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Guide to Protective Coatings:

Inspection and Maintenance

Tom N. Bortak

United States Department of the Interior

Bureau of Reclamation Technical Service Center

Tom N. Bortak United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation Technical Service Center September

September 2002

Acknowledgments

Several Reclam ation em p loyees help ed p rep are this gu id e, and th eir con tribu tion is gr eatly ap p re ciated . The se p eop le ar e Ku rt F. von Fay, materials engineer , w ho set up fund ing and show ed great patience over the w riting interval; D. Thom as (Tom ) John son, m aterials engineer, for h is corr osion exp ertise contribution; Gregory J. Myers and Richard A. Pep in, m aterials engineering techn icians, for their initial review in ferretin g ou t obv ious

er ror s; an d Rober t Ro od , ed itor, for his

nu m erous “I d on't u nd erstand ” com m ents that

forced m e into w riting a clearer, m ore concise,

an d u n d erstan d able d ocu m en t.

A d ebt of gratitud e is expressed to N ACE

International, Society of Protective Coating s, and Univer sity of M issou ri-Rolla, Coa tin g Institute for prov id ing all the courses and references that m ad e this guid e p ossible.

Preface

In recent years, coating techn ology has

ch an ged d ra m atically.

behind the change h as been regu lations affecting the en vironm ent an d p ersonn el health and safety. For exam p le, regu lations related to du st particles from abrasive blasting, volatile org an ic com p ou nd (VOC) em ission s, and hazard ous m aterials su ch as lead, chromate, and other heavy metals have chan ged .

The d riv ing for ce

Before the late 1980s, coating m aterials w ere

m or e tolera nt of less th an op tim u m su rface

p rep aration

form u lation contained high VOC s to allow the

m ater ial to w et or p en etrate st eel su rfaces. most successful were red lead p rimers and vinyl resins; however, regulations have

d iscou raged th e u se of th ese m aterials. Pa in t

m an u factu rers reform u lated their coatings to

com p ly w ith ne w regu lation s. This has led to

th e d ev elop m en t of a w id e v ar iety of h igh -tech

coatin g m aterials th at are m u ch m or e sen sitive

to su rface prep aration and environm ental

ap p lication p ractices. The Fed eral H ighw ay

Ad m inistration has estim ated th at u p to 80 p ercent of all p rem atur e coating failu res on

con d itions beca u se p aint

The

brid ge stru ctu res ar e p artially or com p letely caused by d eficient sur face p rep aration or

ap p lication p ractices. Several organizations

such as the Am erican Society for Testing an d

M aterials, N A CE Intern ational, and the

Society for Protective Co atings hav e issued con sensu s stan d ar d s to m inim ize su rface p rep ara tion and ap p lication ina d equ acies.

Th is gu id e is not intend ed to be all

encomp assing; rather, it is intend ed to be an introdu ction to specific reference standard s

an d test p ro ced u res related to su rface p reparation, app lication, testing, and

m aintenance of coatings. Exp lanations and

p roced u res of r eferen ce stand ard s cited w ith in this gu id e are abbreviated to d evelop a

w orking basis. The user is encourag ed to read

reference standard s and coating m anu als for a

m or e th or ou gh

focu ses on new con stru ction coa tin gs, existing infrastructure coating m aintenance, and galvanized coatings of ferrou s substrates for

m etalw or k item s coated in th e field . In

general, this gu id e follow s the Bu reau of

Reclam ation’s (Reclam ation) coa tin g gu id e

sp ecifications.

u n d er stan d in g. Th e g u id e

Contents

 

Page

Ch ap te r I— In tro d u cti o n an d Back g ro u n d

1

1. Standard s

1

2. Coating References

1

3. Term inology

1

4. Corrosion

1

5. Service Exposure

5

Chapter II—M aterials

5

6. Com pon ents of Coatings

5

7. Coating Typ es

7

8. Generic Coatings

7

Chapter III—Specifications

11

9.

Con stru ction Sp ecification Institu te

11

10.

Reclam ation C oating Specifications

11

11.

Coating Tabu lations an d Categor ies

12

12.

M an u factu rer's Prod u ct Data an d Ap p lication Sheets

13

13.

Add endum s and Modifications

14

Chapter IV—Inspector's Role

15

14. Prim ary Resp onsibilities

15

15. Daily Respo nsibilities

15

16. M aterial Ap p roval

16

17. Docum entation

16

18. Instru m en ts, Ga u ges, an d Tools

17

19. Su bstrate Insp ection

17

20. Coating Insp ection Ch ecklist Sheet

17

21. Precoatin g Con feren ce

17

Ch ap te r V—M aterial S to rag e, Co n tain ers, an d S h elf Life

19

22. Storage

19

23. Containers

19

24. Shelf Life

19

Chapter VI—Surface Preparation

21

25. Su rface Conta m inan ts

21

26. Presurface Treatment

23

27. Abrasive Blast Material

23

28. N ozzle Blast Pressu re

24

29. Su rface Prep aration M ethod s

25

30. Photographic Inspection Standard s

27

31. Alternative Su rface Prep aration M ethod s

30

 

Page

Chapter VII—Environmental Conditions

33

32.

