obtained In the filtrate was measured to reflect the level of enzyme activity after addition of
the unknown substance. These steps were then repeated with the other three unknown
substances added into the same alginate bead column In the order of X, Y, then Z.
The table below shows the results obtained,
I
unknoiNT'I substance enzyme activity after addition of unknown substance
(arbitrary units)
w

"'
20.7
:> ( G .
X 8.5
<. \, . .\'
y
0.1
z 0.1
""'",.,., \
Given that the enzyme activity In the absence of any unkno'#ll substance was 16,8
units after equilibration, which combination correctly Identifies the four unknown substances
mad on the results obtained?
w X
y
z
A
cofactor V pH buffer at pH 2 X competitive inhibitor

Inhibitor
B
substrate cofactor !PH buffer at pH 7 competitive
1;j mr<lwr v nl.\:tlf®lilll:iollll'l.Oiilffillil!lil
'
ili!iililllal v i/S"-fl...,e
non-competitive
''
D
substrate competitive Inhibitor
Inhibitor
cofactor

© NJC 2010 004e/Oif Prolimllll!l)' E:c.umineUoo

[Turn over
c..
5
6 Rat liver cells were liquefied and their organelles separated in a centrifuge. Three types of
organelles were identified when the separation was completed.
1 large, spherical organelles
2 smaller, elongated organelles \1/lth folded Inner membranes
3 very small organelles present In very large numbers
Which combination matches the organelles to their function?
A
e
c
D
main site of ATP
synthesis
1
2
3
none of the above
main site of RNA
synthesis
3
ru
2
site of protein synthesis
2
3
1
l IV' o\ Q w-l v "'!J
-s Y""-A
chromatid
c/..o010 OrJA
7
8
At prophase of mitosis, a human chromosome consists of t'I(O chromatid\
What Is the structure of a single( ct 1 ,Q n 'n · r£1.. .... \.. 0,
{lv\ v
t
)(tAo.t
A one molecule of single-stranded DNA coiled around protein molecules

two molecules of single·stranded DNA each coiled around protein molecules cJ.r.M IJ\..'l.

";: oT' .eB "'.' • A)' O
·-w Two each coiled around protein moleculestf" . l'fl'r
{'>0-t rA DiVA ::;. f
The percentage of the human genome that is transcribed Is larger than that predicted based
on the range of proteins made by the cell. Which of the following accounts for the difference?
A Alternative splicing can result In more than one kind of protein produced from one gene.
6

·· -t!ZNfl c,<...l{\'1- a<> 9--:;;:;:,.;,('"0-,
I
C The enhancers present In the human genome are also transcribed to bring about an
increase In the transcription of protein-coding genes.
0
are also transcribed to give telomerase, which helps to maintain
9 A geneticist Introduced a foreign gene Into yeast cells and Identified five Independent eel!
!lnes in which the foreign gene had Integrated Into the yeast genome. In four of the cell
lines, the foreign gene was expressed strongly. However there was no foreign gene
expression at atlln the fifth cell line.
A
iii
C The foreign gene was amplified after Integrating Into the yeast genome.
D The foreign gene was mutated after integrating into the yeast genome.
© NJC 2010 9e4al\11/ Prolimlnory EMmjnaUon [Turn over

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