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OptiX OSN 550 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System V100R003C00

Product Description

Issue Date

02 2011-06-30

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2011. All rights reserved.


No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Trademarks and Permissions


and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective holders.

Notice
The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the contract made between Huawei and the customer. All or part of the products, services and features described in this document may not be within the purchase scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, all statements, information, and recommendations in this document are provided "AS IS" without warranties, guarantees or representations of any kind, either express or implied. The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and recommendations in this document do not constitute the warranty of any kind, express or implied.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


Address: Huawei Industrial Base Bantian, Longgang Shenzhen 518129 People's Republic of China Website: Email: http://www.huawei.com support@huawei.com

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OptiX OSN 550 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

About This Document

About This Document


Related Versions
The following table lists the product versions related to this document. Product Name OptiX OSN 550 iManager U2000 Version V100R003C00 V100R005C00

Intended Audience
This document describes the OptiX OSN 550 in terms of network application, function, hardware architecture, software architecture, features, and technical specifications. This document is intended for the following engineers:

Network planning engineers Data configuration engineers System maintenance engineers

Conventions
The symbols that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Symbol Description Indicates a hazard with a high level of risk, which if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury. Indicates a hazard with a medium or low level of risk, which if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury. Indicates a potentially hazardous situation, which if not avoided, could result in equipment damage, data loss, performance degradation, or unexpected results.

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OptiX OSN 550 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

About This Document

Symbol

Description Indicates a tip that may help you solve a problem or save time. Provides additional information to emphasize or supplement important points of the main text.

GUI Conventions
The GUI conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Convention Boldface > Description Buttons, menus, parameters, tabs, window, and dialog titles are in boldface. For example, click OK. Multi-level menus are in boldface and separated by the ">" signs. For example, choose File > Create > Folder.

Change History
Updates between document issues are cumulative. Therefore, the latest document issue contains all updates made in previous issues.

Updates in Issue 02 (2011-06-30)


This document is the second release for the V100R003C00 product version. Compared with Issue 01, the updated contents are as follows:

The description of hot patches is deleted from topic "NE Upgrades". The description of optical port types is added to topic "Optical Port Specifications".

Updates in Issue 01 (2011-04-30)


First formal release.

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Contents

Contents
About This Document .................................................................................................................... ii 1 Product Positioning and Features .............................................................................................. 1
1.1 Introduction to the OptiX OSN 550 ................................................................................................................. 1 1.2 Product Positioning .......................................................................................................................................... 3 1.3 Product Features ............................................................................................................................................... 4

2 Product Architecture ..................................................................................................................... 5


2.1 System Architecture ......................................................................................................................................... 5 2.2 Hardware Structure .......................................................................................................................................... 6 2.2.1 Chassis .................................................................................................................................................... 6 2.2.2 Boards ..................................................................................................................................................... 7 2.2.3 Ventilation Design ................................................................................................................................... 9 2.3 Software Architecture ..................................................................................................................................... 10 2.3.1 Overview of Software Architecture....................................................................................................... 11 2.3.2 Communication Protocols and Interfaces ............................................................................................. 11 2.3.3 Board Software ..................................................................................................................................... 12 2.3.4 NE Software .......................................................................................................................................... 12 2.3.5 NMS Software ...................................................................................................................................... 13

3 Product Functions and Features ............................................................................................... 14


3.1 Capacity ......................................................................................................................................................... 14 3.2 Port Types ....................................................................................................................................................... 15 3.3 Network Topology.......................................................................................................................................... 17 3.4 Protection Support .......................................................................................................................................... 17 3.4.1 Equipment-level Protection................................................................................................................... 17 3.4.2 Network-Level Protection ..................................................................................................................... 18 3.5 Clock Synchronization ................................................................................................................................... 22 3.6 Ethernet Features ............................................................................................................................................ 23 3.6.1 Service Support ..................................................................................................................................... 23 3.6.2 Protection Support ................................................................................................................................ 28 3.6.3 Maintenance .......................................................................................................................................... 30

4 Networking and Application Scenarios ................................................................................. 34 5 Operation and Maintenance ..................................................................................................... 37


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Contents

5.1 DCN ............................................................................................................................................................... 37 5.2 Network Management .................................................................................................................................... 37 5.3 Fault Locating and Equipment Maintenance .................................................................................................. 38 5.4 Power and Environment Monitoring .............................................................................................................. 39 5.5 NE Upgrades .................................................................................................................................................. 39 5.6 License Control .............................................................................................................................................. 40

6 Technical Specifications ............................................................................................................ 41


6.1 General Specifications.................................................................................................................................... 41 6.2 Power Consumption and Weight of Each Board ............................................................................................ 42 6.3 Optical Port Specifications ............................................................................................................................. 43 6.4 Electrical Port Specifications ......................................................................................................................... 45 6.5 Clock Port Specifications ............................................................................................................................... 47 6.6 EMC Specifications ....................................................................................................................................... 48 6.7 Safety Certification ........................................................................................................................................ 49 6.8 Environmental Requirement .......................................................................................................................... 49 6.8.1 Storage Environment ............................................................................................................................. 50 6.8.2 Transportation Environment ................................................................................................................. 52 6.8.3 Operation Environment ......................................................................................................................... 54

7 Energy Saving and Environmental Protection ...................................................................... 57


7.1 Energy Saving ................................................................................................................................................ 57 7.2 Environmental Protection ............................................................................................................................... 57

8 Standard Compliance ................................................................................................................. 59 A Glossary and Acronyms ............................................................................................................ 64


A.1 Numerics ....................................................................................................................................................... 64 A.2 A .................................................................................................................................................................... 64 A.3 B .................................................................................................................................................................... 67 A.4 C .................................................................................................................................................................... 69 A.5 D .................................................................................................................................................................... 71 A.6 E .................................................................................................................................................................... 73 A.7 F .................................................................................................................................................................... 75 A.8 G .................................................................................................................................................................... 78 A.9 H .................................................................................................................................................................... 78 A.10 I ................................................................................................................................................................... 79 A.11 J ................................................................................................................................................................... 81 A.12 L .................................................................................................................................................................. 81 A.13 M ................................................................................................................................................................. 83 A.14 N .................................................................................................................................................................. 85 A.15 O .................................................................................................................................................................. 85 A.16 P .................................................................................................................................................................. 87 A.17 Q .................................................................................................................................................................. 89

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Contents

A.18 R .................................................................................................................................................................. 89 A.19 S .................................................................................................................................................................. 91 A.20 T .................................................................................................................................................................. 95 A.21 U .................................................................................................................................................................. 96 A.22 V .................................................................................................................................................................. 97 A.23 W ................................................................................................................................................................. 98

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Figures

Figures
Figure 1-1 Exterior of the OptiX OSN 550 (-48 V and -60 V DC power) ............................................................ 1 Figure 1-2 Exterior of the OptiX OSN 550 (110 V and 220 V AC power) ........................................................... 1 Figure 1-3 Position of the OptiX OSN 550 in a transmission network ................................................................. 3 Figure 2-1 Block diagram...................................................................................................................................... 5 Figure 2-2 Exterior of the OptiX OSN 550 ........................................................................................................... 7 Figure 2-3 Ventilation design of the OptiX OSN 550 ......................................................................................... 10 Figure 2-4 General architecture of software ........................................................................................................ 11 Figure 3-1 Fiber-shared virtual path protection ................................................................................................... 22 Figure 3-2 EPL services based on port ................................................................................................................ 24 Figure 3-3 EVPL services sharing one port ......................................................................................................... 24 Figure 3-4 EVPL services isolated by VLAN IDs ............................................................................................... 25 Figure 3-5 EVPL services isolated by QinQ ....................................................................................................... 25 Figure 3-6 EPLAN service .................................................................................................................................. 26 Figure 3-7 EVPLAN services isolated by IEEE 802.1ad bridges ....................................................................... 27 Figure 3-8 EVPLAN services isolated by VLAN IDs ......................................................................................... 28 Figure 3-9 Using LCAS to dynamically increase or decrease bandwidth ........................................................... 29 Figure 3-10 Using LCAS to protect services in a concatenation group .............................................................. 30 Figure 3-11 Application of IEEE 802.1ag OAM and IEEE 802.3ah OAM ......................................................... 31 Figure 3-12 Functions of test frames ................................................................................................................... 32 Figure 3-13 Application networking of RMON .................................................................................................. 33 Figure 4-1 Typical networking diagram of the OptiX OSN 550 ......................................................................... 36 Figure 6-1 Typical configuration of the OptiX OSN 550 .................................................................................... 42

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Tables

Tables
Table 1-1 Board list ............................................................................................................................................... 2 Table 2-1 Function units of the OptiX OSN 550 ................................................................................................... 5 Table 2-2 Board list ............................................................................................................................................... 8 Table 3-1 Access capacity of the OptiX OSN 550 ............................................................................................... 14 Table 3-2 Services ports that the OptiX OSN 550 support .................................................................................. 15 Table 3-3 Management and auxiliary ports that the OptiX OSN 550 supports ................................................... 16 Table 3-4 DC power supply ports that the OptiX OSN 550 supports .................................................................. 16 Table 3-5 Equipment-level protection ................................................................................................................. 17 Table 3-6 Performance specifications .................................................................................................................. 17 Table 3-7 Performance specifications .................................................................................................................. 18 Table 3-8 Parameters for linear MSP ................................................................................................................... 19 Table 3-9 Maximum number of MSP rings supported by the OptiX OSN 550 ................................................... 20 Table 3-10 Parameters for ring MSP ................................................................................................................... 20 Table 3-11 Parameters for SNCP ......................................................................................................................... 21 Table 3-12 Clock functions supported by the OptiX OSN 550 ........................................................................... 22 Table 4-1 Network topologies supported by OptiX OSN 550s and corresponding legends ................................ 34 Table 5-1 DCC allocation modes supported by the OptiX OSN 550................................................................... 37 Table 5-2 Upgrade methods available for the OptiX OSN 550 ........................................................................... 39 Table 5-3 Information about the version-specific license that the OptiX OSN 550 supports .............................. 40 Table 6-1 General specifications of the OptiX OSN 550 ..................................................................................... 41 Table 6-2 Power consumption and weight of the boards on the OptiX OSN 550 ............................................... 42 Table 6-3 Specifications of STM-1 optical port................................................................................................... 43 Table 6-4 Specifications of STM-4 optical port................................................................................................... 44 Table 6-5 Specifications of the STM-16 optical port ........................................................................................... 44 Table 6-6 Specifications of the GE optical port ................................................................................................... 45 Table 6-7 Specifications of the E1/T1 electrical port .......................................................................................... 46

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Tables

Table 6-8 Specifications of the E3/T3 electrical port .......................................................................................... 46 Table 6-9 Specifications of the Ethernet electrical port ....................................................................................... 47 Table 6-10 Clock ports and their characteristics .................................................................................................. 47 Table 6-11 Timing and synchronization performance of the OptiX OSN 550 ..................................................... 48 Table 6-12 EMC standards .................................................................................................................................. 48 Table 6-13 Safety certifications for the OptiX OSN 550 ..................................................................................... 49 Table 6-14 Climate requirements for the storage environment ............................................................................ 50 Table 6-15 Density requirements for mechanically active substances during storage ......................................... 51 Table 6-16 Density requirements for chemically active substances during storage ............................................. 51 Table 6-17 Limitations for mechanical stress during storage .............................................................................. 52 Table 6-18 Climate requirements for the transportation environment ................................................................. 52 Table 6-19 Density limitations for mechanically active substances during transportation .................................. 53 Table 6-20 Density limitations for chemically active substances ........................................................................ 53 Table 6-21 Mechanical stress requirements for the transportation environment ................................................. 54 Table 6-22 Requirements for temperature and humidity ..................................................................................... 55 Table 6-23 Other climate requirements................................................................................................................ 55 Table 6-24 Density limitations for mechanically active substances during operation ......................................... 55 Table 6-25 Density limitations for chemically active substances ........................................................................ 56 Table 6-26 Limitations for mechanical stress during operation ........................................................................... 56 Table 8-1 ITU-T recommendations ..................................................................................................................... 59 Table 8-2 IEEE standards .................................................................................................................................... 60 Table 8-3 IETF standards..................................................................................................................................... 61 Table 8-4 Environmental standards ..................................................................................................................... 62 Table 8-5 Safety standards ................................................................................................................................... 62 Table 8-6 Protection standards............................................................................................................................. 63

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1 Product Positioning and Features

Product Positioning and Features

1.1 Introduction to the OptiX OSN 550


The OptiX OSN 550 is Huawei's new-generation optical transmission equipment that is used at the access layer. Figure 1-1 and Figure 1-2 show the exterior of the OptiX OSN 550. Figure 1-1 Exterior of the OptiX OSN 550 (-48 V and -60 V DC power)

Figure 1-2 Exterior of the OptiX OSN 550 (110 V and 220 V AC power)

There are two CXL slots in the upper part of the equipment, and six extended slots in the lower part. The CXL slot houses a functional board integrating the system control unit, cross-connect unit, timing unit, and line unit. The board has several types to provide different functions and access capacities required by the OptiX OSN 550. The extended slots house the line unit, tributary unit, and data unit. Table 1-1 lists the boards supported by the OptiX OSN 550.

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Table 1-1 Board list Board CXL board TNM1CXL1 Description System control, cross-connect, timing, and line board (CXL) System control, cross-connect, timing, and line board (CXL) System control, cross-connect, timing, and line board (CXL) Auxiliary interface board Interface 1xSTM-1 optical port Valid Slot Slot 7 or Slot8

TNM1CXL4

1xSTM-4 optical port

Slot 7 or Slot8

TNM1CXL16

1xSTM-16 optical port

Slot 7 or Slot8

Boards in the extended slots

TNM1AUX

One orderwire phone port 6-input and 2-output alarm port Two external clock ports One 64 kbit/s synchronous data port One 19.2 kbit/s asynchronous data port One port for monitoring an outdoor cabinet

One of the Slots 1 to 6

TNH2SL1D TNH2SL1Q TNH2SL4D TNH2PL3T TNH2SP3D TNH2EGT1

2xSTM-1 optical interface board 4xSTM-1 optical interface board 2xSTM-4 optical interface board 3xE3/T3 electrical interface board 42xE1/T1 electrical interface board 1xGE Ethernet transparent transmission board 8xFE Ethernet switching and processing board

2xSTM-1 optical ports 4xSTM-1 optical ports 2xSTM-4 optical ports 3xE3/T3 electrical ports 42xE1/T1 electrical ports 1xGE optical port

One of the Slots 1 to 6 One of the Slots 1 to 6 One of the Slots 1 to 6 One of the Slots 1 to 6 One of the Slots 1 to 6 One of the Slots 1 to 6 One of the Slots 1 to 6

TNH2EFS8

8xFE electrical ports

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OptiX OSN 550 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

1 Product Positioning and Features

Board Fan board Power supply board TNM1FAN TND1PIU TNF1APIU

Description Fan board DC power supply board AC power supply board

Interface Provides -48 V/-60 V DC power supply ports. Provides two 110 V/220 V AC power supply ports

Valid Slot Slot 93 Slot 91 or Slot 92

Slots 2 and 4 Slots 4 and 6 (recomme nded)

1.2 Product Positioning


The OptiX OSN 550 is used at the access layer of a transmission network, providing STM-1, STM-4, and STM-16 optical ports. The equipment works with other access-layer equipment to build an entire equipment family at the access layer and complete Huawei's optical transmission product series. Figure 1-3 shows the position of the OptiX OSN 550 in a transmission network. Figure 1-3 Position of the OptiX OSN 550 in a transmission network
OptiX OSN 7500 OptiX OSN 9500 OptiX OSN 7500

Backbone layer

OptiX OSN 3500 OptiX OSN 3500 Convergence layer

OptiX OSN 550

OptiX OSN 550 Access layer

OptiX OSN 500 OptiX OSN 500 OptiX Metro 100 OptiX Metro 100 Network terminal unit

Switching / Base Station

Ethernet

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OptiX OSN 550 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

1 Product Positioning and Features

1.3 Product Features


This section describes the product features and customer value.

Various Ports, Flexible Configuration Models


The OptiX OSN 550 provides a wide variety of service ports, supporting multiple network topologies such as chains and rings. With more flexible deployment of the OptiX OSN 550, network resources are made best use of.

Low Power Consumption and Noise, High Integration


The power consumption of the typical configuration is 67 W. The equipment integration is high. The CXL board integrates the system control unit, cross-connect unit, timing unit, and line unit. Six extended slots are available.

Simple Structure, Easy-to-Install, High Scalability


The OptiX OSN 550 is small in size can easy-to-install. It can be desk-mounted and wall-mounted. The OptiX OSN 550 supports evolution to the packet domain. So, the equipment can be reused to the maximum extent, and carriers' construction cost is reduced.

Various Types of Power Inputs


-48 V and -60 V DC power input 110 V and 220 V AC power input

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OptiX OSN 550 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

2 Product Architecture

2
2.1 System Architecture
System Architecture
Figure 2-1 Block diagram

Product Architecture

This section describes its function units and the relationship between these units.

The OptiX OSN 550 consists of the following function units: service interface unit, TDM switching unit, control unit, timing unit, auxiliary interface unit, fan unit, and power supply unit.

STM-1/4/16 E1/T1/E3/T3 FE/GE

Service interface unit

VC-4 signal

Timeslot crossconnect unit

Control and overhead bus Orderwire External alarm Synchronous/Asynchronous data Outdoor cabinet management port

Auxiliary interface unit

Clock unit

Control unit

Fan unit

Power unit

NM data

-48V / -60V DC or 110V/220V AC

Table 2-1 Function units of the OptiX OSN 550 Function Unit Service interface unit Function

Receives and transmits STM-1, STM-4, and STM-16 signals. Receives and transmits E1/T1 signals and E3/T3 signals. Receives and transmits FE/GE signals.

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OptiX OSN 550 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

2 Product Architecture

Function Unit TDM switching unit Control unit

Function

Provides cross-connect function and grooms TDM services. Performs system communication and control. Configures and manages the system. Collects alarms and monitors performance. Processes overheads. Traces clock sources and provides clock signals for the system. Provides the input/output port for external clocks. Provides the orderwire phone port. Provides the synchronous/asynchronous data port. Provides the external alarm input/output port. Provides the port for monitoring an outdoor cabinet Connects to -48 V and-60 V DC power supplies. Connects to 110 V and 220 V AC power supplies. Cools the NE.