Environm ental Factors Affecting Coatings

33

Chapter VIII—Ap plication and Curing

35

33. Ap p lication Tem p erature an d H u m id ity Restrictions

35

34. Coating Layers

35

 

35. M ixin g

36

36. Ap p lication M ethod

36

37. Ap plication Technique

39

38. Drying, Recoatin g, an d Cu ring

39

Chapter IX—Field Inspection and Testing

41

39. Su rface Prep aration Tests

41

40. W et Film Th ickn ess

42

41. H ard ened Painted Su rfaces

42

42. Destructive Test M ethod s

45

Chapter X—Maintenance Coatings

47

43. Definition

47

 

44. Pu rp ose

47

45. Risk Evalu ation

47

46. Insp ection

47

47. Toxic-Based Paints

49

48. W ork er Pr otection from Toxic-Based Paints

50

49. Lead Exposu re Levels by Remov al M ethod s

50

50. Corrective A ction

51

51. Material Selection Factors

52

52. Sched u ling

52

Chapter XI—Galvanizing

53

53. Galvanizing M ethod s

53

54. Zinc Cor rosion an d Service Life

54

55. Zinc Chemical Reactions

54

56. Con tam inan ts

54

57. Su rface Prep aration

55

 

58. Coatings

57

Ch ap te r XII— Co ati n g Fai l u re s

59

59. M aterial Selection

59

60. Form u lation

59

61. Ad hesion

61

 

62. Su bstrate

61

63. Ap p lication

62

 

64. Design

63

65. Exterior Forces

67

Bibliography

69

Appendices

A Or gan izationa l Sou rces for Stand ard s and References

B Read ing Sources

C Insp ection Ch ecklist

D Referen ce Stand ard s C ited in Gu id e

E Inspection Equ ipm ent

F Exam p le of Insp ection Daily Ch eck Sheet

G Proced u re for Detecting M oistu re and Oil in Com p ressed Air (ASTM D 4285)

H Procedu re for Detecting C hlorid es and Solu ble Salts in A brasives by Con d u ctivity Method

I Proced u res for Detecting Ch lorid e Ion in W ater

J Procedu res for Determining Blast Cleaning Air Pressure

K Determ ination of Environm ental Factors

L Proced u res for Detecting Ch lorid e Salts on P rep ared or Existing Su rfaces

M Determ ining Su rface Profile of Blast-Clean ed Steel Using Rep lica Tap e (N AC E RP0287 or ASTM D 4417, M ethod C)

N Proced u res for M easu ring W et Film Th ickness (A STM D

O W et Film Thickness Formu las and Exam p le Calcu lations

4414)

P Proced u res

for

Dry Film Th ickness Gau ges (SSPC-PA2) an d Exa m p le

Q Proced u res

for

Discontin u ity (H olid ay) Testin g (N ACE RP 0188)

R Proced u re for M ech anical (P u lloff) A d hesion Testing (ASTM D 4541; An nex A2)

S Proced u re for H yd rau lic Ad hesion Testing (ASTM D 4541; An nex A3)

T Procedu re for Measuring Dry Film Thickness by Destructive Means With Tooke Gauge (ASTM D 4138)

U Procedu res for SSPC-VIS 2 (2000 Revision)

V Procedu re to Determ ine the Presence of Soluble Lead and Insoluble Lead Ch rom ate in Coatings

W Procedu re to Determ ine the Presence of Chrom ate in Coatings

X Deter m ination of Toxic M etals in H ard en ed Paint

 

Figures

Figure

Page

1

Com pon ents of coatings

5

Tables

Table

Page

1

N u m ber of spot m easu rem ents based on total coated sur face area

44

2

Typ ical and m axim u m lead exposu re levels in m icrogra m s per cubic meter by rem oval m ethod

51

3

Galvanizing m ethod s

53

4

Form ulation-related failures for organic coatings

60

5

Form ulation-related failures for inorganic coatings

61

6

Ad hesion-related failu res

62

7

Su bstrate-related failu res

63

8

Ap p lication-related failures

64

9

Design-related failu res

66

10

Failures related to exterior forces

67

Chapter I

Introduction and Background

Protective or ind u strial coating s are th e

p rimary m eans em p loyed by the Bu reau of Reclam ation (Reclam ation) to control

corrosion . H yd rau lic stru ctu res

constructed w ith ferrous metals and are

sub ject to corrosion.

structures are 50 years old , and some are app roaching 100 years. These structures are exp ected to continu e fun ction ing into th e foreseeable futu re. Protective coatings

influen ce the life, safety , op erating efficien cy,

ap p earan ce, an d econo m y of these stru ctures.

ar e typ ically

Man y Reclam ation

A coa tin g's effectiven ess d ep en d s on selecting

2. Coating

References.—The co atin g

insp ector is not exp ected to h ave the exp ertise of a coa tin g chem ical form u lator or a co atin g

engineer, bu t shou ld be reasonably fam iliar

w ith th e m aterials bein g ap p lied . Th is g u id e is intend ed to p rov id ed th e m ost basic back gro u nd on gen eric m aterial ty p es, su rface p rep aration, app lication, and insp ection

m eth od s. The r ead er is encou rag ed to p u rsu e

B.

rela ted co atin g refe ren ce s lis ted in ap p en d ix

3. Terminology.—The w ord “coating ” is a

gen eric term an d inclu d es “p aint.”

m ost general term s, a “coating” is protection

In th e

coating m aterial that correctly m atches th e

against corrosion, wh ereas a “paint” m ay

in

te n d ed service exp osu re for th e m eta lw ork.

hav e ad d itional prop erties su ch as color or

In

the p ast, coating m aterial selection w as

ultraviolet screening p igm ents. The terms

based on Fed eral, m ilitary, or Reclam ation form u lations; how ever, nea rly all these form ulations have been w ithd raw n. Tod ay,

“coating ” an d “p aint” are u sed interchang e- ably throu gh ou t this guid e.

selection is based on service exp osure type and

Other ter m s often u sed together are “coatings”

th

e resu lts of accelerated p er for m ance testin g

an d “linin gs.” In g en eral, w he n d escribing the

of

com m ercially av ailable prod u cts.

interior su rfaces of p ipes or tan ks, the term “linings” is u sed to iden tify the interior

1.

Standards.—Form erly, Reclam ation

su rfaces an d “coatings” is u sed to iden tify th e

p

rovid ed narra tive stand ard s and d efinitions

exterior su rfaces.

for specifying m aterials, surface pr ep aration, app lication, and inspection. H ow ever,

Reclam ation now ad op ts ind u strial stand ard s, w here ap p licable. The follow ing or gan izations (see app end ix A for add resses, telep hon e

nu m bers, and w eb sites) are referenced thro u gh ou t this guid e:

• Am erican Society for Testing and M aterials (ASTM ).

