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Table of Content No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Content Abstract Introduction Aims Theory Apparatus Procedure Results Sample of calculation Discussion Conclusion Recommendations

References Appendix Page(s) 2 2 3 3-5 5 5 6 7 8 9 9 10 10

ABSTRACT The objective of the experiment is to determine the level of elements in series of water sample and ascertain whether they comply with Malaysian Water Standards.The elements used to dissolve in all these types of water are iron (Fe), chlorine total and free (Cl2), phosphorus (P) and sulphate (SO42-).Sample water is added equally into five portion of 10mL of squaren cuvette bottle and the elements are being added into each sample water according to the procedure.The spectrometer is used and the absorbance value is taken after a certain minutes to ensure it is accurately measured.From the experiment, the highest absorbance value is 20 mg/L while the lowest absorbance value is 0.03 mg/L.

INTRODUCTION

Water is one of the most natural resources for all life on Earth. The availability and quality of water always have played an important part in determining not only where people can live, but also their quality of life. Even though there always has been plenty of fresh water on Earth, water has not always been available when and where it is needed, nor is it always of suitable quality for all uses. Water must be considered as a finite resource that has limits and boundaries to its availability and suitability for use. There are few types of water use in our daily life. The first one is commercial water that includes fresh water for motels, office buildings, other commercial facilities, and civilian. Next, domestic water is probably the most important daily use of water for most people. The domestic use includes water that is used in the home every day, including water for normal household purposes, such as drinking, food preparation, and bathing. Next is industrial water, the industrial water use is a valuable resource to the nation's industries for such purposes as processing, cleaning, and transportation. Industries often reuse the same water over and over for more than one purpose. Lastly, is the for irrigation water. The water used to irrigate pastures, for frost and freeze protection, chemical application, and harvesting.

AIM 1. To detect the presence and identify the heavy metal dissolve in the water samples. 2. To determine the quantity in term of concentration and mass of heavy metal dissolved in each water sample. 3. To determine whether the water sample is comply with Malaysian Water Standards.

THEORY Polluted drinking water can be found anywhere. Even in cities or countries that claim to have healthy water supplies, there are still cases regarding polluted water because the local water may contain unique bacteria that humans body is not used to. Unsafe drinking water sources can spread serious diseases, such as potential water-borne illnesses like Hepatitis A, Typhoid Fever, viral gastroenteritis, cholera, cyclosporiasis and schistosomiasis. Most of these diseases have different types of systems, but they all result in abdominal pain, cramping and diarrhoea.

Chlorine, for examples, is usually added to water to deactivate and destroy disease-causing microorganisms and is the most widely used as disinfectant in the United States. It can react with naturally occurring organic compounds found in water supply, which in turns produce hazardous compounds, known as disinfection by-products (DBPs). Trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids are common DBPs. It is undeniably potentially carcinogenic especially to organs such as kidney and liver. Due to this, federal regulations in the United States of America require regular monitoring of the concentrations of these compounds in the distribution systems of municipal water systems. Nevertheless, the WHO states that the risks to health from DBPs are extremely small in comparison with inadequate disinfection.

The Secondary Drinking Water Regulations recommend a maximum concentration of 250 mg/L for sulfate ions (SO42-). Sulfate is in fact occurs in almost all natural waters. Sulfate is indeed one of the major dissolved constituents in rainwater. High concentrations of sulfate in drinking

water cause a laxative effect when combined with magnesium and calcium. Bacteria which in fact attacks and reduces sulfates, causes the formation of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S). Phosphorus occurs naturally in rocks and other mineral deposits. Technically, the rocks release the phosphorus as phosphate ions which are soluble in water and the mineralize phosphate compounds breakdown. Phosphates (PO43-) are formed from this element. Phosphate occurs in living and decaying plants and animals as free ions or weakly chemically bounded in aqueous, to sediments and soils, or as mineralized compounds in soils, rocks and sediments. The phosphorus is often scarce in the well-oxygenated waters and low levels of phosphorus results in the limitation of production of freshwater systems. Phosphates are generally not toxic to humans or animals unless they are present in high levels of concentration. Phosphorus pollution accelerates a process called eutrophication, which is essentially the process of a lakes biological death due to depleted bioavailable oxygen. The build-up of phosphate in the lake water or any surface water ecosystem leads to overproduction of lake or water body which results in the imbalance in the nutrient and material cycling process. There will be massive production of phytoplankton and therefore cause variety of problems ranging from anoxic waters to toxic algal blooms as well as decrease in diversity, food supply and destroying the habitats. Excessive growth of algal due to phosphorus pollution increase water treatments costs, degrades fishing and boating activities as well as impacts tourism and property values.

The maximum contaminant level (MCLs) of iron is 0.3 mg/L. Iron ingestion is not generally unhealthy and absolutely necessary in small amounts. However, research has found that exposure to high levels of iron can lead to heart disease, cancer and diabetes. Iron is often included in supplements and enriched products. It also contains in red meat, therefore easily to be consumed. In order to identify the concentration or content of the heavy metals in the standard solution and the water sample. This can be required by the method of absorption spectroscopy. This step is conducted by using the spectrophotometer. Ppm is parts-per notation and is used to describe dilute solution in chemistry. One ppm is equivalent to milligram of something per liter of water. The unit conversion is stated in equation 1. 1 ppm = 1 mg/L
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To convert the unit of concentration, mg/L to get the mass, mg. The equation is used. Concentration of heavy metal,mg/L x volume of solution,L = mass of the heavy metal, mg[ APPARATUS AND MATERIAL 1. Lake water 2. Reagents DPD total Chlorine powder pillow PDP free Chlorine powder pillow Sulfa Ver 4 sulfate reagent powder pillow Phos Ver 3 Phosphate powder pillow Ferro Ver Iron reagent powder pillow

3. Spectrophotometer machine 4. 10 mL Measuring cylinder 5. 10 ml squaren cuvette bottle

PROCEDURE 1. 10 mL of tap water is filled into the squaren curvette bottle. 2. The shift timer was pressed and a three minutes reaction began. 3. The sample is covered with stopper and put into the spectrophotometer.the light shield is closed. 4. The reading buttons was pressed.the result in mg/L will appear. 5. Th result is recorded. 6. Step 1 until 5 is repeated using lake water and different pillow powder is inserted in the bottle.