Clock unit

Auxiliary interface unit

Power supply unit

Fan unit

2.2 Hardware Structure


This section mainly describes the system architecture, chassis, and boards of the OptiX OSN 550. 2.2.1 Chassis The OptiX OSN 550 is 2U-high case-shaped equipment that consists of four layers of slots for boards. Two CXL slots and six extended slots are provided for flexible configuration. 2.2.2 Boards Boards are an important part of the equipment hardware. 2.2.3 Ventilation Design The case of the OptiX OSN 550 is densely covered with small air holes. Through these holes, air is let in from the left and out from the right by fans.

2.2.1 Chassis
The OptiX OSN 550 is 2U-high case-shaped equipment that consists of four layers of slots for boards. Two CXL slots and six extended slots are provided for flexible configuration. Figure 2-2 shows the exterior of the OptiX OSN 550.

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OptiX OSN 550 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

2 Product Architecture

Figure 2-2 Exterior of the OptiX OSN 550

H D W

Board installation area


4

SLOT SLOT 10 91 SLOT (PIU) (PIU) SLOT 11 93 SLOT (FAN) SLOT (FAN) 9 92 (PIU) (PIU)

SLOT 7 (CXL) SLOT 7 (CST/CSH) SLOT SLOT55(EXT) (EXT) SLOT 3 (EXT) SLOT 3 (EXT) SLOT SLOT11(EXT ) (EXT)

SLOT (CST/CSH) SLOT 88(CXL) SLOT 6 (EXT) SLOT 6 (EXT) SLOT 4 (EXT) SLOT 4 (EXT) SLOT (EXT) SLOT 2 2 (EXT )

2 3

1 2

Power supply board area Fan area

3 4

Extended board area System control, switching, and timing board area

The OptiX OSN 550 has the following slot areas:


Power supply area: This area houses power supply modules for the power input and output of the equipment. Fan area: This area houses fan modules, which dissipate heat generated by the equipment. The fan board supports the status checks for locked-rotor and rotating speed, status query, and fault reporting. Extended slot area: This area houses a wide range of extended boards and AC power supply board APIU on the OptiX OSN 550. System control, switching, and timing slot area: This area houses the CXL board on the OptiX OSN 550.

2.2.2 Boards
Boards are an important part of the equipment hardware. Table 2-2 lists the boards supported by the OptiX OSN 550.

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OptiX OSN 550 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

2 Product Architecture

Table 2-2 Board list Board CXL board TNM1CXL1 Description System control, cross-connect, timing, and line board (CXL) System control, cross-connect, timing, and line board (CXL) System control, cross-connect, timing, and line board (CXL) Auxiliary interface board Interface 1xSTM-1 optical port Valid Slot Slot 7 or Slot8

TNM1CXL4

1xSTM-4 optical port

Slot 7 or Slot8

TNM1CXL16

1xSTM-16 optical port

Slot 7 or Slot8

Boards in the extended slots

TNM1AUX

One orderwire phone port 6-input and 2-output alarm port Two external clock ports One 64 kbit/s synchronous data port One 19.2 kbit/s asynchronous data port One port for monitoring an outdoor cabinet

One of the Slots 1 to 6

TNH2SL1D

2xSTM-1 optical interface board 4xSTM-1 optical interface board 2xSTM-4 optical interface board 3xE3/T3 electrical interface board 42xE1/T1 electrical interface board

2xSTM-1 optical ports 4xSTM-1 optical ports 2xSTM-4 optical ports 3xE3/T3 electrical ports 42xE1/T1 electrical ports

One of the Slots 1 to 6 One of the Slots 1 to 6 One of the Slots 1 to 6 One of the Slots 1 to 6 One of the Slots 1 to 6

TNH2SL1Q

TNH2SL4D

TNH2PL3T

TNH2SP3D

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OptiX OSN 550 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

2 Product Architecture

Board TNH2EGT1

Description 1xGE Ethernet transparent transmission board 8xFE Ethernet switching and processing board Fan board DC power supply board AC power supply board

Interface 1xGE optical port

Valid Slot One of the Slots 1 to 6 One of the Slots 1 to 6 Slot 93 Slot 91 or Slot 92

TNH2EFS8

8xFE electrical ports

Fan board Power supply board

TNM1FAN TND1PIU

Provides -48 V/-60 V DC power supply ports. Provides two 110 V/220 V AC power supply ports

TNF1APIU

Slots 2 and 4 Slots 4 and 6 (recomm ended)

2.2.3 Ventilation Design


The case of the OptiX OSN 550 is densely covered with small air holes. Through these holes, air is let in from the left and out from the right by fans.
Ensure the smooth flow of air inside and around the equipment. Do not block the air inlet and air outlet of the subrack when cabling. Keep the top of subrack clean.

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OptiX OSN 550 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

2 Product Architecture

Figure 2-3 Ventilation design of the OptiX OSN 550

AIR OUT

AIR IN

2.3 Software Architecture


This section describes the software architecture of the OptiX OSN 550. 2.3.1 Overview of Software Architecture The software system is of a modular structure. The modules accomplish the corresponding functions and interoperate with each other. 2.3.2 Communication Protocols and Interfaces The communication interfaces on the equipment are mainly Qx interfaces. For the description of the protocol stacks and messages on the Qx interfaces, see ITU-T G.773, ITU-T Q.811, and ITU-T Q.812. 2.3.3 Board Software Board software runs on boards configured with CPUs and performs management, monitoring, and control functions for the boards. 2.3.4 NE Software The NE software manages, monitors, and controls the running of boards in the NE. In addition, the NE software serves as the service unit for the communication between the NMS and boards. In this manner, the NMS can control and manage the NE. 2.3.5 NMS Software Like other optical transmission equipment, the OptiX OSN 550 is managed by the iManager series NMS.

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OptiX OSN 550 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

2 Product Architecture

2.3.1 Overview of Software Architecture


The software system is of a modular structure. The modules accomplish the corresponding functions and interoperate with each other. The software modules fall into three types: the board software that runs on a variety of functional boards, the NE software that runs on the system control and communication board, and the network management software that runs on the network management computer. The software system is of layered design. That is, each layer performs specific functions and serves its upper layer. Figure 2-4 shows the general architecture of software. All the modules except the network management system and the board software are NE software. Figure 2-4 General architecture of software

2.3.2 Communication Protocols and Interfaces


The communication interfaces on the equipment are mainly Qx interfaces. For the description of the protocol stacks and messages on the Qx interfaces, see ITU-T G.773, ITU-T Q.811, and ITU-T Q.812. A Qx interface mainly connects a mediation device (MD), Q adaptation (QA), or network element (NE) with an operations system (OS) through the local communication network (LCN). A QA interface is provided at the NE management layer, and an MD and OS are provided at the network management layer. As specified in the Recommendation, a Qx interface is developed in compliance with the Connectionless Network LayerService (CLNS1) based on TCP/IP. A Qx interface supports the remote access of NMS through a modem, and the IP layer uses the Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) accordingly.

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OptiX OSN 550 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

2 Product Architecture

2.3.3 Board Software


Board software runs on boards configured with CPUs and performs management, monitoring, and control functions for the boards. On the OptiX OSN 550, the software that controls all boards runs on the CXL board. The board software receives the commands issued by the NE software, and reports the board status to the NE software in the form of performance events and alarms. The specific functions include alarm management, performance management, configuration management, and communication management. The drive control over functional circuits of the board is software-specific. The ITU-T compliant functions are achieved under the control of the NE software.

2.3.4 NE Software
The NE software manages, monitors, and controls the running of boards in the NE. In addition, the NE software serves as the service unit for the communication between the NMS and boards. In this manner, the NMS can control and manage the NE. In compliance with ITU-T M.3010, the NE software belongs to the element management layer in the telecommunications management network (TMN), and provides NE functions, some coordination functions, and operations system functions at the network element layer. The data communication function (DCF) provides communication functions between the NE and other components (including mediation devices, NMS, and other NEs).

Real-time multi-task operating system The real-time multi-task operating system of the NE software is responsible for the management of public resources and supports applications. This system provides an application execution environment that is independent of the processor hardware, to separate applications from the processor.

Communication and control module The Communication and control module is the interface module between the NE software and the board software. According to the corresponding communication protocol, the communication and control module achieves the communication between the NE software and the board software. In this manner, the information can be exchanged and the equipment can be maintained. On one hand, the communication and control module issues the maintenance operation commands of the NE software to the boards. On the other hand, it reports the status, alarms, and performance events of the boards to the NE software.

Network side (NS) module The network side (NS) module is between the communication module and equipment management module. It converts the data format between the user operation side on the application layer and the NE equipment management layer, and provides security control for the NE layer. The NS module can be subdivided into three submodules in terms of function: Qx interface module, command line interface module, and security management module.

Equipment management module The equipment management module (AM) is the kernel of the NE software. It implements NE management, and includes the Manager and the Agent. The Manager sends network management operation commands and receives event information. The Agent responds to the network management operation commands sent by the Manager,

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performs operations to managed objects, and reports events according to the status change of the managed objects.

Communication module This module fulfills the message communication function (MCF) of the functional blocks of the transmission network equipment. Through the hardware interface provided by the SCB board, the communication module transmits the OAM&P information and exchanges management information between the NMS and NEs, and between NEs themselves. The communication module consists of network communication module, serial communication module, and ECC communication module.

Database management module The database management module is a principal component of the NE software. It consists of the data and the programs. The data, organized by database form, consists of the network database, alarm database, performance database, and equipment database. The program manages and accesses the data in the databases.

2.3.5 NMS Software


Like other optical transmission equipment, the OptiX OSN 550 is managed by the iManager series NMS. The NMS manages the optical transport network, and maintains all the OSN, SDH, Metro, and DWDM equipment on networks. The NMS, which complies with the ITU-T Recommendations, adopts a standard management information model and the object-oriented management technology. The NMS exchanges information with the NE software through the communication module to monitor and manage the network equipment. The NMS software runs on a workstation or PC. It manages the equipment and the transmission network. The NMS software provides the operation and maintenance function for the transmission equipment, and also provides the management capability for the transmission network. The NMS software has the following management functions:

Alarm management: collects, prompts, filters, browses, acknowledges, checks, clears, counts alarms in real time, inserts alarms, analyzes alarm correlation, and diagnoses faults. Performance management: sets performance monitoring; browses, analyses and prints performance data; forecasts medium- and long-term performance; resets the performance register. Configuration management: configures and manages the ports, clocks, services, trails, subnets, and time. Security management: NM user management; NE user management; NE login management; NE login lockout; NE setting lockout; and local craft terminal (LCT) access control. Maintenance management: performs loopbacks; resets boards; automatically shuts down lasers; detects fiber power; collects equipment data. In this manner, the maintenance personnel can locate and rectify equipment faults more quickly.

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3
3.1 Capacity
Cross-Connect Capacity Access Capacity

Product Functions and Features

Capacities are classified into the cross-connect capacity and the access capacity.

The OptiX OSN 550 supports a higher order cross-connect capacity of 20 Gbit/s, and a lower order cross-connect capacity of 5 Gbit/s.

The OptiX OSN 550 receives and transmits services through a wide range of ports, supporting an access capacity of 12.5 Gbit/s. Table 3-1 lists the maximum access capacity of the equipment. Table 3-1 Access capacity of the OptiX OSN 550 Service Type STM-16 standard service STM-4 standard service STM-1 standard service E3/T3 service E1/T1 service Fast Ethernet (FE) service Gigabit Ethernet (GE) service Maximum Access Capacity 2 14 26 18 252 48 6

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3.2 Port Types


The external ports of the OptiX OSN 550 include service ports and management and auxiliary ports.

Service Ports
The services ports on the OptiX OSN 550 include the SDH service ports, PDH service ports, and Ethernet service ports. Table 3-2 lists the services ports that the OptiX OSN 550 support. Table 3-2 Services ports that the OptiX OSN 550 support Port Type SDH port Specifications STM-1 optical port: S-1.1 (single-fiber bidirectional), L-1.1 (single-fiber bidirectional), and L-1.2 STM-4 optical port: S-4.1 (single-fiber bidirectional), L-4.1, and L-4.2 STM-16 optical port: S-16.1, L-16.1, and L-16.2 PDH port 75/120-ohm E1 electrical port 100-ohm T1 electrical port 75-ohm E3/T3 electrical port Ethernet service port 100BASE-TX Function Receives and transmits STM-1 optical signals. Connector Type LC

Receives and transmits STM-4 optical signals. Receives and transmits STM-16 optical signals. Receives and transmits E1 electrical signals. Receives and transmits T1 electrical signals. Receives and transmits E3/T3 electrical signals. Receives and transmits 10M/100M Ethernet electrical signals. Receives and transmits 1000M Ethernet optical signals. SMB RJ45 Anea 96

1000BASE-LX (single-fiber bidirectional)

LC

Management and Auxiliary ports


The OptiX OSN 550 provides a wide range of management and auxiliary ports. Table 3-3 lists the management and auxiliary ports that the OptiX OSN 550 supports.

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Table 3-3 Management and auxiliary ports that the OptiX OSN 550 supports Port Type Management port Alarm port Description Network management port 6-input and 2-output alarm port Function Connects to the NMS, such as the U2000 Connects to the external centralized alarm device and external environment monitoring device. Inputs and outputs external clocks. Provides a codirectional data channel port. Transparently transmits data services. Connects to an outdoor cabinet Used for voice communication between operation personnel or maintenance personnel at different workstations Connector Type RJ45 RJ45

Clock port Auxiliary ports

Two external clock input/output ports One 64 kbit/s synchronous serial port One 19.2 kbit/s asynchronous transparent data port

RJ45 RJ45 RJ45

Port for monitoring an outdoor cabinet Orderwire phone port

One port for monitoring an outdoor cabinet One orderwire phone interface

RJ45

RJ45

Power Supply Ports


The OptiX OSN 550 supports DC power supply ports. Table 3-4 lists the DC power supply ports that the OptiX OSN 550 supports. Table 3-4 DC power supply ports that the OptiX OSN 550 supports Port Type Power supply port Description DC power input Function Connects to the -48 V and -60 V DC power supply. Connects to the 110 V and 220 V AC power supply. Connector Type Four-phase socket

AC power input

Three-phase socket

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3.3 Network Topology


The OptiX OSN 550 supports a wide range of network topologies such as rings and chains. The OptiX OSN 550 supports separate and combined configuration of the following types: terminal multiplexer (TM), add/drop multiplexer (ADM), and multiple add/drop multiplexer (MADM). The OptiX OSN 550 uses STM-1, STM-4, and STM-16 optical ports to form a chain network or ring network. The OptiX OSN 550 is used at the access layer, and network with Huawei's OptiX Metro series and OptiX OSN series. In addition, it can network with third-party equipment.

3.4 Protection Support


The OptiX OSN 550 provides equipment protection schemes, and complete network protection schemes for a wide range of services. 3.4.1 Equipment-level Protection The OptiX OSN 550 supports the following equipment-level protection schemes: LAG, power 1+1 backup, and CXL board 1+1 backup. 3.4.2 Network-Level Protection The OptiX OSN 550 supports the following network-level protection schemes: MSP, SNCP, and fiber-shared virtual path protection.

3.4.1 Equipment-level Protection


The OptiX OSN 550 supports the following equipment-level protection schemes: LAG, power 1+1 backup, and CXL board 1+1 backup. Table 3-5 lists the equipment-level protection schemes supported by the OptiX OSN 550. Table 3-5 Equipment-level protection Protected Object System control, cross-connect, timing and line (CXL) board Power interface board Ports on Ethernet boards Protection scheme 1+1 backup 1+1 backup LAG

LAG Protection
Table 3-6 Performance specifications Item Quantity Description A maximum of eight link aggregation groups (LAGs); a maximum of eight ports in each LAG

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Item Revertive Mode Load sharing mode

Description Revertive (default value), non-revertive Load sharing, load non-sharing

Power 1+1 Backup


The OptiX OSN 550 supports power 1+1 backup.

The PIU board feeds two -48 V (or -60 V) power supplies at the same time. The two power supplies provides mutual backup. If one power supply fails, the equipment works properly with the other power supply. The APIU board supports hitless switching between two power modules. One power module provides protection functions in the cases of input overvoltage, input undervoltage, output overvoltage, output over-current, output short-circuit, and over-temperature.

CXL Board 1+1 Backup


The OptiX OSN 550 supports 1+1 backup of system control, switching, timing and line (CXL) boards. Table 3-7 Performance specifications Item Slots for working and protection boards Switching condition Revertive mode Description Slots 7 and 8 Switching triggered by board removal, manual switching, and automatic switching Non-revertive After switching, the original protection board is the current working board. The original working board remains the current protection board even if it recovers to normal.

3.4.2 Network-Level Protection


The OptiX OSN 550 supports the following network-level protection schemes: MSP, SNCP, and fiber-shared virtual path protection.

MSP
The OptiX OSN 550 supports 1+1 linear MSP, 1:N (N 14), two-fiber unidirectional ring MSP, and two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP.

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Linear MSP
The linear MSP is mainly used in a chain network. The OptiX OSN 550 supports a maximum of thirteen 1+1 and 1:N (N 14) linear MSP groups. Under the linear MSP, the switching time is less than 50 ms, as specified in ITU-T G.841. Table 3-8 lists the parameters for linear MSP. Table 3-8 Parameters for linear MSP Protection Type Revertiv e Mode Switchin g Protocol Switchi ng Duratio n < 50 ms Default WTR Time Switching Condition (Any of the Conditions Triggers the Switching)

1+1 single-ended switching 1+1 single-ended switching 1+1 dual-ended switching 1+1 dual-ended switching 1:N dual-ended switching

Non-rever tive Revertive

Not required Not required APS protocol APS protocol APS protocol

R_LOS R_LOF MS_AIS B2_EXC B2_SD (optional) Forced switching Manual switching Exercise switching Lockout of protectionNote

< 50 ms

600s

Non-rever tive Revertive

< 50 ms

< 50 ms

600s

Revertive

< 50 ms

600s

Lockout of protection involves that all services including normal services and extra services are locked in the working channel. If the service is already switched to the protection channel, the command forcibly switches it back to the working channel even when the working channel is not restored. If the service is in the working channel, the service is not switched to the protection channel after the command is executed. The optical port of the CXL board cannot be configured into the same linear MSP group with the optical port of an extended board.