• N AC E Intern ational (form erly called N ational Association of Corrosion En gineers) (N ACE).

• Society for Protective Coatings (form erly called Steel Stru ctures Paintin g Cou ncil) (SSPC).

4. Corrosion.—The p rimary reason for

coating steel is to preven t corrosion.

of m etals is an electrochem ical reaction that can be controlled by interfering w ith on e or

m or e of th e fou r req u ired elem en ts of a

corrosion cell: (1) an od e (co rrod in g

(2) cath od e (non corrod ing ar ea); (3) electrolyte (w ater or m oisture in atm osph ere, im m ersion, or soil); an d (4) metallic p ath (betw een tw o

d ifferen t m eta ls o r w ith in th e

Eliminate an y on e of the four requ ired elem ents and the corrosion p rocess w ill stop.

Corrosion

ar ea );

sa m e m eta l).

The m ost com m on typ es of corrosion encoun tered on Reclam ation ferrous

m etalw ork ar e:

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance

(a) Uniform Corrosion.—Corrosion that

occu rs m or e or less u nifor m ly an d resu lts in

ru st and m etal loss over th e m etal sur face.

(b) Galvanic Corrosion.— Corrosion that

occu rs on the m ore active m etal of tw o

d issim ilar m etals that are electrically coup led

to geth er in th e sa m e electrolyte (e.g., w ate r).

The m ore active m etal w ill corrod e.

(c) Crevice Corrosion.—Crevice corrosion

is a for m of localized cor rosion th at occu rs in

crevices w here the en vironm ent d iffers from the surround ing bu lk envir onment. Th e d ifferent env ironm ents result in corrosion because of d ifferences in concentration

(e.g., oxy gen , p H , an d fer ric ion s). If th er e is an oxygen concentration d ifference, corrosion

w ill pr oceed at crev ices w here th ere is less

oxygen than in the environment surround ing the crev ice. Crev ices are form ed w hen tw o

su rfaces ar e in p ro xim ity to on e another, su ch as w hen tw o m etal surfaces are against one anoth er, w hen a gasket is against a surface, or

w h en an gle iron s a re p laced back to back.

Crevice corro sion can occur u nd er d ep osits

(e.g., barn acles, d irt, grease, and slim e) on a

m etal su rface.

(d) Pitting corrosion.—A form of localized

corrosion w her e the d ep th of p en etration is greater than the d iam eter of the affected area.

(e) Cavitation corrosion.— The m etal loss

caused by the form ation an d collap se of vap or

bu bb les in a liqu id n ear a m etal su rface.

app earance of cavitation is sim ilar to pitting, except that pitted areas are closely spaced and the su rface is consid erably rou gh ened .

The

(f) Erosion-corrosion.— The accelerated

m etal loss from an initial corrosion m echanism

associated w ith high-velocity flow s and

abrasion.

by groov es, gu llies, w aves, and

rid ges or valleys and exhibits a d irectional

flow pattern.

Erosion-corrosion is cha racterized

rou nd ed

(g) Dealloying or Selective Leaching.—Th e

selective rem oval of one of the elem ents of an

alloy by either p referential attack or com p lete

d issolution of the matrix, follow ed by

red ep osit of th e cath od ic con stitu en t.

elem ent rem oved is alw ays an od ic to the

m atrix.

d im ension chan ges, cracks, or groov es;

how ever, the affected area m ay be ev iden t

because of a color cha ng e. The affected area

becom es lighter, p orous, and

m ech anical p rop er ties (i.e., it b ecom es brittle and loses tensile strength ). Tw o comm on form s of d ealloying ar e:

The

With d ealloying , there is n o m etal loss,

loses its original

Dezincification.— The selective d issolu tion

of zinc from brass alloys. It is recognized by a color change (e.g., from its original yellow brass color to a distinctly red, copp ery

ap p earance).

Degraphitization.— The selective

d issolu tion of iron from som e cast irons,

u su ally gra y cast iron s. It norm ally p roceeds un iform ly inw ard from the surface, leaving a

p orou s m atrix alloy that is comp osed m ostly of

carbon. Degraphitization can be recognized by

a change from an original silver-gray color to a

d ar k gra y. The a ffected m etal can be easily cu t or p ierced w ith a k nife.

5. Service Exposure.—Coatings are sp ecified

by ser vice exposu re or th e env ironm ent the

coating w ill be subject to. The follow ing are the basic service exposu res d efined by Reclam ation:

• Atm osp her ic

N

N

Ind oors

Ou tdoors

• Bu rial

• Im m ersion

• Com p lete, p artial, or flu ctu atin g im m ersion cond ition s

• Atm osp heric exp osu re su bject to cond ensation, high hu m idity, sp lash, or spray

• The follow ing su bexposu re cond itions m ay ap p ly to any of the abov e:

Introduction and Background

N Direct su nlight or UV: several coatin gs, su ch as ep oxies, w ill d eteriorate by cha lking w hen exp osed to su nlight.

N Ch em ical resistance: exposu res may includ e acidic or alkaline concentrations, ind ustrial smog, acid rain, sew age, or sp ecific chem icals.

Chapter II

Coating form u lation is generally based on

organ ic, inorgan ic, p olym er, and

co-p olym er

Materials

general categories: (1) color and (2) inert and

rein for ced . Figu re 1 illu strates th e r ela tion sh ip

ch em istry. It is n ot th e in ten tion of th is chap ter to d iscu ss coating chem istry b u t,

of

these com p on ents.

rath er , to p rov id e a basic know led ge of coa tin g

W

hen a coating is ap p lied , the solvent

com p onen ts and gen eric coating typ es specified by Reclam ation.

ap or ates d u ring th e cu ring p rocess, lea ving only the resin an d the p igm ent comp onen ts on the substrate. The remaining resin an d

ev

6. Components of Coatings.—A ll or gan ic

co atin g s co n sis t of t h r ee b asic co m p on en ts:

(1) solven t, (2) resin , an d (3) p igm en t. N ot all coating s contain solven t and p igm ented com p on en ts. Th er e a re solv en t-free (100 p ercent solids) coating s and clear, pigm ent- free coating s, bu t not resin -free coatings.