RESULT Reagent DPD total chlorine PDP free chlorine Ferro Ver Iron Phos Ver 3 Phosphate Sulfa Ver 4 Sulfate Reading (mg/L) 0.13 0.03 2.09 0.20 20.00 Colour changes Colourless to pale pink Colourless to pale pink Colourless to orange Colourless to pale blue Colourless to cloudy

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20

15

DPD total chlorine PDP free chlorine Ferro Ver Iron

10

Phos Ver 3 Phosphate Sulfa Ver 4 sulfate

0 Reagent

Graph 1 : Bar graph for lake water sample.

SAMPLE OF CALCULATION Calculation of total chlorine Concentration of chlorine = 0.13 mg/L volume of sample = 10vml 1000 = 0.01L mass of chlorine = 0.13 mg/L x 0.01L =1.3 x 10-4 mg Calculation of free chlorine Concentration of chlorine = 0.03 mg/L volume of sample = 10 ml 1000 = 0.01L mass of chlorine = 0.03 mg/L x 0.01L =3.0 x 10-4 mg Calculation of iron Concentration of iron = 2.09 mg/L volume of sample = 10 ml 1000 = 0.01L mass of iron = 2.09 mg/L x 0.01L =2.1 x 10-2 mg

Calculation of phosphate Concentration of phosphate = 0.20 mg/L volume of sample = 10 ml 1000 = 0.01L mass of phosphate = 0.20 mg/L x 0.01L =2.0 x 10-3 mg Calculation of sulfate Concentration of sulfate = 20.00 mg/L volume of sample = 10ml 1000 = 0.01L mass of sulfate = 20.00 mg/L x 0.01L =2.0 x 10-1 mg

DISSCUSSION For experiment to determine the amount of heavy metal in water sample, we had used the Spectroscopy meter. For the first reagent which were chlorine total, the reading of the spectroscopy meter is about 0.13mg/L and the observation are said to be in pink colour form. For chlorine free reagent added with water sample, the reading are 0.03 mg/L and it is also in the pink colour form. In the reagent of Iron total, the reading of iron contain in that water sample solution are 2.09mg/L and we observed that orange colour is formed. In reagent of Phos Ver 3 Phosphate phosphorus reading are 0.20mg/L and the observation is pale blue while in Sulfa Ver 4 Sulfate reagent powder pillow, the reading of the spectroscopy meter to test sulphate is 20.0mg/L and it is in cloudy form.

Based on the results obtained, there are certain errors that might have been done without purpose and thus lead to erroneous data. Firstly, the improper handling of the round water sample may caused inaccurate readings. Any fingerprints or smudge imprinted on the outer surface of the round water sample can become an unfavourably interference for the solutions to absorb wavelengths of light in the spectrophotometer. Thus, the reading of concentrations by the instruments may not be accurate. Besides, some of the samples are supposedly be immediately inserted into the spectrophotometer after being poured in their corresponding reagents. Thus, any careless procedures or unobservant may lead to inaccuracy of the readings taken.

CONCLUSION The concentrations of chlorine total in the water sample is 0.13mg/L, Chlorine free is 0.03 mg/L, Sulfate is 20.0 mg/L, Phosphorus reactive is 0.20 mg/L,and Iron is 2.09 mg/L. Based on the following data, the water sample is mostly concentrated with sulfate which is not safe to be consume based on the water standard quality.

RECOMMENDATION

In this experiment, there are few recommendations that can be applied to get better results and thus run the experiment systematically. Generally, in other experiments, it is convenient to use clean and dry apparatus before use. The apparatus must be cleaned with distilled water and make sure there is no stain left on the apparatus or it might cause disturbance on the results obtained. Precaution step must be taken seriously by wearing goggles while carrying experiments to prevent any dirt from entering eyes which is then can lead to irritation. The eyes also must be parallel to the scale and the meniscus in order to prevent any parallax error. Other than that, while carrying out the experiment, the mixture solution must be shook properly to ensure it is dissolved thoroughly before placed it in the spectrophotometer. Also, avoid any leakage occurrence so that the volume measured is not reduced. This step must be done in order to get more accurate absorbance value. For future studies, it is recommended to use a different approach; the water samples tested must be filtered first before mixing with other elements especially the river water and the drain so that there are no suspended impurities in the solution. Furthermore, the results obtained are suggested to be represented in terms of bar graph so that it can be compared easily.

REFERENCES http://www.water-research.net/glossary.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hexavalent_chromium http://www.healthy-water-best-filters.com/heavy-metals-within-water.html http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water-education/quality-water-heavymeatal.htm http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/water/chromium/chromium-and-water.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorination

APPENDICES

DPD Total Chlorine Powder Pillow

Sulfa Ver 4 Sulfate Reagent Powder Pillow

DPD Free Chlorine Powder Pillow

Phos Ver 3 Phosphate Powder Pillow.

Ferro Ver Iron Reagent Powder Pillow

Chroma Ver 3 Reagent Powder Pillow

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