Ring MSP
The OptiX OSN 550 supports the following types of ring MSP:

Two-fiber unidirectional ring MSP at the STM-1 level Two-fiber unidirectional/bidirectional ring MSP at the STM-4 level Two-fiber unidirectional/bidirectional ring MSP at the STM-16 level

The OptiX OSN 550 supports two-fiber multiplex section protection rings, with the switching time less than 50 ms, as specified in ITU-T Recommendation G.841.

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Table 3-9 lists the maximum number of MSP rings supported by the OptiX OSN 550. Table 3-9 Maximum number of MSP rings supported by the OptiX OSN 550 Protection Scheme Two-fiber MSP ring at the STM-1 level Two-fiber MSP ring at the STM-4 level Two-fiber MSP ring at the STM-16 level Maximum Number of MSP Rings 13 7 1

Table 3-10 lists the parameters for ring MSP. Table 3-10 Parameters for ring MSP Protection Type Revertive Mode Switchin g Protocol Switchin g Duratio n < 50 ms Default WTR Time Switching Condition (Any of the Conditions Triggers the Switching)

Two-fiber bidirectional MSP Two-fiber unidirection al MSP

Revertive

APS protocol APS protocol

600s

R_LOS R_LOF MS_AIS B2_EXC B2_SD (optional) Forced switching Manual switching Exercise switching Lockout of protectionNote

Revertive

< 50 ms

600s

Lockout of protection involves that all services including normal services and extra services are locked in the working channel. If the service is already switched to the protection channel, the command forcibly switches it back to the working channel even when the working channel is not restored. If the service is in the working channel, the service is not switched to the protection channel after the command is executed. The optical port of the CXL board cannot be configured into the same ring MSP group with the optical port of an extended board.

SNCP
The OptiX OSN 550 supports 1032 sub-network connection protection (SNCP) groups. The OptiX OSN 550 supports the SNCP at the VC-12, VC-3, and VC-4 levels. The protection characteristics meet the requirements specified in ITU-T G.841. Even multiple services are switched synchronously, the switching time is less than 50 ms.

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Table 3-11 lists the parameters for SNCP. Table 3-11 Parameters for SNCP Protection Type SNCP Revertive Mode Revertive Non-revert ive Switching Duration < 50 ms < 50 ms Default WTR Time 600s Switching Condition (Any of the Conditions Triggers the Switching) At the VC-12 level:

R_LOS R_LOF AU_AIS AU_LOP TU_LOP MS_AIS TU_AIS TU_LOP LP_UNEQ (optional) BIP_SD (optional) BIP_EXC (optional) R_LOS R_LOF AU_AIS AU_LOP TU_LOP MS_AIS TU_AIS TU_LOP LP_UNEQ (optional) B3_SD (optional) B3_EXC (optional) R_LOS R_LOF AU_AIS AU_LOP TU_LOP MS_AIS B2_EXC HP_UNEQ (optional) HP_TIM (optional) B3_SD (optional) B3_EXC (optional)

At the VC-3 level:


At the VC-4 level:


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Fiber-Shared Virtual Path Protection


In the fiber-shared virtual path protection, one STM-16 or STM-4 optical path is logically divided into multiple lower order or higher order paths. The path-level rings can be configured with the protection schemes such as MSP, SNCP, and non-protection. As shown in Figure 3-1, an STM-4 path is logically divided into two. Two VC-4 channels are configured with MSP, and the other two VC-4 channels are divided into lower order channels and then configured with SNCP. This protection scheme is fiber-shared virtual path protection.
Any combination of MSP and SNCP is supported on a shared fiber. The virtual paths that share the fiber, however, cannot be of the MSP attribute at the same time, because an optical path can provide only one pair of K bytes.

Figure 3-1 Fiber-shared virtual path protection


STM-4

SNCP/MSP

MSTP

3.5 Clock Synchronization


The OptiX OSN 550 supports a wide range of synchronous clock sources and clock management functions. Table 3-12 lists the clock functions supported by the OptiX OSN 550. Table 3-12 Clock functions supported by the OptiX OSN 550 Item Clock protocol Description Supports the standard Synchronization Status Message (SSM) protocol, extended SSM protocol, and non-SSM protocol.

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Item Clock source

Description

Supports two 120-ohm external clock outputs/inputs. Supports line clocks, tributary clocks, and internal clocks. Supports the priority table for one 2 Mbit/s phase-locked source

Working mode

Supports the locked mode, holdover mode, and free-run mode

3.6 Ethernet Features


The OptiX OSN 550 supports Ethernet private line (EPL) services, Ethernet virtual private line (EVPL) services, Ethernet private LAN (EPLAN) services, and Ethernet virtual private LAN (EVPLAN) services. In addition, the OptiX OSN 550 supports a wide range of Ethernet protection, operating, and maintenance functions. 3.6.1 Service Support This section describes the application of Ethernet services. 3.6.2 Protection Support The OptiX OSN 550 supports Ethernet protection schemes such as Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS), Spanning Tree Protocol(STP)/Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP), and Link State Pass Through (LPT). 3.6.3 Maintenance The OptiX OSN 550 supports a variety of Ethernet operation and maintenance functions.

3.6.1 Service Support


This section describes the application of Ethernet services. The OptiX OSN 550 supports the following services:

EPL service EVPL Service EPLAN service EVPLAN service

EPL Service
The EPL technology accomplishes the point-to-point transparent transmission of the Ethernet services. As shown in Figure 3-2, the Ethernet services of different NEs are transmitted to the destination node through their segregated VCTRUNKs. In this manner, secure and reliable transmission is achieved. The Ethernet services are also protected by SDH self-healing ring (SHR).

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Figure 3-2 EPL services based on port


B PORT2 PORT1 A VCTRUNK2 VCTRUNK 1 VCTRUNK2 VCTRUNK 1 PORT2 POTR1 A B

NE 1 OptiX OSN equipment Enterprise user

NE 2

EVPL Service
The OptiX OSN 550 supports two types of EVPL services.

EVPL services sharing one port. Services are transmitted in different VLANs and share the bandwidth of one port.

As shown in Figure 3-3, the services are classified into two flows by using VLAN IDs, and the two VLAN IDs indicate different departments of company A. The two flows are transmitted through different VCTRUNKs. Figure 3-3 EVPL services sharing one port
PORT1 VLAN100 VLAN200 PORT2 Technical support department of Company A NE 1 OptiX OSN equipment NE 2 Marketing department of Company A

VLAN100 VLAN200 PORT1 Headquarters of Company A

VCTRUNK1 VCTRUNK2

Enterprise user

EVPL services sharing one VCTRUNK. The OptiX OSN 550 converges and isolates EVPL services by using the following methods:

VLAN, as shown in Figure 3-4 QinQ, as shown in Figure 3-5

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Figure 3-4 EVPL services isolated by VLAN IDs


B VLAN200 VLAN100 A PORT 1 PORT2 PORT2 VCTRUNK VLAN200 VLAN100 PORT1 A ' B '

NE 1 Community broadband Internet cafe

NE 2 OptiX OSN equipment

Figure 3-5 EVPL services isolated by QinQ


Marketing department

Adding tags C-Aware S-Aware

Stripping tags C-Aware S-Aware

Marketing department

VCTRUNK1
Technical support PORT1 department

` PORT1

NE 1

NE 2

Technical support department

Branch 1 Company A OptiX OSN equipment

Branch 2

EPLAN Service
The EPLAN services are multipoint-to-multipoint services sharing one VLAN. To be specific, the OptiX OSN 550 adopts virtual bridge (VB) to perform Layer 2 switching of Ethernet services. Each board in the system has a VB, and each VB has a MAC address table. This MAC address table is periodically updated by means of self-learning. Based on its destination MAC address in the table, an incoming service is forwarded through a specific VCTRUNK. See Figure 3-6.

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Figure 3-6 EPLAN service

PORT1 VB Port 1 NE3 Branch 3 VCTRUNK2 VB PORT1 VB VCTRUNK1 VCTRUNK1 PORT1 VCTRUNK1

Port 1 Branch 1 Access point

NE 1

Port 1 NE 2 Branch 2

Company A

OptiX OSN equipment

EVPLAN Service
The EVPLAN services are multipoint-to-multipoint services sharing one VLAN, and the services with the same VLAN IDs can be isolated within one VLAN. To be specific, two data services, which have the same VLAN ID enter the same node and dynamically share the bandwidth. The OptiX OSN 550 transmits EVPLAN services by using the following methods:

IEEE 802.1ad, as shown in Figure 3-7 VLAN, as shown in Figure 3-8

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Figure 3-7 EVPLAN services isolated by IEEE 802.1ad bridges


PORT2 PORT1

VCTRUNK2

Brach 3 VCTRUNK2 PORT2 PORT1 C-Aware VB S-Aware Port 2 Branch 3

Port 1 NE3

C-Aware

VCTRUNK1

VB

S-Aware

VCTRUNK1 C-Aware LSP LSP NE 2 LSP VB S-Aware PORT2 PORT1

VCTRUNK1 Port 2

NE 1

VCTRUNK2 Port 1

Port 1

Port 2 Branch 2

Branch 1

Branch 1

Branch 2

Access point

Company A

Company B

OptiX OSN equipment

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Figure 3-8 EVPLAN services isolated by VLAN IDs

PORT1 VLAN1 VCTRUNK1 VB

Branch 3 PORT1 VLAN1 VB VLAN2 Branch 3

Port 1 NE3 PORT1 VLAN2 VCTRUNK1 VB NE 2 LSP Port 1

VCTRUNK1

LSP NE 1

LSP

PORT2 Port 2

Port 1 Branch 2 Branch 1 Branch 1 Access point Company A Company B OptiX OSN equipment

3.6.2 Protection Support


The OptiX OSN 550 supports Ethernet protection schemes such as Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS), Spanning Tree Protocol(STP)/Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP), and Link State Pass Through (LPT).

LCAS
LCAS provides an error tolerance mechanism, which provides services and restores a failed member. LCAS has the following functions:

When used with the concatenation technology, LCAS enables the configuration of system capacity, the increase and decrease in concatenated VCs, and the dynamic change in bearer bandwidth (services are not affected during the dynamic change). LCAS provides services and restores a failed member.

As shown in Figure 3-9, LCAS can dynamically add members to increase bandwidth, without interrupting services. LCAS can also dynamically delete members to reduce bandwidth.

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Figure 3-9 Using LCAS to dynamically increase or decrease bandwidth


MSTP network Adding a 10 Mbit/s bandwidth Member

Branch

Member

Headquarters

Member

Member Branch New member MSTP Headquarters

As shown in Figure 3-10, LCAS protects Ethernet services. When a member fails, the failed member is automatically deleted, and the other members continue to transmit data. When the failed member is restored, it automatically joins the concatenation group and transmits data again.

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Figure 3-10 Using LCAS to protect services in a concatenation group


MSTP network Member

Member Branch Headqarters

Failed member

Member

Branch

Member Deleting the failed member

Headquarters

MSTP

STP/RSTP
The Ethernet boards support the STP/RSTP. After the STP and RSTP are started, the topology must be reconfigured to prevent broadcast storms. In addition, STP and RSTP can protect links through topology reconstruction.

LPT
LPT is a link-based protection scheme. When the active and standby ports between routers are on different links, LPT can be used to protect services. To be specific, when a working link becomes faulty, LPT shuts down the local port so that the opposite router learns that the working link has failed. Then, the services are switched from the active port to the standby port for transmission.

3.6.3 Maintenance
The OptiX OSN 550 supports a variety of Ethernet operation and maintenance functions.

ETH-OAM
ETH-OAM enhances the Ethernet Layer 2 maintenance to strongly support the service continuity verification, service deployment commissioning and network fault locating. With the continuous development of the Ethernet, especially when the network develops from LAN to WAN, operators pay more attention to equipment maintainability. Solutions to

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operations, administration and maintenance (OAM) in the transmission network are required urgently. Therefore, ETH-OAM is developed. As a protocol based on the MAC layer, ETH-OAM checks Ethernet links by transmitting OAM protocol packets. Compared with the transmission medium, this protocol is independent. The OAM packets are processed only at the MAC layer, having no impact at other layers in the Ethernet. Moreover, as a low-rate protocol, the ETH-OAM protocol occupies low bandwidth. Therefore, this protocol does not affect services carried on the link. Comparison between ETH-OAM and existing network on maintenance and fault locating:

The current port loopback function focuses on all packets at the port. Therefore, the loopback cannot be performed for a specific service selectively. ETH-OAM can detect hardware faults. ETH-OAM can detect and locate faults automatically.

Both ITU-T and IEEE have researches on ETH-OAM. Currently, Huawei Ethernet service processing boards realize the ETH-OAM function, which is subject to IEEE 802.1ag and IEEE 802.3ah. As shown in Figure 3-11, the combination of IEEE 802.1ag and IEEE 802.3ah provides a complete Ethernet OAM solution. Figure 3-11 Application of IEEE 802.1ag OAM and IEEE 802.3ah OAM
IEEE 802.3ah IEEE 802.1ag IEEE 802.3ah

P Router1 CE1 PE1 CE2

P PE2 CE3 Router3

P Router2

CE4

Access Layer Custom Layer

Access Layer Core Layer Custom Layer OptiX NE

IEEE 802.1ag OAM focuses on the maintenance of end-to-end Ethernet links. Based on services, IEEE 802.1ag OAM realizes the end-to-end check by detecting each maintenance domain successively. That is, it performs segmental management on each network segment that is involved in the same service in the network. IEEE 802.3ah OAM focuses on the point-to-point Ethernet link maintenance between two pieces of directly-connected equipment in Ethernet in the first mile (EFM). IEEE 802.3ah OAM does not focus on the specific service. It maintains the Ethernet point-to-point link by performing OAM auto-discovery, link performance monitoring, fault check, remote loopback and self-loop check.

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Test Frames
A test frame is a data packet that is used to test the connectivity on the SDH network carrying Ethernet services. The test frame is mainly used for deployment commissioning or fault locating of Ethernet services. Test frames can be used to test inter-NE Ethernet services and to locate faulty nodes in the case of errors. In addition, test frames can be used to query the information about the opposite NE, including NE ID, NE name, port ID, and VCTRUNK ID. In terms of service processing, a transport network can be an access network or a service network. For deployment commissioning or fault locating of Ethernet services, test frames can be used to test the connectivity of SDH links on the service network. The bandwidth occupied by test frames is too low to be considered. The sending mode and number of test frames can be set. As shown in Figure 3-12, when Ethernet services between Router 1 and Router 2 are unavailable, test frames can be sent between neighboring nodes to locate the fault. The testing process is as follows: 1. 2. 3.

The VCTRUNK port of the data board on NE1 sends test frames to the VCTRUNK port of the data board on NE2. Upon receiving test frames, NE2 sends response packets to NE1. NE1 counts the sent frames and received frames. Users determine the quality of the service network based on the counts. For bidirectional services, the service network is considered normal if the transmit end receives response packets. For unidirectional services, the service network is considered normal if the receive end receives test frames.

Figure 3-12 Functions of test frames

Access network

Service network

Access network

NE1

Test frame

NE2

Response frame Router 1 MAC


VCTRUNK VCTRUNK MAC

Router 2

Board

Board

OptiX NE

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3 Product Functions and Features

RMON
The remote monitor (RMON) function can be used to monitor the transport network data of different network segments. RMON provides the setting and query of statistics and control information at Ethernet ports. The information is used for the analysis of Ethernet performance. In addition, RMON notifies the NMS of the change in network performance through alarm and performance mechanisms. The notification enables the NMS to conveniently manage the network. As shown in Figure 3-13, there are five sites, and Site E needs to monitor the Ethernet service from Site A. Figure 3-13 Application networking of RMON

NE B NE A

There is an Ethernet service between Site A and Site E. The RMON function is used to monitor the service from Site A. By querying the RMON performance of Ethernet service boards on Site E, you can learn the alarm and performance information about the Ethernet boards on Site A (transmit end). The RMON function is achieved through the following modules:

Statistics group: records the current statistics of the real-time performance at Ethernet ports. History group: records the statistics of the Ethernet performance in a certain history period. History control group: specifies the method for obtaining the history data of each Ethernet port. Alarm group: provides alarm setting and enabling/disabling of monitoring status in statistical samples.

Ethernet port

Ethernet port

NE C

NE D

NE E

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Networking and Application Scenarios


When planning the networking, adhere to the basic principles, and consider the NE types and networking modes supported by the OptiX OSN 550. The OptiX OSN 550s can independently form a chain or ring network, or form a hybrid network with the other OptiX transmission equipment.

Basic Network Topologies of OptiX OSN 550s


The OptiX OSN 550 supports separate and combined configuration of the following types: terminal multiplexer (TM), add/drop multiplexer (ADM), and multiple add/drop multiplexer (MADM). OptiX OSN 550s can form the following network topologies: chain, ring, tangent rings, and ring with chain. In addition, OptiX OSN 550s can be interconnected with other OptiX OSN equipment, OptiX DWDM equipment, and OptiX Metro equipment to provide a complete transport network solution. See Table 4-1. Table 4-1 Network topologies supported by OptiX OSN 550s and corresponding legends Network Topolog y Chain Legend

Ring

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Network Topolog y Tangent rings

Legend

Ring with chain

Networking and Application Scenarios


Generally, the OptiX OSN 550s are inter-networked with the other OptiX transmission equipment. Figure 4-1 shows the networking scenario.