Coa tin g chem ical form u lator s com m on ly grou p solvent, resin, and p igm ent com p on ents into two general categories. The first category

com bin es th e

Th e solv en t p or tion is called th e “vola tile veh icle,” an d the r esin p ortion is called th e “n on volatile veh icle.” The com bination of the solven t and th e resin, w her e the resin is d issolved in the solvent, is called the “vehicle.”

so lv en t a n d th e resin to geth er.

The secon d category is the

are ad d itives th at im p art sp ecific prop erties to the coating an d are su bd ivided into tw o

p igm en t. Pigm en ts

p igm en ts ar e som etim es called th e “coatin g solid s,” and they form the p rotective film for corrosion protection.

(a) Solvent.—Or gan ic solven ts are form u lated

into coatings to perform three essential fun ction s: (1) dissolve the r esin com p on en t; (2) control evaporation for film form ation; and (3) red u ce the coating v iscosity for ease of

ap

p lication . Solv en ts w ill also a ffect d ry film

ad

h esion an d d u rability coa tin g p rop er ties. In

general, resins that are less soluble will require either m ore solven ts or stron ger solven ts to

d issolve the resins.

The terms “solvents” and “thinners” are

often used interchangeably, but there are

d ist in ction s w ith in an d

The term “solvent” can im p ly tw o d ifferent

u sa ges: (1) th e solv en t or solven t b len d s in the coating form u lation a t p red eterm ined

betw een th e tw o te rm s.

Solvent Resin (No nv olatile) Color Inert and (Volatile) Pigm ents Reinforced Vehicle Pigment Coating
Solvent
Resin
(No nv olatile)
Color
Inert and
(Volatile)
Pigm ents
Reinforced
Vehicle
Pigment
Coating

Figure 1.—Components of coatings.

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance

concen tration lev els; or (2) cleaning solven ts in

atm osp her e and react w ith su nlight and air

stron g con cen tration stren gth for cleaning

p

ollu tants to form ozone, a know n h u m an

bru sh es, r ollers, h ose s, a n d oth er

eq u ip m en t.

h

ea lth h azard . In resp on se, coa tin g

The u sage of the ter m “th inn er” (a thinner is a solvent) is m ost often associated w ith the

m anu factu rer ’s h ave reform u lated th eir

p rod u cts w ith low er solvent content to m eet

coating ap p licator ad d ing a th inn er to a coatin g con tainer (nor m ally ab ou t 1 p int thinner to 1 gallon of coating) to red u ce the viscosity for ea se of a p p lication . Ad d in g thinn er to a coating in the field is often called “field th in n in g.”

current VOC regu lations.

Reclam ation specifications require the coatings to m eet the VOC regu lations “in-the-can” or “as-m an u fact u red ” befo re field th in n in g. Field thinning of a coating that w ill exceed the regu late d VO C m axim u m is n ot p erm itte d . Reclam ation sp ecifies coating s based on the

Th e m anu factu rer ’s p rod u ct d ata sh eet w ill specify a thinner and a m axim um am oun t tobe u sed for each coating typ e. Use of a thinner not recom m end ed by the m anu facturer can cause nu m erou s app lication p roblems or p rem atur e failu res such as separation of comp onen ts, coagulation, too fast or too slow d rying, changes in flow characteristics, or liftin g of p rev iou s coats. Th e follow in g com m on th inners are u sed w ith th e associated gen eric coating typ es:

rr en t En vironm en tal Protection Agen cy (EPA) VOC lim its.

cu

(b)

Resin.— The resin (frequ ently called

bind er ) is th e film for m ing com p on en t of a

coating.

Resins are typically a high m olecu lar

w

eight solid polymer that form s large

rep eatin g m olecu les in th e cu red film .

The

p

rim ary p u rp ose of the resin is to w et the

p

igm ent p articles and

bind the p igm ent

 

p

articles together a nd to the su bstrate (hen ce,

 

Thinners

Coatings

M

ineral sp irits

O ils and alkyd s

Ar om atics (ben zene, xylol, tolu ole)

Coal tar ep oxies, alkyd s, chlorinated rubbers

Keton es (MEK,

Vinyls, epoxies,

M

IBK)

u rethan es

Alcoh ols (isop rop yl)

W ater

Phen olics, inor ganic zin cs

Acrylics, som e inor gan ic zin cs

Solvents prod u ce vapors that are heavier than air and w ill collect in tank b ottom s or confined area s. Th e k eton es h ave th e lo w est flash p oin t of the or gan ic solven ts; how ever, any solven t in the right com bination w ith air can create an explosive com bination.

Fed er al, State, cou nty , city, an d loca l air qu ality control districts regulate the am ou nt of volatile organ ic solv en ts (VO C) in coatin gs. A s the coating cures, VOC s evap orate into the

the term “bind er”). The resin im p arts m ost of the coating p rop erties. The various typ es of resins form u lated in a coating w ill d isplay

d istinct p rop erties. These p rop erties are:

• Mechanism and time of curing

• Perform ance in service exposu re type

• Perform ance on substrate type

• Com patibility with other coatings

• Flexibility an d tou gh ness

• Exter ior w eath er ing

• Ad hesion

N o single resin can achieve a high d egree of

su ccess in m eetin g th e abov e coatin g

p rop erties w ith w ide v ariations associated

w ith ea ch p rop er ty . Th er efo re, g en er ic coa tin g types are generally classified by the p rim ary resin ty p e u se d in th e coatin g form u lation . Typ ical resin s are acry lics, alkyd s, and ep oxy

p olym ers.