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Figure 4-1 Typical networking diagram of the OptiX OSN 550


OptiX OSN 3500

OptiX OSN 3500

OptiX OSN 3500

OptiX OSN 3500

OptiX OSN 550

OptiX OSN 550

PDH

OptiX OSN 500 FE/E1 FE

V.35/V.24/ X.21/FE1

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5 Operation and Maintenance

5
5.1 DCN

Operation and Maintenance

The OptiX OSN 550 supports three types of communication protocols and the transparent transmission of DCC overheads over the external clock ports for the DCN networking. When the OAM information of the OptiX OSN 550 needs to be transparently transmitted by the third-party equipment, or when the OptiX OSN 550 needs to transparently transmit the OAM information of the third-party equipment, the following modes can be adopted: HW ECC IP over DCC OSI over DCC

When the DCC bytes of the third-party equipment cannot transmit the OAM information of the OptiX OSN 550, the external clock port of the OptiX OSN 550 can be used instead. Table 5-1 lists the DCC allocation modes supported by the OptiX OSN 550. Table 5-1 DCC allocation modes supported by the OptiX OSN 550 DCC Allocation Channel type Running mode Description D1-D3 and D4-D12 Mode 1 Mode 2 32 channels of D1-D3 bytes 12 channels of D1-D3 bytes, 6 channels of D4-D12 bytes

5.2 Network Management


The OptiX OSN 550 and other optical transmission equipment are unifiedly managed by the iManager series NMS. Through the Qx interface or the man machine language (MML) interface, the NMS can manage the optical transmission system in the following aspects: faults, performance, configuration, and security. In addition, the NMS can also maintain and test the optical

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5 Operation and Maintenance

transmission system. The NMS enhances the quality of network services, reduces the maintenance cost, and ensures an efficient use of network resources. A login to the LCT is not allowed during a login to the NMS. After a 30-minute logout of the NMS, a login to the LCT is allowed.

5.3 Fault Locating and Equipment Maintenance


The OptiX OSN 550 provides powerful maintenance functions. Therefore, the user can conveniently monitor, debug, and troubleshoot the equipment.

Alarm and Performance Management


Provides the alarm input and output function, thus facilitating the collection of equipment alarms. Provides running status indicators and alarm indicators on each board, assisting the administrator in locating and handling faults promptly. Dynamically monitors the equipment operation and alarm status of all stations on the NMS. As for the 15-minute monitoring period, the equipment can store sixteen 15-minute history performance, that is, four hours of 15-minute history performance. As for the 24-hour monitoring period, the equipment can store six 24-hour history performance, that is, six days of 24-hour history performance.

Fault Locating

The PDH processing boards support the pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) test function, which can be used to remotely test bit errors. Supports data test frames to locate the faults of Ethernet services. Provides the press-to-collect function for collecting fault data, which shortens the data collection time before the service recovery. Users can collect fault data selectively, and can stop a collection process manually. Supports the loopback configuration on the port during the power-on process of the equipment, which meets the test requirement of one-time visit to the site. The service boards support inloop and outloop on ports.

OAM
The equipment provides the Ethernet OAM function which complies with IEEE 802.1ag and IEEE 802.3ah.

Maintenance

Provides automatic shutdown function of the SDH single-mode optical port. Provides the orderwire function for management personnel at different stations to communicate with each other. Supports the in-service upgrading and loading of the board software and NE software. The equipment also supports the remote loading of the board software and FPGA with the error-loading-proof and resumable loading functions.

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Provides the network time protocol (NTP) function to achieve synchronization among NEs. The NMS supports the fiber auto-discovery function. The NMS can display the port impedance. Supports automatic synchronization of NE IDs and IP addresses for remote maintenance of equipment. Supports package loading and package diffusion.

5.4 Power and Environment Monitoring


The OptiX OSN 550 supports the power and environment monitoring function. The OptiX OSN 550 provides the -48 V/-60 V DC power port, and can detect the input voltage and the voltage status (severe undervoltage, undervoltage, overvoltage, or severe overvoltage). The OptiX OSN 550 provides 110 V/220 V AC power ports and supports protection functions in the cases of input overvoltage, input undervoltage, output overvoltage, output over-current, output short-circuit, and over-temperature. The OptiX OSN 550 provides the alarm input and output functions. The alarm input function can remotely monitor the environment of customers, and the alarm output function can implement centralized monitoring over all equipment alarms.

5.5 NE Upgrades
The NE software of the OptiX OSN 550 can be upgraded by using package loading or package diffusion. Table 5-2 lists the upgrade methods available for the OptiX OSN 550. Table 5-2 Upgrade methods available for the OptiX OSN 550 Upgrade Method Package loading Definition With a software package description file, the software package functions as a logical package of the required software. This logical package can be uploaded to upgrade the entire NE. Application Scenario

Characteristic

Applicable Version Supported by version V100R003C 00 and later.

One NE needs to be upgraded. The system control board and other boards must support package loading. There is a CF card on the system control board.

All the boards on an NE can be upgraded on a unified GUI. There is no need to care about which board to upgrade or which files to update.

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Upgrade Method Package diffusion

Definition With a software package description file, the software package functions as a logical package of the required software. The logical package is diffused and almost synchronously loaded to all NEs on a network. This upgrade method is more efficient.

Application Scenario

Characteristic

Applicable Version Supported by version V100R003C 00 and later.

More than one NE needs to be upgraded. The system control board and other boards must support package loading. There is a CF card on the system control board.

All the boards on an NE can be upgraded on a unified GUI. There is no need to care about which board to upgrade or which files to update. The software package is diffused level by level. Network load and network bandwidth are both shared.

5.6 License Control


Licenses grant customers permission to use an equipment version or a function/feature. The OptiX OSN 550 supports a version-specific license. Table 5-3 lists the information about the version-specific license that the OptiX OSN 550 supports. Table 5-3 Information about the version-specific license that the OptiX OSN 550 supports Function The product of this version is released with a license; that is, customers can obtain corresponding permission committed by the supplier based on the license certificate. Application Scenario

At the deployment phase, you can configure or use the new functions/features of this version only after the license file of this version is loaded. At the maintenance phase, renew the version license after it expires.

NOTE A license's status information can be queried on the NMS.

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6 Technical Specifications

6
6.1 General Specifications
Item Dimensions (H x W x D) Weight Power consumption Description

Technical Specifications

This section describes the chassis dimensions, weight, power consumption, heat consumption, power supply performance, electromagnetic compatibility, and reliability. Table 6-1 lists the general specifications of the OptiX OSN 550. Table 6-1 General specifications of the OptiX OSN 550

88 mm x 442 mm x 220 mm 10 kg

Maximum power consumption: 154 W Typical power consumption: 67 W

The typical configuration is 2 x CXL + 1 x SL1Q + 2 x SP3D + FAN + 2 x PIU , as shown in Figure 6-1. Heat consumption Power supply performance

Maximum heat consumption: 526 BTU/h Typical heat consumption: 229 BTU/h DC power supply

Rated voltage: -48 V or -60 V Voltage range: -38.4 V to -57.6 V or -48 V to -72 V Rated voltage: 110 V or 220 V Voltage range: 100 V to 240 V

AC power supply:

Electromagneti c compatibility

Complies with EMC Class A.

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Item Reliability

Description

System availability: 0.9999986 Average annual repair rate: less than 1.5% Mean time to repair (MTTR): 1 hour Mean time between failures (MTBF): 81.99 years

Figure 6-1 Typical configuration of the OptiX OSN 550


SLOT SLOT 10 91 (PIU) SLOT (PIU) SLOT 11 93 SLOT (FAN) SLOT (FAN) 9 92 (PIU) (PIU) SLOT 7 (CST/CSH) SLOT 7 (CXL) SLOT 5 (EXT) SLOT SLOT33(EXT) (SP3D) SLOT (EXT ) SLOT11 (SP3D) SLOT (CXL) SLOT 8 (CST/CSH) SLOT 6 (EXT) SLOT 4 (EXT) SLOT (EXT ) SLOT 22(SL1Q)

6.2 Power Consumption and Weight of Each Board


Weight and power consumption are principal hardware specifications of a board. Table 6-2 lists the power consumption and weight of the boards on the OptiX OSN 550. Table 6-2 Power consumption and weight of the boards on the OptiX OSN 550 Board CXL AUX SL1D SL1Q SL4D SP3D PL3T EGT1 EFS8 PIU APIU Power Consumption (W) 21.0 2.2 3.5 4.5 3.7 11.9 4.5 8.3 13.0 0.5

Weight (kg) 0.50 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.85 0.30 0.60 0.65 0.12 1.93

Room temperature (25C): 20.0 High temperature (55C): 30.0

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Board FAN

Power Consumption (W)

Weight (kg) 0.30

Room temperature (25C): 4.1 High temperature (55C): 29.6

6.3 Optical Port Specifications


This section describes the specifications of STM-1, STM-4, and STM-16 optical ports.
To provide effective precautions, the lower threshold of the input optical power of the board is set to be more than the receiver sensitivity and the higher threshold of the input optical power of the board is set to be less than the overload optical power.

Specifications of the STM-1 Optical Port


Table 6-3 lists the specifications of STM-1 optical port. Table 6-3 Specifications of STM-1 optical port Item Nominal bit rate Optical port type Operating wavelength range (nm) Optical fiber type Launched optical power range (dBm) Receiver sensitivity (dBm) Minimum overload (dBm) Minimum extinction ratio (dB) Value 155520 kbit/s S-1.1 1261 to 1360 Single-mode LC -15 to -8 -28 -8 8.2 L-1.1 1280 to 1335 Single-mode LC -5 to 0 -34 -3 10 L-1.2 1480 to 1580 Single-m ode LC -5 to 0 -34 0 10

NOTE Format of optical port type is defined as follows: transmission distance-signal rate.fiber type Explanation for optical port type "S-1.1" is as follows: "S" represents short distance; the first digit "1" represents STM-1 signals; the second digit "1" represents ITU-T G.652 fibers (1310 nm). Explanation for optical port type "L-1.1" is as follows: "L" represents long distance; the first digit "1" represents STM-1 signals; the second digit "1" represents ITU-T G.652 fibers (1310 nm). Explanation for optical port type "L-1.2" is as follows: "L" represents long distance; the first digit "1" represents STM-1 signals; the second digit "2" represents ITU-T G.652 fibers (1550 nm).

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Specifications of the STM-4 Optical Port


Table 6-4 lists the specifications of STM-4 optical port. Table 6-4 Specifications of STM-4 optical port Item Nominal bit rate Optical port type Operating wavelength range (nm) Value 622080 kbit/s S-4.1 1293 to 1334/1274 to 1356 Single-mode LC -15 to -8 -28 -8 8.2 L-4.1 1300 to 1325/1296 to 1300 Single-mode LC -3 to +2 -28 -8 10 L-4.2 1480 to 1580 Single-mo de LC -3 to +2 -28 -8 10

Optical fiber type Launched optical power range (dBm) Receiver sensitivity (dBm) Minimum overload (dBm) Minimum extinction ratio (dB)

NOTE Format of optical port type is defined as follows: transmission distance-signal rate.fiber type Explanation for optical port type "S-4.1" is as follows: "S" represents short distance; the first digit "4" represents STM-4 signals; the second digit "1" represents ITU-T G.652 fibers (1310 nm). Explanation for optical port type "L-4.1" is as follows: "L" represents long distance; the first digit "4" represents STM-4 signals; the second digit "1" represents ITU-T G.652 fibers (1310 nm). Explanation for optical port type "L-4.2" is as follows: "L" represents long distance; the first digit "4" represents STM-4 signals; the second digit "2" represents ITU-T G.652 fibers (1550 nm).

Specifications of the STM-16 Optical Port


Table 6-5 lists the specifications of the STM-16 optical port. Table 6-5 Specifications of the STM-16 optical port Item Nominal bit rate Optical port type Transmission distance (km) Operating wavelength range (nm) Optical fiber type Value 2488320 kbit/s S-16.1 2 to 15 1274 to 1356 Single-mode LC L-16.1 20 to 40 1280 to 1335 Single-mode LC L-16.2 50 to 80 1500 to 1580 Single-mo de LC

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Item Launched optical power range (dBm) Receiver sensitivity (dBm) Minimum overload (dBm) Minimum extinction ratio (dB)

Value -5 to 0 -18 0 8.2 -2 to +3 -27 -9 8.2 -2 to +3 -28 -9 8.2

NOTE Format of optical port type is defined as follows: transmission distance-signal rate.fiber type Explanation for optical port type "S-16.1" is as follows: "S" represents short distance; the first two digits "16" represent STM-16 signals; the third digit "1" represents ITU-T G.652 fibers (1310 nm). Explanation for optical port type "L-16.1" is as follows: "L" represents long distance; the first two digits "16" represent STM-16 signals; the third digit "1" represents ITU-T G.652 fibers (1310 nm). Explanation for optical port type "L-16.2" is as follows: "L" represents long distance; the first two digits "16" represent STM-16 signals; the third digit "2" represents ITU-T G.652 fibers (1550 nm).

Specifications of the GE Optical Port


The GE optical ports of the OptiX OSN 550 comply with IEEE 802.3. Table 6-6 lists the main specifications. Table 6-6 Specifications of the GE optical port Item Nominal bit rate (Mbit/s) Optical port type Optical fiber type Transmission distance (km) Operating wavelength (nm) Mean launched power (dBm) Receiver minimum sensitivity (dBm) Minimum overload (dBm) Minimum extinction ratio (dB) Value 1000 1000BASE-LX Single-mode LC 10 1270 to 1355 -9 to -3 -20 -3 9

6.4 Electrical Port Specifications


This section describes the specifications of PDH electrical ports and Ethernet electrical ports.

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Specifications of the PDH Electrical Port


Table 6-7 lists the specifications of the PDH electrical port. Table 6-7 Specifications of the E1/T1 electrical port Item Value SP3DA Rate Access capacity Code pattern Connector Port impedance Signal bit rate at the output port Permitted frequency deviation at the input port Allowed attenuation at the input port Input jitter tolerance Complies with ITU-T G.824. Complies with ITU-T G.823. Complies with ITU-T G.823. 1544 kbit/s 42xT1 B8ZS, AMI Anea96 100 ohms 2048 kbit/s 42xE1 HDB3 Anea96 120 ohms SP3DB 2048 kbit/s 42xE1 HDB3 Anea96 75 ohms Complies with ITU-T G.703.

Complies with ITU-T G.703.

Table 6-8 lists the specifications of the E3/T3 electrical port. Table 6-8 Specifications of the E3/T3 electrical port Item Rate Access capacity Code pattern Connector Port impedance Signal bit rate at the output port Permitted frequency deviation at the input port Allowed attenuation at the input port Input jitter tolerance Complies with ITU-T G.823. Complies with ITU-T G.824. Value 34368 kbit/s 3xE3/T3 HDB3 SMB 75 ohms B3ZS SMB 75 ohms 44736 kbit/s

Complies with ITU-T G.703.

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Specifications of the Ethernet Electrical Port


Table 6-9 lists the specifications of the Ethernet electrical port. Table 6-9 Specifications of the Ethernet electrical port Item Port type Rate Code pattern Connector Standard for the port Value 100BASE-TX 100 Mbit/s MLT-3 coding signal RJ45 Complies with IEEE 802.3u.

6.5 Clock Port Specifications


This section describes the specifications of clock ports. The clock ports and synchronization performance of the OptiX OSN 550 comply with ITU-T Recommendations.

Clock Port Types


The OptiX OSN 550 supports external clock input and output ports. Table 6-10 lists the clock ports and their characteristics. Table 6-10 Clock ports and their characteristics Clock Type External synchronous source Synchronous output Characteristic Two 120-ohm 2048 kbit/s (G.703) or 2048 kHz (G.703) inputs

Two 120-ohm 2048 kbit/s (G.703) or 2048 kHz (G.703) outputs

Timing and Synchronization Performance


The timing and synchronization performance of the OptiX OSN 550 comply with ITU-T G.813. Table 6-11 lists the timing and synchronization performance.

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Table 6-11 Timing and synchronization performance of the OptiX OSN 550 Output Jitter Output Frequency of the Internal Oscillator in Free-Run Mode Complies with ITU-T G.813. Long-Term Phase Variation (in Locked Mode) Complies with ITU-T G.813.

Complies with ITU-T G.813.

6.6 EMC Specifications


The OptiX OSN 550 is designed in compliance with ETS 300 386 and ETS 300 127 standards stipulated by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). The equipment has also passed the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests. Table 6-12 EMC standards EMC Standard IEC 61000-4-2 EN 61000-4-2 IEC 61000-4-3 EN 61000-4-3 IEC 61000-4-4 EN 61000-4-4 IEC 61000-4-5 EN 61000-4-5 IEC 61000-4-6 EN 61000-4-6 IEC 61000-4-29 EN 61000-4-29 CISPR 22/EN 55022 CISPR 24/EN 55024 ETSI EN 300386 Description Electromagnetic compatibility-Part4-2: Testing and measurement techniques-Electrostatic discharge immunity test Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)-Part 4-3: Testing and measurement techniques-Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic field immunity test Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)-Part 4-4: Testing and measurement techniques-Electrical fast transient/burst immunity test Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)-Part 4-5: Testing and measurement techniques-Surge immunity test Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)-Part 4-6: Testing and measurement techniques-Immunity to conducted disturbances, induced by radio-frequency fields Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)-Part 4-29: Testing and measurement techniques-Voltage dips, shot interruptions and voltage variations on d.c. input power port immunity tests Information technology equipment-Radio disturbance characteristics-Limits and methods of measurement Information technology equipment-immunity characteristics-Limits and methods of measurement Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio Spectrum Matters (ERM); Telecommunication network equipment; Electro Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) requirements

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EMC Standard ETSI EN 201468

Description Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); Additional Electro Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) telecommunications equipment for enhanced availability of service in specific applications Power supply interface at the input to telecommunications equipment; Part 2: Operated by direct current (dc)

ETSI EN 300132-2

6.7 Safety Certification


The OptiX OSN 550 has passed many safety certifications. Table 6-13 lists the safety certifications that the OptiX OSN 550 has passed. Table 6-13 Safety certifications for the OptiX OSN 550 Item Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Standard CISPR22 Class A CISPR24 EN55022 Class A EN50024 ETSI EN 300 386 Class A GB9254 Class A Safety IEC 60950-1 EN 60950-1 GB4943 Laser safety IEC60825-1 IEC60825-2 Health ICNIRP Guideline 1999-519-EC EN 50385 OET Bulletin 65 IEEE Std C95.1 Environment protection RoHS

6.8 Environmental Requirement


The OptiX OSN 550 requires proper environment for storage, transportation and operation.

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6.8.1 Storage Environment The OptiX OSN 550 requires proper environment for storage. 6.8.2 Transportation Environment The OptiX OSN 550 requires proper environment for transportation. 6.8.3 Operation Environment The OptiX OSN 550 requires proper environment for operation.

6.8.1 Storage Environment


The OptiX OSN 550 requires proper environment for storage.

Climate
Table 6-14 lists the climate requirements for the storage environment. Table 6-14 Climate requirements for the storage environment Item Altitude Atmospheric pressure Temperature Temperature change rate Relative humidity Solar radiation Heat radiation Wind speed Range 4000 m 70-106 kPa -40C to +70C 1C/min 5% to 100% 1120 W/s2 600 W/s2 30 m/s

Waterproofing Requirement
Requirements for storing equipment on site: Generally, the equipment must be stored indoors. No water should remain on the floor or leak into the equipment crate. The equipment should be placed away from areas where water leakage is possible (for example, do not place near automatic fire-fighting extinguishing and heating systems. Ensure all the following four conditions if the equipment is stored outdoors:

The crate is intact. Proper rain-proofing measures are taken to prevent water from entering the crate. No water is on the ground where the crate is placed and water is not seeped into the crate. The carton is not exposed to direct sunlight.

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Biological Environment

Avoid multiplication of microbes (such as eumycete and mycete). Keep rodents such as mice away.

Air Cleanliness

The air must be free from explosive, electric-conductive, magnetic-conductive or corrosive dust. Table 6-15 lists the density requirements for mechanically active substances during storage.

Table 6-15 Density requirements for mechanically active substances during storage Mechanically Active Substance Suspended dust Perceptible dust Sand particles Content 5.00 mg/m3 20.0 mg/m2 300 mg/m3

Table 6-16 lists the density requirements for chemically active substances.

Table 6-16 Density requirements for chemically active substances during storage Chemically Active Substance SO2 H2S NO2 NH3 CL2 HCL HF O3 Content 0.30 mg/m3 0.10 mg/m3 0.50 mg/m3 1.00 mg/m3 0.10 mg/m3 0.10 mg/m3 0.01 mg/m3 0.05 mg/m3

Mechanical Stress
Table 6-17 lists the limitations for mechanical stress during storage.

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Table 6-17 Limitations for mechanical stress during storage Item Sinusoidal vibration Sub-Item Displacement Acceleration Frequency range Static load Static pressure Range 1.5mm 5 m/s2 2 minutes to 12 minutes 9 minutes to 12 minutes

Static pressure = Product weight x (Maximum number of stacked layers that is specified on the product package - 1) x 5 x 9.8 (N)

NOTE Static load is the pressure from the upside that the packaged equipment can tolerate when equipment is stacked in the specified manner.

6.8.2 Transportation Environment


The OptiX OSN 550 requires proper environment for transportation.

Climate
Table 6-18 lists the climate requirements for the transportation environment. Table 6-18 Climate requirements for the transportation environment Item Altitude Atmospheric pressure Temperature Temperature change rate Relative Humidity Solar radiation Heat radiation Wind speed Range 4000 m 70-106 kPa -40C to +70C 1C/min 5% to 100% 1120 W/s2 600 W/s2 30 m/s

Waterproofing Requirement
Ensure the following conditions are met when transporting the equipment:

The crate is intact.

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Proper rain-proofing measures are taken on the vehicle to prevent water from entering the crate. No water is present in the vehicle.

Biological Environment

Avoid multiplication of microbes (such as eumycete and mycete). Keep rodents such as mice away.

Air Cleanliness

The air must be free from explosive, electric-conductive, magnetic-conductive or corrosive dust. Table 6-19 lists the density requirements for mechanically active substances during storage.

Table 6-19 Density limitations for mechanically active substances during transportation Mechanically Active Substance Suspended dust Perceptible dust Sand particles Content No requirement 3.0 mg/m2 100 mg/m3

Table 6-20 lists the density requirements for chemically active substances.

Table 6-20 Density limitations for chemically active substances Chemically Active Substance SO2 H2S NOx NH3 CL2 HCL HF O3 Content 1.00 mg/m3 0.50 mg/m3 1.00 mg/m3 3.00 mg/m3 0.50 mg/m3 0.03 mg/m3 0.10 mg/m3

Mechanical Stress
Table 6-21 lists the mechanical stress requirements for transportation environment.

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Table 6-21 Mechanical stress requirements for the transportation environment Item Random vibration Sub-Item Acceleration spectral density Frequency range Impact Response spectrum I (weight of sample > 50 kg) Response spectrum II (weight of sample 50 kg) Drop Weight (kg) < 10 < 15 < 20 < 30 < 40 < 50 < 100 > 100 Static load Static pressure Range 1 m2/s3 5-20 Hz -3 dBA 20-200 Hz

100 m/s2, 11 ms, 100 times for each panel

180 m/s2, 6 ms, 100 times for each panel

Height (m) 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.1 Static pressure = Product weight x (Maximum number of stacked layers that is specified on the product package - 1) x 5 x 9.8 (N)

NOTE Impact response spectrum: maximum acceleration response curve that the equipment generates when struck with the stipulated impact. Static load is the pressure from the upside that the packaged equipment can tolerate when equipment is stacked in the specified manner.

6.8.3 Operation Environment


The OptiX OSN 550 requires proper environment for operation.

Climate
Table 6-22 and Table 6-23 list the climate requirements for operation of the OptiX OSN 550.

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Table 6-22 Requirements for temperature and humidity Working Temperature -5C to 55C Relative Humidity 5% to 95%

NOTE The temperature and humidity values are tested at 1.5 m above the floor and 0.4 m in front of the equipment.

Table 6-23 Other climate requirements Item Altitude Atmospheric pressure Temperature change rate Solar radiation Heat radiation Wind speed Range 4000 m 70-106 kPa 30C/h 700 W/s2 600 W/s2 5 m/s

Biological Environment

Avoid multiplication of microbes (such as eumycete and mycete). Keep rodents such as mice away.

Air Cleanliness

The air must be free from explosive, electric-conductive, magnetic-conductive or corrosive dust. Table 6-24 lists the density requirements for mechanically active substances during storage.

Table 6-24 Density limitations for mechanically active substances during operation Mechanically Active Substance Dust particle Suspended dust Perceptible dust Sand particles Content 3x105/m3 0.2 mg/m3 1.5 mg/m2h 20 mg/m3

Table 6-25 lists the density requirements for chemically active substances.

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Table 6-25 Density limitations for chemically active substances Chemically Active Substance SO2 H2S NH3 CL2 HCL HF O3 NOx Content 0.30 mg/m3 0.10 mg/m3 1.00 mg/m3 0.10 mg/m3 0.10 mg/m3 0.01 mg/m3 0.05 mg/m3 0.50 mg/m3

Mechanical Stress
Table 6-26 lists the limitations for mechanical stress during operation. Table 6-26 Limitations for mechanical stress during operation Item Sinusoidal vibration Sub-Item Velocity Acceleration Frequency range Non-steady impact Impact response spectrum Range 5 mm/s 5-20 Hz 2 m/s2 20-200 Hz

Half-sine wave, 30 m/s2, 11 ms, three times for each panel

NOTE Impact response spectrum: maximum acceleration response curve that the equipment generates when struck with the stipulated impact.

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7 Energy Saving and Environmental Protection

7
Static Energy Saving

Energy Saving and Environmental Protection

7.1 Energy Saving


The OptiX OSN 550 supports static energy saving and dynamic energy saving.

Regarding static energy saving, the OptiX OSN 550 takes the following measures: Using an easy scheme for board design Using highly efficient power modules Replacing the linear power supplies with switching power supplies Using the standard digital voltage.

Dynamic Energy Saving


Energy saving (power down) design for boards:

Idle buses are powered down. That is, the buses that are not configured with services and the buses of the vacant slots are in power down state. Idle optical ports are powered down. That is, idle optical ports of the line boards or data boards are in power down state.

The rotating speed of fans is controlled intelligently.

7.2 Environmental Protection


The OptiX OSN 550 meets the requirements of sustainable development. All the components and packing units are designed in compliance with the associated standards for recycling.

The OptiX OSN 550 not only provides necessary packing materials, but also guarantees that the size of the package containing the equipment and accessories is at most three times the size of the net equipment.

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The product is also designed for easy unpacking. For details about how to unpack the equipment, see the associated manual. In addition, all hazardous substances contained in packaging decompose easily. Every plastic component that weighs over 25 g is labeled according to the standards of ISO 11469 and ISO 1043-1 to ISO 1043-4. All components and packages of the equipment are provided with standard labels for recycling. Plugs and connectors are easy to find, and the associated operations can be performed by using simple tools. All the attached materials, such as labels, are easy to remove. Certain identification information, such as silkscreens, is printed on the front panel or subrack.

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8 Standard Compliance

8
ITU-T Recommendations
Table 8-1 ITU-T recommendations ITU-T Recommendation G.652 G.655 G.661 G.662 G.663 G.671 G.692 G.702 G.703 G.704 G.7041 G.7042 G.707 G.709 Description

Standard Compliance

This topic describes the standards that the OptiX OSN 550 complies with.

Characteristics of a single-mode optical fiber cable. Characteristics of a non-zero dispersion-shifted single-mode optical fiber and cable. Definition and test methods for the relevant generic parameters of optical fiber amplifiers. Generic characteristics of optical fiber amplifier devices and sub-systems. Application related aspects of optical fiber amplifier devices and sub-systems. Transmission characteristics of optical components and subsystems. Optical interfaces for multichannel systems with optical amplifiers. Digital hierarchy bit rates. Physical/electrical characteristic of hierarchical digital interfaces. Synchronous frame structures used at 1544, 6312, 2048, 8448 and 44736kbit/s hierarchical levels. Generic framing procedure (GFP). Link capacity adjustment scheme (LCAS). Network node interface for the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH). Interfaces for the Optical Transport Network (OTN).

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ITU-T Recommendation G.774 1-5 G.775 G.783 G.784 G.803 G.811 G.812 G.813 G.823 G.825 G.826 G.831 G.841 G.842 G.957 G.958 M.3010 X.86/Y.1323

Description Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) management information model for the network element view. Loss of signal (LOS) and alarm indication signal (AIS) defect detection and clearance criteria. Characteristics of Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) equipment functional blocks. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) management. Architectures of transport networks based on the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH). Timing characteristics of primary reference clocks. Timing requirements of slave clocks suitable for use as node clocks in synchronization networks. Timing characteristics of SDH equipment slave clocks (SEC). The control of jitter and wander within digital networks which are based on the 2048kbit/s hierarchy. The control of jitter and wander within digital networks which are based on the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH). Error performance parameters and objectives for international, constant bit rate digital paths at or above the primary rate. Management capabilities of transport networks based on the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH). Types and characteristics of SDH network protection architectures. Cooperation of the SDH network protection structures. Optical interfaces of equipments and systems relating to the synchronous digital hierarchy. Digital line systems based on the synchronous digital hierarchy for use on optical fiber cables. Principles for a telecommunication management network. Ethernet over LAPS

IEEE Standards
Table 8-2 IEEE standards IEEE Standard IEEE 802.17 Description Resilient packet ring access method and physical layer specifications

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IEEE Standard IEEE 802.1ad IEEE 802.1ag IEEE 802.1d IEEE 802.1q IEEE 802.3 IEEE 802.3ad IEEE 802.3ah

Description Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks Amendment 4: Provider Bridges Connectivity Fault Management Media Access Control (MAC) Bridges Virtual bridged local area networks Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specification Aggregation of multiple link segments Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specification Amendment: media access control parameters, physical layers, and management parameters for subscriber access networks

IEEE 802.3u

Media access control (MAC) parameters, physical Layer, medium attachment units, and repeater for 100 Mb/s operation, type 100Base-T Standards for local and metropolitan area networks: specification for 802.3 full duplex operation Media access control (MAC) parameters, physical Layer, repeater and management parameters for 1000 Mb/s operation

IEEE 802.3x IEEE 802.3z

IETF Standards
Table 8-3 IETF standards IETF Standard RFC 2615 (1999) RFC 1662 (1994) RFC 1661 (1994) RFC 1990 RFC2819 (2000) Description PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) over SONET/SDH PPP in HDLC-like Framing The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) The PPP Multilink Protocol (MP) Remote Network Monitoring Management Information Base

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Environmental Standards
Table 8-4 Environmental standards Environmental Standard IEC 60068-2 IEC 60068-3-3 IEC 60721-2-6 IEC 60721-3-1 Description Basic Environmental Testing Procedures Environmental testing - Part 3: Background information - Subpart 3: Guidance. Seismic test methods for equipments Environmental conditions appearing in nature - Earthquake vibration Classification of environmental conditions - Part 3: Classification of groups of environmental parameters and their severities - Section 1: Storage Classification of environmental conditions - Part 3: Classification of groups of environmental parameters and their severities - Section 3: Stationary use at weatherprotected locations Environmental Engineering (EE); Environmental conditions and environmental tests for telecommunications equipment Part 1-1: Classification of environmental conditions; Storage ETS 300 019-1-2 Environmental Engineering (EE); Environmental conditions and environmental tests for telecommunications equipment; Part 1-2: Classification of environmental conditions; Transportation Environmental Engineering (EE); Environmental conditions and environmental tests for telecommunications equipment; Part 1-3: Classification of environmental conditions; Stationary use at weatherprotected locations Network Equipment-Building System (NEBS) Requirements: Physical Protection

IEC 60721-3-3

ETS 300 019-1-1

ETS 300 019-1-3

NEBS GR-63-CORE

Safety Standards
Table 8-5 Safety standards Safety Standard EN 60950-1 IEC 60950-1 IEC 60825-1 IEC 60825-2 Description Safety of information technology equipment Safety of information technology equipment Safety of laser equipment Safety of laser equipment - requirement of OFCS

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Protection Standards
Table 8-6 Protection standards Protection Standard IEC 61024-1 IEC 61312-1 IEC 61000-4-5 ITU-T K.11 ITU-T K.20 ITU-T K.27 ITU-T K.41 Description Protection of structures against lightning Protection against lightning electromagnetic impulse part I: general principles Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)- Part 4: Testing and measurement techniques - Section 5: Surge immunity test Principles of protection against overvoltage and overcurrents Resistibility of telecommunication switching equipment to overvoltages and overcurrents Bonding configurations and earthing inside a telecommunication building Resistibility of internal interfaces of telecommunication centers to surge overvoltages

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A
A.1 Numerics
1+1 protection 100BASE-T 100BASE-TX

Glossary and Acronyms

An architecture that has one normal traffic signal, one working SNC/trail, one protection SNC/trail and a permanent bridge. At the source end, the normal traffic signal is permanently bridged to both the working and protection SNC/trail. At the sink end, the normal traffic signal is selected from the better of the two SNCs/trails. Due to the permanent bridging, the 1+1 architecture does not allow an extra unprotected traffic signal to be provided. IEEE 802.3 Physical Layer specification for a 100 Mb/s CSMA/CD local area network. IEEE 802.3 Physical Layer specification for a 100 Mb/s CSMA/CD local area network over two pairs of Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) or shielded twisted-pair (STP) wire. An Ethernet specification that uses the twisted pair cable with the transmission speed as 10 Mbit/s and the transmission distance as 100 meters. An architecture that has N normal service signals, N working SNCs/trails, and one protection SNC/trail. It may have one extra service signal. Pulse per second, which, strictly speaking, is not a time synchronization signal. This is because 1PPS provides only the "gauge" corresponding to the UTC second, but does not provide the information about the day, month, or year. Therefore, 1PPS is used as the reference for frequency synchronization. On certain occasions, 1PPS can also be used on other interfaces for high precision timing. Reshaping, Retiming, Regenerating.

10BASE-T

1:N protection

1PPS

3R

A.2 A
ABR AC Available Bit Rate Alternating Current

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ACAP

A channel configuration method, which uses two adjacent channels (a horizontal polarization wave and a vertical polarization wave) to transmit two signals. The process in which the standby cross-connect board automatically takes the place of the active one. If there are two cross-connect boards on the SDH equipment, which are in hot back-up relation of each other, the operation reliability is improved. When both the cross-connect boards are in position, the one inserted first is in the working status. Unplug the active board, the standby one will run in the working status automatically. When the active cross-connect board fails in self-test, the board is pulled out, the board power supply fails or the board hardware operation fails, the standby cross-connect board can automatically take the place of the active one. Network elements that provide access to all or some subset of the constituent signals contained within an STM-N signal. The constituent signals are added to (inserted), and/or dropped from (extracted) the STM-N signal as it passed through the ADM. See add/drop multiplexer The information structure which provides adaptation between the higher order path layer and the multiplex section layer. It consists of an information payload (the higher order VC) and a AU pointer which indicates the offset of the payload frame start relative to the multiplex section frame start. One or more administrative units occupying fixed, defined positions in an STM payload. An AUG consists of AU-4s. A user who has authority to access all the Management Domains of the product. He or she has access to the whole network and to all the management functionalities. The time to live before an object becomes invalid. Alarm Indication Signal A message reported when a fault is detected by a device or by the network management system during the process of polling devices. Each alarm corresponds to a recovery alarm. After a recovery alarm is received, the status of the corresponding alarm changes to cleared. A function wherein an alarm generated on the device side is immediately and automatically reported to the NMS. After an alarm is reported, an alarm panel prompts, and the user can view the details of the alarm. The cable for generation of visual or audio alarms. An alarm management method. Alarms are detected and reported to the NMS system, and whether the alarm information is displayed and saved is decided by the alarm filtering status. An alarm with the filtering status set to "Filter" is not displayed and saved on the NMS, but is monitored on the NE.