(c) Pigment.— Pigm ents are insoluble and are

the heavier solid p ortion of a coating that

ty p ically settles to th e bottom of th e con ta in er.

Pigm en ts ar e ad d itiv es to th e coatin g form u lation th at im p art specific prop erties to

Materials

achieve the d esired film p rop erties. The follow ing p roperties are accorded by p igm ents, and a brief d escription is prov ided for each.

Color.—N atu ral earth p igm en ts (kaolin clay, m agn esiu m silicate, calciu m carbona te) p rov ide color stability from u ltraviolet (UV) su nlight d eterioration. N atu ral earth p igm en ts are m or e U V stable than synth etic or ganic p igm ents.

Opacity.—Titan ium oxide h ides th e substrate or previous coating color and protects the bind er from UV sunlight deterioration.

Wet paint.—Silica and talc control viscosity, w et film lev elin g, an d settling bu t provide little hid ing (opacity) pow er.

Weather and moisture resistance.— Alu m inu m leafs and m icaceou s iron oxid e (M IO) increase bar rier thickn ess and force m oisture to detour aroun d these plate-like ad d itives.

Corrosion resistance.—Pigm en ts ad d ed to inh ibitive (prim er) coatings im p ed e corrosion of ferrou s substrates. Past form u lations in clu d ed ch rom ate an d lead p igm en ts, bu t they are seld om u sed tod ay because of en viron m en tal an d h ealth con cern s. The follow ing chromate and lead p igm ents are rar ely u sed in cu rrent coating form u lations:

• Red lead

• W hite lead

• Basic lead silico-chrom ate

• Zinc chrom ate

Stron tium chrom ate

Th e follow ing ar e accep table alternativ e inh ibitive p igm ents:

• Bariu m m etabor ate

• Calciu m p ho sp ho silicate

• Zinc oxid e

Zinc p ho sp ha te

• Zinc m olybd ate

Zinc p ho sp ho silicate

Mildew resistance.—M ildewcides prev en t m ild ew grow th on the dry film coating.

Skid or slip resistance.— A luminum oxid e or mineral aggregate is added in the

form u lation or ap p lied to the w et film to

ach iev e n on slip su rface s.

the b etter choice because m ineral agg rega te

may be crushed under weight, providing moisture access to the substrate, and p rom oting further coating d egrad ation and corrosion.

A lu m in u m oxid e is

7. Coating Types.—The follow ing are th ree

basic typ es of coatings:

(a) Barrier.— A coating th at form s a

barrier betw een the m etal surface an d the electrolyte an d electrically iso late s th e m eta l. Exam p les are ep oxies and coal tar ep oxies.

(b) Inhibitive.—P igment in a co atin g

p rim er that is slightly solu ble in w ater that for m s a chem ical in hibitor an d effectiv ely interferes w ith the electrolyte. Exam p les are red lead and chrom ate p rim ers (no long er accep table).

(c) Galvanic.—Zinc-rich p rim er coatings

tha t p rov ide g alvan ic or catho d ic p rotection to ferro u s m etal (zinc sacrifices itself to p ro tect the ferrous metal). Galvanic coatings are effectiv e only if ap p lied d irectly to bare m etal.

fo llow in g gen er ic

coatin gs and gen er al d escrip tions are typ ically specified by Reclam ation:

8. Generic Coatings.—Th e

(a) Acrylics.— In w ater-bor n e a crylic

coating s, the r esin is d ispersed in w ater to for m a w ater em u lsion . Water -bo rn e a cry lics are sp ecified for atm osp heric expo su res as a p rim er or top coat and have excellent color and gloss retention. Acrylics cure by coalescence.

(b) Alkyds.—Alkyd s are norm ally natu ral

oils (soya, tu ng , styrenate) that h ave been chem ically m od ified to im p rove cu re rate, ch em ical resista n ce, an d h ar d n ess. Ph en olic- m od ified alkyd s are specified as a primer, and silicone alkyd s are specified as the topcoat for atm osph eric service exposu res. They are not

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance

suitable for alkaline (concrete or m asonry)

su rface s or en viron m en ts. Alkyd s cu re b y air oxid ation of d rying oils.

(c) Bituminous.—Bitum inou s coatings are

heavy-bod ied m aterials a p p lied w ith a cu tback

solven t. They

resistan ce and fair to good chem ical resistance bu t are not resistant to solvents. Com m ercial bitum inou s pr od u cts are sp ecified on a lim ited basis by Reclam ation for protection of alum inu m su rfaces in contact w ith

cem en titiou s m aterial or steel an d cop p er cab le

w eld connections. Bitum inou s coatings cure by solvent evaporation.

h ave go od m oistu re barr ier

(d) Epoxy, Amine.— Am ine epoxies are

tw o-com p onen t coatings that are catalyzed (hard ened ) by an am ine cur ing ag ent to p rod u ce a hard , tightly bond ed , chem ical

resista n t (a lkali, acid , an d so lv en t) p rod u ct, bu t they are moisture and tem perature sensitive

d u ring ap p lication.

burial and im m ersion service exposu res, but

th ey w ill fad e an d ch alk in d irect su n ligh t.

Am ine ep oxies cu re by chem ical reaction.

They are sp ecified for

(e) Epoxy, Polyamide.— Polyam ide ep oxies

are tw o com p onen t coatings that are catalyzed by a p olyam id e cu rin g ag en t to p ro d u ce

su p erior resistance to w ater an d salt solution s,

bu t they do n ot provide the chem ical resistance of the am ine ep oxy. Polyam ides have a greater flexib ility th an th e am ine epoxies. They are sp ecified for bu rial and im m er sion service exp osu res, bu t they w ill fad e a n d ch alk in d irect su n ligh t. Poly am id e ep oxies cu re by chem ical reaction.