Active/Standby switching of cross-connect board

add/drop multiplexer

ADM Administrative Unit

Administrative Unit Group Administrator

Aging time AIS Alarm

Alarm automatic report

alarm cable alarm filtering

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alarm indication

A function that indicates the alarm status of an NE. On the cabinet of an NE, there are four indicators in different colors indicating the current alarm status of the NE. When the green indicator is on, the NE is powered on. When the red indicator is on, a critical alarm is generated. When the orange indicator is on, a major alarm is generated. When the yellow indicator is on, a minor alarm is generated. The ALM alarm indicator on the front panel of a board indicates the current status of the board. A code sent downstream in a digital network as an indication that an upstream failure has been detected and alarmed. It is associated with multiple transport layers. For the port that has already been configured but has no service, this function can be used to avoid generating relevant alarm information, thus preventing alarm interference. The alarm report condition of the NE port is related to the alarm inverse mode (not inverse, automatic recovery and manual recovery) setting of the NE and the alarm inversion status (Enable and Disable) setting of the port. When the alarm inversion mode of NE is set to no inversion, alarms of the port will be reported as usual no matter whatever the inversion status of the port is. When the alarm inversion mode of the NE is set to automatic recovery, and the alarm inversion state of the port is set to Enabled, then the alarm of the port will be suppressed. The alarm inversion status of the port will automatically recover to "not inverse" after the alarm ends. For the port that has already been configured but not actually loaded with services, this function can be used to avoid generating relevant alarm information, thus preventing alarm interference. When the alarm inverse mode of the NE is set as "not automatic recovery", if the alarm inversion status of the port is set as Enable, the alarm of the port will be reported. An alarm management method. Alarms that are set to be masked are not displayed on the NMS or the NMS does not monitor unimportant alarms. The significance of a change in system performance or events. According to ITU-T recommendations, an alarm can have one of the following severities: Critical, Major, Minor, Warning. An alarm management method. Alarms that are set to be suppressed are not reported from NEs any more. See Automatic laser shutdown See Automatic Protection Switching Pertaining to, being, or characteristic of something that is not dependent on timing. A protocol for the transmission of a variety of digital signals using uniform 53 byte cells. A transfer mode in which the information is organized into cells; it is asynchronous in the sense that the recurrence of cells depends on the required or instantaneous bit rate. Statistical and deterministic values may also be used to qualify the transfer mode. See Asynchronous Transfer Mode

Alarm indication signal Alarm inversion

Alarm Masking

Alarm Severity

Alarm suppression ALS APS asynchronous Asynchronous Transfer Mode

ATM

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ATPC attenuation AU AUG auto-negotiation

See Automatic Transmit Power Control Reduction of signal magnitude or signal loss, usually expressed in decibels. See Administrative Unit See Administrative Unit Group An optional function of the IEEE 802.3u Fast Ethernet standard that enables devices to automatically exchange information over a link about speed and duplex abilities.. A technique (procedure) to automatically shutdown the output power of laser transmitters and optical amplifiers to avoid exposure to hazardous levels. Capability of a transmission system to detect a failure on a working facility and to switch to a standby facility to recover the traffic. A method of adjusting the transmit power based on fading of the transmit signal detected at the receiver.

Automatic laser shutdown Automatic Protection Switching Automatic Transmit Power Control

A.3 B
backplane An electronic circuit board containing circuits and sockets into which additional electronic devices on other circuit boards or cards can be plugged. A periodic operation performed on the data stored in the database for the purposes of database recovery in case that the database is faulty. The backup also refers to data synchronization between active and standby boards. A range of transmission frequencies that a transmission line or channel can carry in a network. In fact, it is the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies the transmission line or channel. The greater the bandwidth, the faster the data transfer rate. Backward Defect Indicator See Bit Error Rate Used to measure the bit error rate (BER) of signals during transmission. The binding strap is 12.7 mm wide, with one hook side (made of transparent polypropylene material) and one mat side (made of black nylon material).

backup

bandwidth

BDI BER BER tester Binding strap

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BIP

A method of error monitoring. With even parity an X-bit code is generated by equipment at the transmit end over a specified portion of the signal in such a manner that the first bit of the code provides even parity over the first bit of all X-bit sequences in the covered portion of the signal, the second bit provides even parity over the second bit of all X-bit sequences within the specified portion, and so on. Even parity is generated by setting the BIP-X bits so that there is an even number of 1s in each monitored partition of the signal. A monitored partition comprises all bits which are in the same bit position within the X-bit sequences in the covered portion of the signal. The covered portion includes the BIP-X. An incompatibility between a bit in a transmitted digital signal and the corresponding bit in the received digital signal. Ratio of received bits that contain errors. BER is an important index used to measure the communications quality of a network. See Building Integrated Timing Supply A parallel path with several serial paths bundled together. It improves the data throughput capacity. See Bridge Protocol Data Unit Board Protection Switching A device that connects two or more networks and forwards packets among them. Bridges operate at the physical network level. Bridges differs from repeaters because bridges store and forward complete packets, while repeaters forward all electrical signals. Bridges differ from routers because bridges use physical addresses, while routers use IP addresses. The data messages that are exchanged across the switches within an extended LAN that uses a spanning tree protocol (STP) topology. BPDU packets contain information on ports, addresses, priorities and costs and ensure that the data ends up where it was intended to go. BPDU messages are exchanged across bridges to detect loops in a network topology. The loops are then removed by shutting down selected bridges interfaces and placing redundant switch ports in a backup, or blocked, state. The process of sending packets from a source to multiple destinations. All the ports of the nodes in the network can receive packets. A means of delivering information to all members in a network. The broadcast range is determined by the broadcast address. Base Station Controller Base Station Subsystem A function which integrates some simple WDM systems into products that belong to the OSN series. That is, the OSN products can add or drop several wavelengths directly.

Bit error Bit Error Rate BITS bound path BPDU BPS bridge

Bridge Protocol Data Unit

broadcast Broadcast BSC BSS Build-in WDM

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Building Integrated Timing Supply

In the situation of multiple synchronous nodes or communication devices, one can use a device to set up a clock system on the hinge of telecom network to connect the synchronous network as a whole, and provide satisfactory synchronous base signals to the building integrated device. This device is called BITS. Backbone WDM System

BWS

A.4 C
cabling cable trough captive nut CAR CAS CBR CBS CCDP CCM CDR CDVT Cell Delay Variation Tolerance Centralized alarm system CES CFM Chain network channel The method by which a group of insulated conductors is mechanically assembled or twisted together. The trough which is used for cable routing in the cabinet. See Floating nut See committed access rate Channel Associated Signaling See Constant Bit Rate Committed Burst Size Co-Channel Dual Polarization Continuity Check Message Clock and Data Recovery See Cell Delay Variation Tolerance This parameter measures the tolerance level a network interface has to aggressive sending (back-to-back or very closely spaced cells) by a connected device, and does not apply to end-systems. The system that gathers all the information about alarms into a certain terminal console. See circuit emulation service Connectivity Fault Management One type of network that all network nodes are connected one after one to be in series. A telecommunication path of a specific capacity and/or at a specific speed between two or more locations in a network. Channels can be established through wire, radio (microwave), fiber or a combination of the three. The amount of information transmitted per second in a channel is the information transmission speed, expressed in bits per second. For example, b/s, kb/s, Mb/s, Gb/s, and Tb/s. Committed Information Rate A combination of two transmission channels permitting transmission in both directions between two points.

CIR Circuit

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circuit emulation service

A function with which the E1/T1 data can be transmitted through ATM networks. At the transmission end, the interface module packs timeslot data into ATM cells. These ATM cells are sent to the reception end through the ATM network. At the reception end, the interface module re-assigns the data in these ATM cells to E1/T1 timeslots. The CES technology guarantees that the data in E1/T1 timeslots can be recovered to the original sequence at the reception end. Common and Internal Spanning Tree CoS is a rule for queuing. It classifies the packets according to the service type field or the tag in packets, and specifies different priorities for them. All the nodes in DiffServ domain forwards the packets according to their priorities. A device that sends requests, receives responses, and obtains services from the server. Also called frequency synchronization. The signal frequency traces the reference frequency, but the start point does not need to be consistent. The method to keep the time on each node being synchronized with a clock source in a network. Cell Loss Priority See Configuration Management A traffic control method that uses a set of rate limits to be applied to a router interface. CAR is a configurable method by which incoming and outgoing packets can be classified into Quality of Service (QoS) groups, and by which the input or output transmission rate can be defined. A process that combines multiple virtual containers. The combined capacities can be used a single capacity. The concatenation also keeps the integrity of bit sequence. A command file defining hardware configurations of an NE. With this file, an NE can collaborate with other NEs in an entire network. Configuration data is the key factor for normal running of an entire network. A network management function defined by the International Standards Organization (ISO). It involves installing, reinitializing & modifying hardware & software. To set the basic parameters of an operation object. An extra intra-network or inter-network traffic resulting in decreasing network service efficiency.

CIST Class of Service

client Clock Synchronization Clock tracing CLP CM committed access rate

Concatenation

Configuration Data

Configuration Management Configure congestion

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Connection point

A reference point where the output of a trail termination source or a connection is bound to the input of another connection, or where the output of a connection is bound to the input of a trail termination sink or another connection. The connection point is characterized by the information which passes across it. A bidirectional connection point is formed by the association of a contradirectional pair. A kind of service categories defined by the ATM forum. CBR transfers cells based on the constant bandwidth. It is applicable to service connections that depend on precise clocking to ensure undistorted transmission. A process in which multiple channels of low-rate signals are multiplexed into one or several channels of required signals. It refers to the speed and capability for a group of networking devices to run a specific routing protocol. It functions to keep the network topology consistent. A service that provides enhancements to an underlying service in order to meet the specific requirements of users. Used to protect optical fibers. See Class of Service Central Processing Unit See Cyclic Redundancy Check An alarm not handled or not acknowledged after being handled. Performance data stored currently in a register. An NE provides two types of registers, namely, 15-minute register and 24-hour register, to store performance parameters of a performance monitoring entity. The two types of registers stores performance data only in the specified monitoring period. A procedure used in checking for errors in data transmission. CRC error checking uses a complex calculation to generate a number based on the data transmitted. The sending device performs the calculation before transmission and includes it in the packet that it sends to the receiving device. The receiving device repeats the same calculation after transmission. If both devices obtain the same result, it is assumed that the transmission was error free. The procedure is known as a redundancy check because each transmission includes not only data but extra (redundant) error-checking values.

Constant Bit Rate

Convergence

Convergence service corrugated tube CoS CPU CRC current alarm Current Performance Data

Cyclic Redundancy Check

A.5 D
Data Communication Network Digital Data Network DC A communication network used in a TMN or between TMNs to support the data communication function. A high-quality data transport tunnel that combines the digital channel (such as fiber channel, digital microwave channel, or satellite channel) and the cross multiplex technology. Direct Current

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DCC DCD DCE DCN DDF DDN Defect Delay Measurement

Data Communication Channel Data Carrier Detect Data Circuit-terminal Equipment See Data Communication Network See Digital Distribution Frame See Digital Data Network A limited interruption in the ability of an item to perform a required function. The time elapsed since the start of transmission of the first bit of the frame by a source node until the reception of the last bit of the loopbacked frame by the same source node, when the loopback is performed at the frame's destination node. A process applied to a composite signal formed by multiplexing, for recovering the original independent signals, or groups of these signals. A collection of multiple managed devices. By dividing managed devices into different device sets, users can manage the devices by using the U2000 in an easier way. If an operation authority over one device set is assigned to a user (user group), the authority over all the devices in the device set is assigned to the user (user group), thus making it unnecessary to set the operation authority over all the devices in a device set separately. It is recommended to configure device set by geographical region, network level, device type, or another criterion. A marker in the header of each IP packet that prompts network routers to apply differentiated grades of service to various packet streams. It is specified by the DiffServ policy proposed by the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). This allows Internet and other IP-based network service providers to offer different levels of service to customers. A service architecture that provides the end-to-end QoS function. It consists of a series of functional units implemented at the network nodes, including a small group of per-hop forwarding behaviors, packet classification functions, and traffic conditioning functions such as metering, marking, shaping and policing. A type of equipment used between the transmission equipment and the exchange with transmission rate of 2 to 155 Mbit/s to provide the functions such as cables connection, cable patching, and test of loops that transmitting digital signals.

Demultiplexing

Device set

Differentiated Services Code Point

DiffServ

Digital Distribution Frame

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digital signal

A signal in which information is represented by a limited number of discrete states number of discrete states (for example, high and low voltages) rather than by fluctuating levels in a continuous stream, as in an analog signal. In the pulse code modulation (PCM) technology, the 8 kHz sampling frequency is used and a byte contains 8 bits in length. Therefore, a digital signal is also referred to as a byte-based code stream. Digital signals, with simple structures and broad bandwidth, are easy to shape or regenerate, and are not easily affected by external interference. A board-level port protection technology used to detect unidirectional fiber cuts and to negotiate with the opposite end. Once a link down failure occurs on a port or a hardware failure occurs on a board, the services can automatically be switched to the slave board, achieving 1+1 protection for the inter-board ports. See Distributed Link Aggregation Group See Delay Measurement See Dual Node Interconnection A logical subscriber group based on which the subscriber rights are controlled. See Differentiated Services Code Point Digital Subscriber Line Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer Data Set Ready Data Terminal Equipments Data Terminal Ready DNI provides an alternative physical interconnection point, between the rings, in case of an interconnection failure scenario. Digital Video Broadcast- Asynchronous Serial Interface Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Distributed Link Aggregation Group

DLAG DM DNI domain DSCP DSL DSLAM DSR DTE DTR Dual Node Interconnection DVB-ASI DVMRP DWDM

A.6 E
E-AGGR Ear bracket ECC EFM E-LAN See Ethernet aggregation A piece of angle plate with holes in it on a rack. It is used to fix network elements or components. See Embedded Control Channel Ethernet in the First Mile A type of Ethernet service that is based on a multipoint-to-multipoint EVC (Ethernet virtual connection).

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ElectroStatic Discharge E-Line Embedded Control Channel EMS encapsulation

The sudden and momentary electric current that flows between two objects at different electrical potentials caused by direct contact or induced by an electrostatic field. A type of Ethernet service that is based on a point-to-point EVC (Ethernet virtual connection). A logical channel that uses a data communications channel (DCC) as its physical layer, to enable transmission of operation, administration, and maintenance (OAM) information between NEs. Element Management System A technology for layered protocols, in which a lower-level protocol accepts a message from a higher-level protocol and places it in the data portion of the lower-level frame. Protocol A's packets have complete header information, and are carried by protocol B as data. Packets that encapsulate protocol A have a B header, an A header, followed by the information that protocol A is carrying. Note that A could equal to B, as in IP inside IP. A path protocol which connects the host with various control units in a storage system. It is a serial bit stream transmission protocol. The transmission rate is 200 Mbit/s. A part, device, subsystem, functional unit, equipment, or system that can be considered individually. See Ethernet over Dual Domains See Ethernet Private Line See Ethernet virtual private LAN service A string of characters that identify a piece of equipment and ensures correct allocation of a license file to the specified equipment. It is also called "equipment fingerprint". See Enterprise System Connection See ElectroStatic Discharge Electrostatic discharge jack. A hole in the cabinet or shelf, which connect the shelf or cabinet to the insertion of ESD wrist strap. See Equipment Serial Number A LAN technology that uses Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection. The speed of an Ethernet interface can be 10 Mbit/s, 100 Mbit/s, 1000 Mbit/s or 10000 Mbit/s. An Ethernet network features high reliability and is easy to maintain. A type of Ethernet service that is based on a multipoint-to-point EVC (Ethernet virtual connection). The Ethernet alarm group periodically obtain the statistics value to compare with the configured threshold. If the value exceeds the threshold, an event is reported.

Enterprise System Connection Entity EoD EPL EPLAN Equipment Serial Number ESCON ESD ESD jack ESN Ethernet

Ethernet aggregation Ethernet Alarm Group

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Ethernet over Dual Domains Ethernet Private LAN service Ethernet Private Line Ethernet virtual private LAN service Ethernet virtual private line ETSI EVPL EVPLAN Exercise Switching Exerciser - Ring

A type of boards. EoD boards bridge the PSN and TDM networks, enabling Ethernet service transmission across PSN and TDM networks. A type of Ethernet service provided by SDH, PDH, ATM, or MPLS networks. This service is carried over a dedicated bridge and point-to-multipoint connections. A type of Ethernet service that is provided with dedicated bandwidth and point-to-point connections on an SDH, PDH, ATM, or MPLS server layer network. A type of Ethernet service provided by SDH, PDH, ATM, or MPLS networks. This service is carried over a shared bridge and point-to-multipoint connections. A type of Ethernet service provided by SDH, PDH, ATM, or MPLS networks. This service is carried over a shared bridge and point-to-point connections. European Telecommunications Standards Institute See Ethernet virtual private line See Ethernet virtual private LAN service An operation to check whether the protection switching protocol functions properly. The protection switching is not really performed. This command exercises ring protection switching of the requested channel without completing the actual bridge and switch. The command is issued and the responses are checked, but no working traffic is affected. The number of the subnet that an NE belongs to, for identifying different network segments in a WAN. The physical ID of an NE is comprised of the NE ID and extended ID. The traffic that is carried over the protection channels when that capacity is not used for the protection of working traffic. Extra traffic is not protected.

Extended ID

extra traffic

A.7 F
Failure If the fault persists long enough to consider the ability of an item with a required function to be terminated. The item may be considered as having failed; a fault has now been detected. A feature in which for any link specified in a ring network, the source node is provided with certain bandwidth capacities if the data packets transmitted by the source node are constrained by the fairness algorithm. An algorithm designed to ensure the fair sharing of bandwidth among stations in the case of congestion or overloading.

Fairness

fairness algorithm

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fault

A failure to implement the function while the specified operations are performed. A fault does not involve the failure caused by preventive maintenance, insufficiency of external resources or intentional settings. See Fiber Channel See frequency diversity See fiber distributed data interface Forward Defect Indicator Fast Ethernet Code used to select/activate a service feature (for example, forwarding, using two or three digit codes preceded by * or 11 or #, and which may precede subsequent digit selection). See forwarding equivalence class See Forward Error Correction A kind of fiber used for connections between the subrack and the ODF, and for connections between subracks or inside a subrack. A high-speed transport technology used to build storage area networks (SANs). Fiber channel can be on the networks carrying ATM and IP traffic. It is primarily used for transporting SCSI traffic from servers to disk arrays. Fiber channel supports single-mode and multi-mode fiber connections. Fiber channel signaling can run on both twisted pair copper wires and coaxial cables. Fiber channel provides both connection-oriented and connectionless services. A new generation connection protocol which connects the host to various control units. It carries single byte command protocol through the physical path of fiber channel, and provides higher rate and better performance than ESCON. A device installed at the end of a fiber, optical source or receive unit. It is used to couple the optical wave to the fiber when connected to another device of the same type. A connector can either connect two fiber ends or connect a fiber end and a optical source (or a detector). A standard developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for high-speed fiber-optic local area networks (LANs). FDDI provides specifications for transmission rates of 100 megabits (100 million bits) per second on networks based on the token ring network. General name of optical fiber and cable. It refers to the physical entities that connect the transmission equipment, carry transmission objects (user information and network management information) and perform the transmission function in the transmission network. The optical fiber transmits optical signal, while the cable transmits electrical signal. The fiber/cable between NEs represents the optical fiber connection or cable connection between NEs. The fiber/cable between SDH NEs represents the connection relationship between NEs. At this time, the fiber/cable is of optical fiber type. See Fiber Connect

FC FD FDDI FDI FE feature code

FEC FEC fiber patch cord Fiber Channel

Fiber Connect

Fiber Connector

fiber distributed data interface

fiber/cable

FICON

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FIFO Floating nut

First In First Out Floating nuts (or as they are more correctly named, 'tee nuts') have a range of uses but are more commonly used in the hobby for engine fixing (securing engine mounts to the firewall), wing fixings, and undercarriage fixing. An aggregation of packets that have the same characteristics. On the network management system or NE software, flow is a group of classification rules. On boards, it is a group of packets that have the same quality of service (QoS) operation. See Frame loss ratio For normal traffic signals, switches normal traffic signal to the protection section, unless an equal or higher priority switch command is in effect or SF condition exists on the protection section, by issuing a forced switch request for that traffic signal. A bit error correction technology that adds the correction information to the payload at the transmit end. Based on the correction information, the bit errors generated during transmission are corrected at the receive end. A class-based forwarding technology that classifies the packets with the same forwarding mode. Packets with the same FEC are processed similarly on an MPLS network. The division of FECs is flexible, and can be a combination of the source address, destination address, source port, destination port, protocol type, and VPN. Field Programmable Gate Array A frame, starting with a header, is a string of bytes with a specified length. Frame length is represented by the sampling circle or the total number of bytes sampled during a circle. A header comprises one or a number of bytes with pre-specified values. In other words, a header is a code segment that reflects the distribution (diagram) of the elements pre-specified by the sending and receiving parties. A ratio, is expressed as a percentage, of the number of service frames not delivered divided by the total number of service frames during time interval T, where the number of service frames not delivered is the difference between the number of service frames arriving at the ingress ETH flow point and the number of service frames delivered at the egress ETH flow point in a point-to-point ETH connection. An operating condition of a clock, the output signal of which is strongly influenced by the oscillating element and not controlled by servo phase-locking techniques. In this mode the clock has never had a network reference input, or the clock has lost external reference and has no access to stored data, that could be acquired from a previously connected external reference. Free-run begins when the clock output no longer reflects the influence of a connected external reference, or transition from it. Free-run terminates when the clock output has achieved lock to an external reference.

Flow

FLR Forced switch

Forward Error Correction

forwarding equivalence class

FPGA frame

Frame loss ratio

Free-run mode

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frequency diversity

A diversity scheme in which two or more microwave frequencies with a certain frequency interval are used to transmit/receive the same signal and selection is then performed between the two signals to ease the impact of fading. File Transfer Protocol A full-duplex, or sometimes double-duplex system, allows communication in both directions, and, unlike half-duplex, allows this to happen simultaneously. Land-line telephone networks are full-duplex, since they allow both callers to speak and be heard at the same time. A good analogy for a full-duplex system would be a two-lane road with one lane for each direction.

FTP full-duplex

A.8 G
Gain The difference between the optical power from the input optical interface of the optical amplifier and the optical power from the output optical interface of the jumper fiber, which expressed in dB. When an NE accesses a remote network management system or NE, a router can be used to enable the TCP/IP communication. In this case, the IP address of the router is the gateway IP. Only the gateway NE requires the IP address. The IP address itself cannot identify the uniqueness of an NE. The same IP addresses may exist in different TCP/IP networks. An NE may have multiple IP addresses, for example, one IP address of the network and one IP address of the Ethernet port. A network element that is used for communication between the NE application layer and the NM application layer. Gigabit Ethernet A framing and encapsulation method which can be applied to any data type. It has been standardized by ITU-T SG15. See Generic Framing Procedure See Gateway Network Element Global Positioning System Global System for Mobile Communications Generic Traffic Shaping Graphic User Interface

Gateway IP

Gateway Network Element GE Generic Framing Procedure GFP GNE GPS GSM GTS GUI

A.9 H
half-duplex A transmitting mode in which a half-duplex system provides for communication in both directions, but only one direction at a time (not simultaneously). Typically, once a party begins receiving a signal, it must wait for the transmitter to stop transmitting, before replying.

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Hardware loopback HDLC HD-SDI HEC Hierarchical Quality of Service

A connection mode in which a fiber jumper is used to connect the input optical interface to the output optical interface of a board to achieve signal loopback. High level Data Link Control See High Definition-Serial Digital Interface signal Header Error Control A type of QoS that controls the traffic of users and performs the scheduling according to the priority of user services. HQoS has an advanced traffic statistics function, and the administrator can monitor the usage of bandwidth of each service. Hence, the bandwidth can be allocated reasonably through traffic analysis. High definition video signal transported by serial digital interface.

High Definition-Serial Digital Interface signal History alarm Historical performance data HP HPT HQoS

The confirmed alarm that has been saved in the memory and other external memories. The performance data that is stored in the history register or that is automatically reported and stored on the NMS. Higher Order Path Higher Order Path Termination See Hierarchical Quality of Service

A.10 I
IC IDU IEEE IETF IF IGMP IGMP Snooping Integrated Circuit Indoor Unit Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Internet Engineering Task Force Intermediate Frequency See Internet Group Management Protocol A multicast constraint mechanism running on a layer 2 device. This protocol manages and controls the multicast group by listening to and analyzing Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) packets between hosts and Layer 3 devices. In this manner, the spread of the multicast data on layer 2 network can be prevented efficiently. See Inverse Multiplexing over ATM A control unit in the IMA protocol. It is a logical frame defined as M consecutive cells, numbered 0 to M-l, transmitted on each of the N links in an IMA group.

IMA IMA frame

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Input jitter tolerance

The maximum amplitude of sinusoidal jitter at a given jitter frequency, which, when modulating the signal at an equipment input port, results in no more than two errored seconds cumulative, where these errored seconds are integrated over successive 30-second measurement intervals. A mechanism used to reduce the optical power of all the amplifiers in an adjacent regeneration section in the upstream to a safety level if the system detects the loss of optical signals on the link. If the fiber is broken, the device performance degrades, or the connector is not plugged well, the loss of optical signals may occur. With IPA, maintenance engineers will not be hurt by the laser sent out from the slice of broken fiber. The area for the interface boards on the subrack. The cables and optical fibers which are used for interconnecting electrical interfaces and optical interfaces within the cabinet. One of the TCP/IP protocols for managing the membership of Internet Protocol multicast groups. It is used by IP hosts and adjacent multicast routers to establish and maintain multicast group memberships. A technique that involves inverse multiplexing and de-multiplexing of ATM cells in a cyclical fashion among links grouped to form a higher bandwidth logical link whose rate is approximately the sum of the link rates. Internet Protocol A 32-bit (4-byte) binary digit that uniquely identifies a host (computer) connected to the Internet for communication with other hosts in the Internet by transferring packets. An IP address is expressed in dotted decimal notation, consisting of decimal values of its 4 bytes, separated by periods (,), for example, 127.0.0.1. The first three bytes of an IP address identify the network to which the host is connected, and the last byte identifies the host itself. A technology that enables a DCC channel to carry TCP/IP protocol packets. The IP over DCC technology provides the TCP/IP protocol without using any extra overheads or service resources to ensure interconnection of management channels. See Intelligent power adjusting Intermedia System-Intermedia System Integrated Services Digital Network International Standard Organization Internet Service Provider Internal Spanning Tree International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization

Intelligent power adjusting

Interface board area Internal cable Internet Group Management Protocol Inverse Multiplexing over ATM IP IP address

IP over DCC

IPA IS-IS ISDN ISO ISP IST ITU-T

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A.11 J
Jitter jitter tolerance Short waveform variations caused by vibration, voltage fluctuations, and control system instability. Jitter tolerance is defined as the peak-to-peak amplitude of sinusoidal jitter applied on the input ATM-PON signal that causes a 1 dB optical power penalty at the optical equipment.

A.12 L
Label A short identifier that is of fixed length and local significance. It is used to uniquely identify the FEC to which a packet belongs. It does not contain topology information. It is carried in the header of a packet and does not contain topology information. See Link Aggregation Control Protocol See link aggregation group Local Area Network Link Access Procedure-SDH A component that generates directional optical waves of narrow wavelengths. The laser light has better coherence than ordinary light. The fiber system takes the semi-conductor laser as the light source. A concept used to allow the transport network functionality to be described hierarchically as successive levels; each layer being solely concerned with the generation and transfer of its characteristic information. A data forwarding method. In a LAN, a network bridge or 802.3 Ethernet switch transmits and distributes packet data based on the MAC address. Since the MAC address is at the second layer of the OSI model, this data forwarding method is called Layer 2 switch. See Loopback Loopback Message Loopback Reply Lucent Connector See Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme Liquid Crystal Display Local Craft Terminal A permission that the vendor provides for the user with a specific function, capacity, and duration of a product. A license can be a file or a serial number. Usually the license consists of encrypted codes. The operation authority granted varies with the level of the license.

LACP LAG LAN LAPS Laser

Layer

layer 2 switch

LB LBM LBR LC LCAS LCD LCT License

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Link

In the topology view, a link is used to identify the physical or logical connection between two topological nodes. A link is used to connect signaling points (SPs) and signaling transfer points (STPs) and transmit signaling messages. A method of bundling a group of physical interfaces together as a logical interface to increase bandwidth and reliability. For related protocols and standards, refer to IEEE 802.3ad. An aggregation that allows one or more links to be aggregated together to form a link aggregation group so that a MAC client can treat the link aggregation group as if it were a single link. LCAS in the virtual concatenation source and sink adaptation functions provides a control mechanism to hitless increase or decrease the capacity of a link to meet the bandwidth needs of the application. It also provides a means of removing member links that have experienced failure. The LCAS assumes that in cases of capacity initiation, increases or decreases, the construction or destruction of the end-to-end path is the responsibility of the network and element management systems. Logical Link Control See Loss Measurement When the switching condition is satisfied, this function disables the service from being switched from the working channel to the protection channel. When the service has been switched, the function enables the service to be restored from the protection channel to the working channel. Loss of Frame Loss of Multiframe A troubleshooting technique that returns a transmitted signal to its source so that the signal or message can be analyzed for errors. The loopback can be a inloop or outloop. Loss of Signal Loss measurement, a method used to collect counter values applicable for ingress and egress service frames where the counters maintain a count of transmitted and received data frames between a pair of MEPs. A lower performance limit which when exceeded by a performance event counter will trigger a threshold-crossing event. Lower Order Path Link State Pass Through Label Switched Path Label Switching Router Link Trace

Link Aggregation Control Protocol link aggregation group Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme

LLC LM Locked switching

LOF LOM Loopback

LOS Loss Measurement

Lower Threshold LP LPT LSP LSR LT

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A.13 M
MA MAC Maintenance Association Maintenance Domain See Maintenance Association Medium Access Control TThat portion of a Service Instance, preferably all of it or as much as possible, the connectivity of which is maintained by CFM. It is also a full mesh of Maintenance Entities. The network or the part of the network for which connectivity is managed by connectivity fault management (CFM). The devices in a maintenance domain are managed by a single Internet service provider (ISP). See Metropolitan Area Network Switches normal traffic signal to the protection section, unless a failure condition exists on other sections (including the protection section) or an equal or higher priority switch command is in effect, by issuing a manual switch request for that normal traffic signal. A procedure by which tributaries are adapted into virtual containers at the boundary of an SDH network. A quadrate cardboard with four holes. It is used to mark the positions of the installation holes for the cabinet. Maximum Burst Size Message Communication Function Minimum Cell Rate See Maintenance Domain The average power of a pseudo-random data sequence coupled into the fiber by the transmitter. Maintenance End Point A network that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large LAN but smaller than the area covered by an WAN. The term is applied to the interconnection of networks in a city into a single larger network (which may then also offer efficient connection to a wide area network). It is also used to mean the interconnection of several local area networks by bridging them with backbone lines. The latter usage is also sometimes referred to as a campus network. Management Information Base Maintenance Intermediate Point MOdulator-DEModulator Maintenance Point Maintenance Point Identification See Multiprotocol Label Switching

MAN Manual switch

Mapping Marking-off template MBS MCF MCR MD Mean launched power MEP Metropolitan Area Network

MIB MIP MODEM MP MPID MPLS

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MS MSA MSOH MSP MST MSTI MSTP MSTP MTIE MTU Multiprotocol Label Switching

Multiplex Section Multiplex Section Adaptation See Multiplex Section Overhead See Multiplex Section Protection Multiplex Section Termination Multiple Spanning Tree Instance See Multi-service transmission platform See Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol Maximum Time Interval Error Maximum Transmission Unit A technology that uses short tags of fixed length to encapsulate packets in different link layers, and provides connection-oriented switching for the network layer on the basis of IP routing and control protocols. It improves the cost performance and expandability of networks, and is beneficial to routing. A platform based on the SDH platform, capable of accessing, processing and transmitting TDM services, ATM services, and Ethernet services, and providing unified management of these services. A process of transmitting data packets from one source to many destinations. The destination address of the multicast packet uses Class D address, that is, the IP address ranges from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. Each multicast address represents a multicast group rather than a host. A protocol that can be used in a loop network. Using an algorithm, the MSTP blocks redundant paths so that the loop network can be trimmed as a tree network. In this case, the proliferation and endless cycling of packets is avoided in the loop network. The protocol that introduces the mapping between VLANs and multiple spanning trees. This solves the problem that data cannot be normally forwarded in a VLAN because in STP/RSTP, only one spanning tree corresponds to all the VLANs. The overhead that comprises rows 5 to 9 of the SOH of the STM-N signal. See SOH definition. A function, which is performed to provide capability for switching a signal between and including two multiplex section termination (MST) functions, from a "working" to a "protection" channel. A procedure by which multiple lower order path layer signals are adapted into a higher order path or the multiple higher order path layer signals are adapted into a multiplex section.

Multi-service transmission platform Multicast

Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol

Multiplex Section Overhead Multiplex Section Protection Multiplexing

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A.14 N
NE NE Explorer See network element The main operation interface, of the network management system, which is used to manage the telecommunication equipment. In the NE Explorer, the user can query, manage and maintain the NE, boards, and ports on a per-NE basis. An NE contains both the hardware and the software running on it. One NE is at least equipped with one system control and communication(SCC) board which manages and monitors the entire network element. The NE software runs on the SCC board. The interface at a network node which is used to interconnect with another network node. A part of an Ethernet or other network, on which all message traffic is common to all nodes, that is, it is broadcast from one node on the segment and received by all others. Normal Link Pulse Network Management System See network node interface Network Parameter Control Non Real-Time Variable Bit Rate Non Return to Zero code Network Service Access Point Network Time Protocol

network element

network node interface network segment

NLP NMS NNI NPC nrt-VBR NRZ NSAP NTP

A.15 O
OA OADM OAM OAM auto-discovery See Optical Amplifier See Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer Operations, Administration and Maintenance In the case of OAM auto-discovery, two interconnected ports, enabled with the Ethernet in the First Mile OAM (EFM OAM) function, negotiate to determine whether the mutual EFM OAM configuration match with each other by sending and responding to the OAM protocol data unit (OAMPDU). If the mutual EFM OAM configuration match, the two ports enter the EFM OAM handshake phase. In the handshake phase, the two ports regularly send the OAMPDU to maintain the neighborhood relation. See Optical Channel Protection See Optical Distribution Frame Outdoor Unit

OCP ODF ODU

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OFS OHA OLT Online Help

Out-of-frame Second Overhead Access Function Optical Line Terminal The capability of many programs and operating systems to display advice or instructions for using their features when so requested by the user. Optical Network Unit Out of Frame A device that can be used to add the optical signals of various wavelengths to one channel and drop the optical signals of various wavelengths from one channel. Devices or subsystems in which optical signals can be amplified by means of the stimulated emission taking place in a suitable active medium. A passive device that increases the attenuation in a fiber link. It is used to ensure that the optical power of the signals received at the receive end is not extremely high. It is available in two types: fixed attenuator and variable attenuator. In an optical transmission link that contains multiple wavelengths, when a certain wavelength goes faulty, the services at the wavelength can be protected if the optical channel protection is configured. A component normally attached to an optical cable or a piece of apparatus to provide frequent optical interconnection/disconnection of optical fibers or cables. A frame which is used to transfer and spool fibers.

ONU OOF Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer Optical Amplifier

Optical attenuator

Optical Channel Protection Optical Connector Optical Distribution Frame Optical Interface Optical Time Domain Reflectometer orderwire OSI OSN OSPF OTDR OTU Optical transponder unit

A component that connects several transmit or receive units. A device that sends a very short pulse of light down a fiber optic communication system and measures the time history of the pulse reflection to measure the fiber length, the light loss and locate the fiber fault. A channel that provides voice communication between operation engineers or maintenance engineers of different stations. Open Systems Interconnection Optical Switch Node Open Shortest Path First See Optical Time Domain Reflectometer See Optical transponder unit A device or subsystem that converts the accessed client signals into the G.694.1/G.694.2-compliant WDM wavelength.

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Output optical power Overhead

The ranger of optical energy level of output signals. Extra bits in a digital stream used to carry information besides traffic signals. Orderwire, for example, would be considered overhead information.