(f) Epoxy, Coal Tar.— Coal tar epoxies are

genera lly an am ine or p olyam ide ep oxy

m od ified w ith coal tar pitch r esin to p rod u ce a high-bu ild film that has good chem ical resistance and excellent w ater resistance. They have a tend ency to becom e brittle w ith age and

d

elam inate betw een coa ts or ben eath rep air

p

atches. They are sp ecified for bu rial and

im m er sion service exp osu res, bu t they w ill fad e and chalk in d irect su nlight. Coal tar ep oxies cu re by chem ical reaction.

(g) Epoxy, Fusion-Bonded.— Fusion-

bon d ed ep oxies (com m only called p ow d er coating s) are com p lete coating s in p ow d er

form . The re a re tw o ap p lication m eth od s,

flu idized -bed

fluidized -bed m ethod, the metal items are preheated to a fusion temperature and

im m er sed in

the electrostatic meth od , the ep oxy p ow d er p articles are charged w ith high voltage, and the metal item is then sprayed. After spraying, the item is placed in an oven to cure at abou t 350 to 650 d egrees Fahren heit (F). Fusion- bond ed epoxies are specified for bu rial and im m er sion service exp osu res, bu t they w ill fad e and chalk in d irect sun light and are brittle. A n ew m aterial is fu sion-bon d ed nylon. This material is sup erior to the fu sion- bon d ed ep oxy an d w ill be incorp orated into

Reclam ation 's sp ecifica tion . Po w d er coa tin gs

cu re b y fu sion (heat).

an d electrostatic. In the

th e p ow d er -ep oxy solu tion . In

(h) Inorganic Zinc Primers.— In or gan ic

zincs are prim ers that incorporate a high load ing (p ou nd s per gallon) of m etallic zinc for p igm entation (hence, the term “zinc-rich”) and are eith er solven t or w ater based . Dep en d in g on th e solv en t and resins u sed , th e coatin g

m ay be a zinc-rich ep oxy o r u reth an e.

coating s are exclusively p rim ers because th ey

p rovid e galvan ic or cathod ic p rotection to steel sub strate. Inorg anic zincs are sp ecified for atm osp heric and im m ersion serv ice exp osu res, bu t they can be top coated to extend th eir service life. Su itable topcoat m aterial selection

is requ ired to p revent ou t-gassing from the

inor ganic zin c th at p rod u ces sm all p inholes in

th e top coat. Reclam ation sp ecifies in or gan ic

zinc coatings only to fraying su rfaces or heated treated m etalw ork (ASTM A 325 or A STM

A 490). Ap p lication requ ires sp ecial skills and

kn ow ledge. Inor gan ic zincs cure by either reaction to w ater (solven t redu cible) or reaction to car bon d ioxid e (w ater red u cible).

Th ese

(i) Organic Zinc Primers.— O rg an ic zin cs

are p rim er s that in corp or ate a h igh loa d ing (p ou nd s per gallon) of m etallic zinc for p igm entation w ith a w ide v ariety of solven ts

and resin s. Depending on the so lv en t and

Materials

resin s u sed , the coating m ay be a zin c-rich

an d chem ical reaction. Reclam ation specifies

alkyd , d rying oil, ep oxy, or m oistu re-cu red

p

olyu reth an es fo r to p coatin g com p atible (i.e.,

u

reth an e. Th ese co atin gs are exclu siv ely

sam e m anu factu rer ) am ine and p oly am id e

p

rim er s beca u se th ey p rov id e g alvanic

epoxies to protect against direct sun light

rotection to steel substrate or th ey are u sed to rep air da m aged galvan ized coatings on steel sub strates. Org anic zincs are sp ecified for atm osp heric, bu rial, an d im m ersion serv ice exp osu res bu t are n orm ally top coated to

p

or U V a n d to p rovid e sp ecific colors. Poly u rethanes ar e sp ecified for atm osp her ic an d p ar tial or fluctu ating im m ersion serv ice exp osu res.

exten d th e ser vice life of th e co atin g. Suita ble top coat m aterial selection is requ ired to

p reven t o u t-gassin g from th e organ ic zin c.

Ou t-gassing p rod u ces sm all p inholes in th e top coat. The w ay org an ic zincs cure d ep end s on th e coating typ e.

(j) Polyurethane.—Technically,

p olyu rethan e is a subclass of u rethan e. A tw o-

com pon ent polyurethane is created by chem ically com bining a p olyisoyanate and a

p olyol to p rod u ce an isocyan ate that has a tw o- mode cure mechanism of solvent evaporation

(k) Urethane.—Urethane coatings vary

w id ely in form u lation s for sp ecific ser vice

en viron m en ts an d ap p lica tion requ irem en ts. Reclam ation sp ecifies sing le-com p on ent,

m oisture-cu red u rethan es. They cure from

m oistu re in the atm osp here and can be ap p lied to d am p sur faces that d o not hav e free

m oisture p resent. These urethanes are

form u lated w ith various pigm entations and are sp ecified in sever al com binations to su it

th

u rethanes ar e sp ecified for atm osp her ic, bu rial, an d im m ersion exp osu res.

e inten d ed serv ice exp osu re.

These

Chapter III

Specifications

Reclam ation constru ction jobs are ad vertised to contractors to perform the required w ork, and con tractor selection is m ad e b y a b id

Part 1: General.—Includ es cost, referen ces, su bm itta ls, q u ality assu ran ce, d elivery, stora ge, ha nd ling, and restrictions.

p

rocess. The m ost com m on bid typ es are low

p

rice, n egotiate d , fixe d cost, an d so le so u rce.

Part 2: Prod uct .—Includ es requ irem en ts

O

n ce Reclam ation accep ts a con tr actor’s b id , a

for m aterials to be u sed

contract exists betw een Reclam ation an d the contractor. The contract is often called a

sp ecification.

as a w ritten, d etailed , techn ical d escription of

w ork to be performed, describing the

m ate rials, q u an tities, a n d m od e of construction.