A.16 P
Paired slots pass-through Path Two slots of which the overheads can be passed through by using the bus on the backplane. The action of transmitting the same information that is being received for any given direction of transmission. A performance resource object defined in the network management system. The left end of a path is a device node whose port needs to be specified and the right end of a path is a certain IP address which can be configured by the user. By defining a path in the network management system, a user can test the performance of a network path between a device port and an IP address. The tested performance may be the path delay, packet loss ratio or other aspects. Peak Burst Size Personal Computer Pulse Code Modulation Peak Cell Rate See Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy See Power distribution unit See provider edge The memory space for performance event counts, including 15-min current performance register, 24-hour current performance register, 15-min historical performance register, 24-hour historical performance register, UAT register and CSES register. The object of performance event monitoring is the board functional module, so every board functional module has a performance register. A performance register is used to count the performance events taking place within a period of operation time, so as to evaluate the quality of operation from the angle of statistics. A limit for generating an alarm for a selected entity. When the measurement result reaches or exceeds the preset alarm threshold, the performance management system generates a performance alarm. A connection between two ATM end hosts. The connection consists of PVPs between the ATM end hosts and their respective switches, and SVPs between the switches. Protection Ground

PBS PC PCM PCR PDH PDU PE Performance register

performance threshold Permanent Virtual Connection PGND

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PGND cable

A cable which connects the equipment and the protection grounding bar. Usually, one half of the cable is yellow, whereas the other half is green. Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode Peak Information Rate Qualifying two time-varying phenomena, time-scales, or signals in which corresponding significant instants occur at the same rate, any variations in rate being constrained within specified limits. Note: Corresponding significant instants are separated by time intervals having durations which may vary without limit. A multiplexing scheme of bit stuffing and byte interleaving. It multiplexes the minimum rate 64 kit/s into the 2 Mbit/s, 34 Mbit/s, 140 Mbit/s, and 565 Mbit/s rates. Phase-Locked Loop An indicator whose value defines the frame offset of a virtual container with respect to the frame reference of the transport entity on which this pointer is supported. Packet Over SDH A direct current power distribution box at the upper part of a cabinet, which supplies power for the subracks in the cabinet. A unit that performs AC or DC power distribution. Point-to-Point Protocol See Pseudo Random Binary Sequence Primary Reference Clock In the hierarchy of signaling system No.7, when the upper layer applies for services from the lower layer or the lower layer transmits services to the upper layer, the data is exchanged between the user and the service provider. The data transmitted between adjacent layers is called primitive. A line, such as a subscriber cable and trunk cable, which are leased by the telecommunication carrier and are used to meet the special user requirements. A specific path that is part of a protection group and is labeled protection. A specific service that is part of a protection group and is labeled protection. In the NMS, the protection subnet becomes a concept of network level other than multiplex section rings or path protection rings. The protection sub-network involves NEs and fiber cable connections. The user interface, of the NMS, which is used to manage protection in the network.

PIM-SM PIR plesiochronous

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy PLL Pointer

POS Power box Power distribution unit PPP PRBS PRC Primitive

Private Line

Protection path Protection service Protection subnet

Protection View

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provider edge

A device that is located in the backbone network of the MPLS VPN structure. A PE is responsible for managing VPN users, establishing LSPs between PEs, and exchanging routing information between sites of the same VPN. A PE performs the mapping and forwarding of packets between the private network and the public channel. A PE can be a UPE, an SPE, or an NPE. Packet Switched Power Spectral Density A sequence that is random in a sense that the value of an element is independent of the values of any of the other elements, similar to real random sequences. An emulated connection between two PEs for transmitting frames. The PW is established and maintained by PEs through signaling protocols. The status information of a PW is maintained by the two end PEs of a PW. An end-to-end Layer 2 transmission technology. It emulates the essential attributes of a telecommunication service such as ATM, FR or Ethernet in a packet switched network (PSN). PWE3 also emulates the essential attributes of low speed time division multiplexing (TDM) circuit and SONET/SDH. The simulation approximates to the real situation. See Permanent Virtual Connection See Pseudo Wire See Pseudo Sire Emulation edge-to-edge

PS PSD Pseudo Random Binary Sequence Pseudo Wire

Pseudo Sire Emulation edge-to-edge

PVC PW PWE3

A.17 Q
QinQ A layer 2 tunnel protocol based on IEEE 802.1Q encapsulation. It add a public VLAN tag to a frame with a private VLAN tag to allow the frame with double VLAN tags to be transmitted over the service providers backbone network based on the public VLAN tag. This provides a layer 2 VPN tunnel for customers and enables transparent transmission of packets over private VLANs. See Quality of Service A commonly-used performance indicator of a telecommunication system or channel. Depending on the specific system and service, it may relate to jitter, delay, packet loss ratio, bit error ratio, and signal-to-noise ratio. It functions to measure the quality of the transmission system and the effectiveness of the services, as well as the capability of a service provider to meet the demands of users.

QoS Quality of Service

A.18 R
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol An evolution of the Spanning Tree Protocol, providing for faster spanning tree convergence after a topology change. The RSTP protocol is backward compatible with the STP protocol.

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RDI Receiver Sensitivity Reference clock REG Regeneration

Remote Defect Indication The minimum acceptable value of average received power at point R to achieve a 1 x 10-12 BER (The FEC is open). A kind of stable and high-precision autonous clock providing frequencies for other clocks for reference. A piece of equipment or device that regenerates electrical signals. The process of receiving and reconstructing a digital signal so that the amplitudes, waveforms and timing of its signal elements are constrained within specified limits. The regenerator section overhead comprises rows 1 to 3 of the SOH of the STM-N signal. A remote optical amplifier subsystem designed for applications where power supply and monitoring systems are unavailable. The ROPA subsystem is a power compensation solution to the ultra-long distance long hop (LHP) transmission. A network topology being developed as a new standard for fiber optic rings. Radio Frequency Request For Announcement Request for Information A type of network topology in which each node connects to exactly two other nodes, forming a circular pathway for signals. Radio Network Controller See Remote optical pumping amplifier The path that network traffic takes from its source to its destination. In a TCP/IP network, each IP packet is routed independently. Routes can change dynamically. A device on the network layer that selects routes in the network. The router selects the optimal route according to the destination address of the received packet through a network and forwards the packet to the next router. The last router is responsible for sending the packet to the destination host. Can be used to connect a LAN to a LAN, a WAN to a WAN, or a LAN to the Internet. Rendezvous Point See Resilient Packet Ring A asynchronous transfer mode that does not involve hand-shaking signal. It can communicate with RS232 and RS422 of other stations in point-to-point mode and the transmission is transparent. Its highest speed is 19.2kbit/s. The specification that defines the electrical characteristics of balanced voltage digital interface circuits. The interface can change to RS232 via the hardware jumper and others are the same as RS232.

Regenerator section overhead Remote optical pumping amplifier Resilient Packet Ring RF RFA RFI ring network RNC ROPA route

router

RP RPR RS232

RS422

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RSTP RTN RX

See Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Radio Transmission Node Receiver

A.19 S
S1 byte A byte to transmit network synchronization status information. On an SDH network, each NE traces hop by hop to the same clock reference source through a specific clock synchronization path, realizing synchronization on the entire network. If a clock reference source traced by an NE is missing, this NE will trace another clock reference source of a lower level. To implement protection switching of clocks in the whole network, the NE must learn about clock quality information of the clock reference source it traces. Therefore, ITU-T defines S1 byte to transmit network synchronization status information. It uses the lower four bits of the multiplex section overhead S1 byte to indicate 16 types of synchronization quality grades. Auto protection switching of clocks in a synchronous network can be implemented using S1 byte and a proper switching protocol. Storage Area Network Square Connector Sustainable Cell Rate See space diversity See Signal Degrade See Standard definition See Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Serious Disturbance Period See Standard definition-Serial Digital Interface signal SDH Equipment Clock The portion of a SONET transmission facility, including terminating points, between (i) a terminal network element and a regenerator or (ii) two regenerators. A terminating point is the point after signal regeneration at which performance monitoring is (or may be) done. A function of establishing a replacement connection by network without the network management connection function. When a connection failure occurs, the replacement connection is found by the network elements and rerouted depending on network resources available at that time. The ECC channel realized by means of serial port. A network device that provides services to network users by managing shared resources, often used in the context of a client-server architecture for a LAN.

SAN SC SCR SD SD SD SDH SDP SD-SDI SEC Section

Self-healing

Serial port extended ECC server

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Service protection SES SETS settings SF Signal Fail SFP SHDSL Side Mode Suppression Ratio signal cable Signal Degrade Signal Fail Simple Network Management Protocol

A measure that ensures that the services can be received at the receive end. Severely Errored Second Synchronous Equipment Timing Source Parameters of a system or operation that can be selected by the user. See Signal Fail A signal indicating that associated data has failed in the sense that a near-end defect condition (non-degrade defect) is active. See Small Form-Factor Pluggable Single-line High speed Digital Subscriber Line The Side Mode Suppression Ratio (SMSR) is the ratio of the largest peak of the total source spectrum to the second largest peak. Common signal cables cover the E1 cable, network cable, and other non-subscriber signal cable. SD is a signal indicating the associated data has degraded in the sense that a degraded defect (e.g., dDEG) condition is active. SF is a signal indicating the associated data has failed in the sense that a near-end defect condition (not being the degraded defect) is active. A network management protocol of TCP/IP. It enables remote users to view and modify the management information of a network element. This protocol ensures the transmission of management information between any two points. The polling mechanism is adopted to provide basic function sets. According to SNMP, agents, which can be hardware as well as software, can monitor the activities of various devices on the network and report these activities to the network console workstation. Control information about each device is maintained by a management information block. Angle-bars on which shelves and chassis may slide and be supported within a cabinet or shelf. A specification for a new generation of optical modular transceivers.

slide rail Small Form-Factor Pluggable SMSR SNC SNCMP SNCP

See Side Mode Suppression Ratio SubNetwork Connection See Subnetwork connection multipath protection See SubNetwork Connection Protection

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SNCP node

Set the SNC node on the protection sub-network to support sub-network connection protection that spans protection sub-networks. The SNCP node of the ring sub-network can support electric circuit dually feed and selectively receive a timeslot out of the ring, thus implementing sub-network connection protection. The SNCP node is generally set on the node on the line board with the path protection type of the dual fed and selectively received. See Subnetwork Connection Tunnel Protection See Simple Network Management Protocol Signal Noise Ratio A diversity scheme that enables two or more antennas separated by a specific distance to transmit/receive the same signal and selection is then performed between the two signals to ease the impact of fading. Currently, only receive SD is used. STP is a protocol that is used in the LAN to remove the loop. STP applies to the redundant network to block some undesirable redundant paths through certain algorithms and prune a loop network into a loop-free tree network. Synchronous Physical Interface See Synchronization Status Message Synchronization Supply Unit Standard definition defines a video format with the resolution below 720P. Standard definition video signal transported by serial digital interface.

SNCTP SNMP SNR space diversity

Spanning Tree Protocol

SPI SSM SSU Standard definition Standard definition-Serial Digital Interface signal Statistical multiplexing

A multiplexing technique whereby information from multiple logical channels can be transmitted across a single physical channel. It dynamically allocates bandwidth only to active input channels, to make better use of available bandwidth and allow more devices to be connected than with other multiplexing techniques. SDH standard for transmission over optical fiber at 622.08 Mbit/s. See Spanning Tree Protocol A number used to differentiate network sections in a sub-network conference. A sub-network ID consists of the first several digits (one or two) of a user phone number. An order wire phone number consists of the sub-network ID and the user number. A type of smaller networks that form a larger network according to a rule, for example, according to different districts. This facilitates the management of the large network.

STM-4 STP Sub-network number

subnet

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subnet mask

The technique used by the IP protocol to determine which network segment packets are destined for. The subnet mask is a binary pattern that is stored in the client machine, server or router matches with the IP address. The only difference is that SNCP is of 1+1 protection and SNCMP is of N+1 protection. That is, several backup channels protect one active channel in SNCMP. A function, which allows a working subnetwork connection to be replaced by a protection subnetwork connection if the working subnetwork connection fails, or if its performance falls below a required level. SNCTP provides a VC-4 level channel protection. When the working channel is faulty, the services of the entire VC-4 path can be switched over to the protection channel. A part used to support and fix a cabinet on the antistatic floor. It is made of welded steel plates and is used to block up the cabinets to facilitate floor layout and cabling. Before the whole set of equipment is grounded, insulation plates must be installed under the supports, and insulating coverings must be added to the expansion bolts to achieve good insulation performance. An attribute set to determine whether an NE monitors the alarm. Under suppression status, NE will not monitor the corresponding alarm conditions and the alarm will not occur even when the alarm conditions are met. Switching Virtual Connection A priority of a board that is defined for protection switching. When several protected boards need to be switched, a switching priority should be set for each board. If the switching priorities of the boards are the same, services on the board that fails later cannot be switched. Services on the board with higher priority can preempt the switching resources of that with lower priority. It refers to the period of time between the start of detecting and the moment when the line is switched back to the original status after protection switching occurs in the MSP sub-network. A message that carries quality levels of timing signals on a synchronous timing link. Nodes on an SDH network and a synchronization network acquire upstream clock information through this message. Then the nodes can perform proper operations on their clocks, such as tracing, switching, or converting to holdoff, and forward the synchronization information to downstream nodes.

Subnetwork connection multipath protection SubNetwork Connection Protection Subnetwork Connection Tunnel Protection Support

Suppression state

SVC Switching priority

Switching restoration time Synchronization Status Message

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Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

A transmission scheme that follows ITU-T G.707, G.708, and G.709. It defines the transmission features of digital signals such as frame structure, multiplexing mode, transmission rate level, and interface code. SDH is an important part of ISDN and B-ISDN. It interleaves the bytes of low-speed signals to multiplex the signals to high-speed counterparts, and the line coding of scrambling is used only for signals. SDH is suitable for the fiber communication system with high speed and a large capacity since it uses synchronous multiplexing and flexible mapping structure. A clock providing timing services to connected network elements. This would include clocks conforming to Recommendations G.811, G.812 and G.813.

Synchronous source

A.20 T
Tandem Connection Monitor TCM TCP/IP TDM TIM Timeslot Time Synchronization TM TMN ToS TPS Trail management function In the SDH transport hierarchy, the TCM is located between the AU/TU management layer and HP/LP layer. It uses the N1/N2 byte of POH overhead to monitor the quality of the transport channels on a transmission section (TCM section). See Tandem Connection Monitor See Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Time Division Multiplexing Trace Identifier Mismatch Continuously repeating interval of time or a time period in which two devices are able to interconnect. Also called the moment synchronization, time synchronization means that the synchronization of the absolute time, which requires that the starting time of the signals keeps consistent with the UTC time. Terminal Multiplexer Telecommunications Management Network See Type of Service See Tributary Protection Switch A network level management function of the network management system. This function enables you to configure end-to-end services, view graphic interface and visual routes of a trail, query detailed information of a trail, filter, search and locate a trail quickly, manage and maintain trails in a centralized manner, manage alarms and performance data by trail, and print a trail report. A transmitter and receiver housed together in a single unit and having some circuits in common, often for portable or mobile use. Common name for the suite of protocols developed to support the construction of worldwide internetworks.

Transceiver Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

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transparent transmission Tray Tributary loopback Tributary Protection Switch Tributary unit

A process during which the signaling protocol or data is not processed in the content but encapsulated in the format for the processing of the next phase. A component that can be installed in the cabinet for holding chassis or other devices. A fault can be located for each service path by performing loopback to each path of the tributary board. There are three kinds of loopback modes: no loopback, outloop, and inloop. A function that uses a standby tributary processing board to protect N tributary processing boards. An information structure which provides adaptation between the lower order path layer and the higher order path layer. It consists of an information payload (the lower order VC) and a TU pointer which indicates the offset of the payload frame start relative to the higher order VC frame start. One or more Tributary Units, occupying fixed, defined positions in a higher order VC-n payload is termed a Tributary Unit Group (TUG). TUGs are defined in such a way that mixed capacity payloads made up of different size Tributary Units can be constructed to increase flexibility of the transport network. Time To Live Tributary Unit See Tributary Unit Group A channel on the packet switching network that transmits service traffic between PEs. In VPN, a tunnel is an information transmission channel between two entities. The tunnel ensures secure and transparent transmission of VPN information. In most cases, a tunnel is an MPLS tunnel. A field in an IP packet (IP datagram) used for quality of service (QoS). The TOS field has 8 bits in length, which is divided into five subfields.

Tributary Unit Group

TTL TU TUG Tunnel

Type of Service

A.21 U
UART UAS UBR underfloor cabling UNI Unprotected Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter Unavailable Second Unspecified Bit Rate The cables connected cabinets and other devices are routed underfloor. See User-to-Network Interface Pertaining to the transmission of the services that are not protected. The services cannot be switched to the protection channel if the working channel is faulty or the service is interrupted, because protection mechanism is not configured.

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Unprotected sub-network Upload

A sub-network without any protection mechanism. The purpose of such configuration is to provide the basic data of trail protection for subsequent trail management. An operation to report some or all configuration data of an NE to the NMS. The configuration data then covers the configuration data stored at the NMS side. Uninterruptible Power Module TThe critical value that can induce unexpected events if exceeded. Uninterruptible Power Supply Cables or fibers connect the cabinet with other equipment from the top of the cabinet. Any entity external to the network which utilizes connections through the network for communication. A person or other entity authorized by a subscriber to use some or all of the services subscribed to by that subscriber. The interface between user equipment and private or public network equipment (for example, ATM switches). Universal Time Coordinated

UPM Upper threshold UPS Upward cabling User

User-to-Network Interface UTC

A.22 V
VB VBR VC VC VCG VCI Virtual Container Virtual Bridge Variable Bit Rate Virtual Concatenation See Virtual Container Virtual Concatenation Group Virtual Channel Identifier The information structure used to support path layer connections in the SDH. It consists of information payload and path overhead (POH) information fields organized in a block frame structure which repeats every 125 or 500 s. A logical grouping of two or more nodes which are not necessarily on the same physical network segment but which share the same IP network number. This is often associated with switched Ethernet. A system configuration, where the subscriber is able to build a private network via connections to different network switches that may include private network capabilities. See Virtual local area network Virtual Path Virtual Path Identifier

Virtual local area network Virtual Private Network VLAN VP VPI

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VPN

See Virtual Private Network

A.23 W
Wait to Restore WAN Wander The number of minutes to wait before services are switched back to the working line. Wide Area Network The long-term variations of the significant instants of a digital signal from their ideal position in time (where long-term implies that these variations are of frequency less than 10 Hz). A washer is a thin flat ring of metal or rubber which is placed over a bolt before the nut is screwed on. A technology that utilizes the characteristics of broad bandwidth and low attenuation of single mode optical fiber, uses multiple wavelengths as carriers, and allows multiple channels to transmit simultaneously in a single fiber. Data for describing the wavelength protection structure. Its function is similar to that of the protection subnet for SDH NEs. The wavelength path protection can work only with the correct configuration of the wavelength protection group. See Wavelength Division Multiplexing Weighted Fair Queuing A tool for fiber routing, which acts as the corrugated pipe. A path allocated to transport the normal traffic. Weighted Random Early Detection See Wait to Restore

washer Wavelength Division Multiplexing Wavelength protection group

WDM WFQ Winding pipe Working path WRED WTR

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