The sp ecification can be d efined

Part 3: Execution.—Inclu d es m od e of construction, test m ethod s, acceptance criteria, and repair

10. Reclamation Coating Specifications.—

The Techn ical Service Cen ter (TSC) in D env er

 

m

sp

ain ta in s C SI gu id elin e coatin g sp ecification s.

ecification w riter in p rep aring the

Sp ecifications are d ivided into m any d ivisions to describe the various job requiremen ts and may includ e general job description,

The gu ideline coating sp ecification s are th e basis for specific p roject requirem ents and are base d on h ist orical Reclam ation stru ctu res.

su

bm ittals, p re-existing con d ition s,

Th e g u id elin e sp ecifications contain

environm ental requiremen ts, and techn ical architectu ral, civil, electrical, m ech anical,

instru ctional notes an d footnotes to aid the

coatin g, an d cath od ic p rote ction d iscip lin es.

sp

ecification s to m eet sp ecific p ro ject

Each d ivision is sometim es called a techn ical

req u irem en ts. Th e g u id elin e co atin g

paragraph or section.

sp

e cifica t io n s a r e a v a ila b le o n Re cla m a t io n ’s

in

tr an et w ebsit e: <h ttp :/ / in tr a.u sb r.gov>.

9. Construction Specification Institute.—

Reclam ation has ch anged fro m a n arrativ e

p aragrap h form at to the Con struction

Sp ecification Institute (CSI) form at for sp ecifications. CSI form at style is m ore concise an d u ses im p er ative lan gu ag e. Refere n ce stand ard s are specified to describe qu ality of

m aterials, w ork m od e, test m ethod s, and

accep tance criteria that are a recognized ind u stry practice, thu s redu cing th e need for len gth y ver biag e. Th e m ost com m on re feren ce stand ards u sed in the coatings ind ustry are ASTM, N ACE, and SSPC.

CSI specifications are d ivided into 16 d ivisions for all the bu ild ing trad es, and each d ivision

m ay be fu rth er d iv id ed

Finishes are Division 9, and p aint and

p ro tectiv e coatings are Section 09900. Each

section is su bd ivid ed into th e follow ing basic

p arts:

in to sp eciality section s.

Reclam ation u ses the follow ing sp eciality sections for coating s and haz ard ou s based - p aints:

Sect io n 09902.—C oa tin gs for new m etallic

su bstrates th at in clu d e: steel, cast or d u ctile

iron; galvan ized , alu m inu m ; brass; bron ze; or copp er

Sect io n 09908.—M aintenance coatings for p reviously coated m etallic substrates that inclu d e: steel, cast or d u ctile iron; galvan ized, alum inu m ; brass; bron ze; or copp er

Sect io n 09980.—Coatings for concrete and

m asonr y su bstrates

Sect io n 13283.—Handling and d isposing

of p ain t con ta in in g h eavy m eta ls (i.e.,

ch

rom ate , lead ,

.)

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance

(a) Part 1: General.—P ar t 1 in clu d e s th e

follow ing gen eral outline:

• Cost prov isions for either lum p sum or bid item

• References for ind ustrial stand ards u sed in the sp ecification section

• Su bm ittals are req u ired to ensu re th e contractor is sup p lying the sp ecified

m aterials. Th e follow in g su bm ittals are essen tial:

• Su rface pr ep aration m ethod s

• App lication equipm ent

• Coating ap p lication requ irem ents

• Insp ection m ethod s and accep tance criteria

• Rep air of d am aged an d non accep table coated areas

• Coating tab u lations an d categories (see follow ing section)

"

Manufacturer’s product data and ap p lication sheets

• Colo r sch ed u le

"

M

anu factu rer’s certification of

11. Coating Tabulations and Categories.—

com p lian ce, statin g th at m aterials

The form at of the coating tabu lations and

w

ere m an u factu red in accord an ce

categories in the CSI specifications w ill be

ith qu ality assu ran ce and qu ality p ro gra m s to inclu d e batch nu m bers, qu antity, and color

w

sim ilar to th e old n arrative p aragrap h form at. The coating tabulations and categories change over tim e becau se of low er VO C regu lations,

"

Purchase orders, ensuring that the

lead- and chrom ate-free requirem ents, new coating techn ology d evelopm ents, and other

contractor using ap p roved

factors.

The follow ing section s d escribe th e

m aterials to in clu d e batch

nu m bers, qu antity, and color

• Qu ality assu ra nce

• Deliv er y, storage, and hand ling

• En vironm en tal restr iction s for su rface p rep aration an d ap p lication

(b) Part 2:

Products.— P ar t 2 in clu d e s th e

tabu lations an d categor ies.

(a) Coating Tabulations.— The co atin g

tabu lations are based on Reclam ation’s historical experience w ith coating m etalw ork item s, service exp osu re, and m aterials u sed in dam s and water convey an ce pro je cts. Th e tabu lation s are in th e follow ing tab le form at:

• Item s to be coated are iden tified .

follow ing m aterial requ irem ents ou tline:

• Coating m aterials are id entified in the first colum n b y an alph anu m eric label

 

Ab rasives

for a man ufacturer’s brand nam e or a

M

IO

Fed eral/ m ilitary sp ecification n u m ber.

Coatings

Sev er al eq u ivalen t co atin g m aterials m ay be listed w ithin the sam e m aterial

(c)

Part 3: Execution.— P ar t 3 in clu d e s th e

option number. More than on e

follow ing ou tline requ irem ents to com p lete w ork:

coating m aterial op tion m ay be listed in the tabu lation . For sm all jobs, the color m ay be sp ecified in th is colu m n.

• Protection an d rep air of existing

su rfaces

• Em bed d ed m etalw ork in concrete

• N u m ber of coats (p rim er, inter m ed iate, an d top coat), thickn ess

Specifications

of each ap p lied coa t, and total d ry film thickn ess (DFT) of the coating system are id en tified in th e second colu m n.

• Surface preparation m ethods are id en tified by letter or alp hanu m er ic label in the third colum n and are d efined in th e execution p art for surface pr ep aration.

• Instructional notes, if specified , are located at either tab le front or en d .

(b) Coating Categories.—The co atin g

categories specify, by alph an u m eric labels, the

m anu factu rer’s brand nam e or the Fed eral or

m ilitary sp ecification nu m ber of the coatin g mater ia l listed in the ta bu la tions. Th e categories are su bd ivided accord ing to th e follow ing th ree essential chara cteristics:

Composition.—List the generic chem ical coating n am e

Phy sical cha ract eristics.—W eight p er gallon, VOC content, m inim u m ap p lication tem p er atu re, cu ring tim es at sp ecific tem p eratu re an d hu m id ity, etc.

Performance requirement s.— A ccelerated ASTM testing an d accep tance cr iteria

12. Manufacturer's Product Data and

Application Sheets.—Reclam ation

sp ecification s requ ire the su bm ittal of the

coating m an u factu rer’s p rod u ct da ta (sometimes called techn ical d ata) and ap p lication sh eets. Th ese sh eets sp ecify the m anu facturer’s instructions and

reco m m en d ation s. Th e m an u fact u rer 's instructions and recom m end ations have becom e sp ecification requ irem ents, u nless the

sp ecification s are m or e r estr ictive. Pro d u ct

d ata and ap p lication sheets shou ld be kep t for futu re reference to verify the material type ap p lied . The pr od u ct d ata and ap p lication sheets vary in content an d form at from

m anu factu rer to m anu factu re. Som e

manufacturers combine product data and

ap p lication into on e sheet.

sheets p rov ide u seful inform ation for the

sp ecific m aterial.

H ow ever , the

(a) Product Data Sheet.— The follow ing are

the m ost com m on items on th e p rod u ct da ta

sheets:

Generic chem ical coating n am e (acrylic, alkyd , ep oxy, p olyur ethan e)

Typ ical uses, such as on bridges, pipes, or w ater tanks

Service exp osu re for atm osp heric,

bu rial, im m er sion (fresh w ater or salt

w

ater), and chem ical resistance

Color an d gloss availability

Physical or technical p ro p erties, su ch as weight per gallon, solid s by volu m e, VOC content, pigm ent ad d itives, flash p oin t, an d serv ice tem p eratu re resistan ce

Recom m en d ed d ry or w et film thickn ess

Theoretical coverage rate per gallon

M

ix ratio (if m u lticom p on en t system ),

p ot life, and ind u ction or sw eat-in tim e

(elap sed time interv al to allow the chem ical reaction to begin for

ulticom pon ent materials before application)

m

Dry, recoat, cu ring, an d fu ll cu re tim e

eriod s at tem p eratu re an d hu m idity ran ges

p

Perform ance test results (accelerated ASTM tests that m ay or may n ot be listed)

Shelf life

Safety precau tions

Sh ippin g data

W

arran ty an d lim itation s of liability

(b) Application Sheet.—The follow ing ar e the

m ost com m on items on th e ap p lication sheet:

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance

• Su bstrate typ es th at are com p atible w ith th e coatin g m ate rial (e.g., alu m inu m , con crete, galvanized , steel, cast iron, or existing coated su rfaces)

• Su rface p rep aration m ethod , nor m ally

listed as a m inim u m

• Thinn er p rod u ct nam e an d am ou nt to be ad d ed

• Pot-life-tim e of m u lticom p on ent coating m aterial at various tem p eratu re an d hu m idity ran ges

• Lower and upp er temperature and hum idity range restrictions du ring application

• Most manufacturer’s state that the coating is to be ap p lied only w hen the su bstrate tem p eratu re is 5 d egrees F, minimu m, above the dew point

• Drying, recoat, and cu ring times at variou s tem p eratu re an d hu m idity ran ges

• Ap plication m ethod: brush, roller, conv entional airless sp ray , or airless sp ray. M ay inclu d e sp ecific equ ipm ent at recom m end ed p ressu res, hose d iam eter sizes, sp ray gu n, noz zle tip sizes, etc.

13. Addendums and Modifications.—

Sp ecifications ar e som etim es chang ed to alter d esig n s, co rrect er rors, o r red ress om ission s. The follow ing tw o gen eral m etho d s are u sed to rev ise spe cifications: (1) ad d en d u m s (also called a m end m ents) are w ritten p age inser ts that change p art(s) of the specification before bid d ing occur; and (2) m odifications are w ritten p age inser ts that m od ify p art(s) of the sp ecification after th e con tr act is a w ard ed . Modifications can incur cost adjustments to the contr act an d are often called chan ge ord ers.

Chapter IV

Inspector's Role

The coating insp ector ensu res th at: (1) the

w or k is accom p lish ed in a tim ely m anner in

accord ance w ith the sp ecifications; (2) w ork

15. Daily Responsibilities.—Th e fo llow in g is

a p artial list of d aily insp ection resp on sibilities:

activ ities are d ocu m en ted ; an d (3) w or k is

(a)

Preparatory.—

p erform ed safely.

The coating insp ector at the

jobsite is either th e contracting officer’s or th e field en gineer’s rep resentative.

• En su re sp ecifications contain all addendu ms and modifications

The insp ector shou ld n ot ver bally cha ng e the req u irem en ts or req u ire m or e rigid requirem ents on the contractor than w ere

• Ensure all specification sub m ittal requ irem ents are m et

or

igin ally sp ecified . Th e in sp ector sh ou ld

(b)

Presurface Preparation.—

contact his sup ervisor for resolution if the specifications are inad equate. Contractors may request a variant from specifications that m ay

• Ensure weather cond itions are cond u cive to blasting op erations

or m ay not be significant. Regardless of varian t significan ce, the in sp ector sh ou ld inform his sup ervisor of any requ ested changes. If a coating ap p licator is not follow ing th e specifications, the inspector

• Determ ine p reblast surface cond ition for rust grad e

sh

ou ld

n ot con fron t th e ap p licato r. In stead , he

• Ensur e that the surface is free of irregu larities (w eld sp atter, slag bu rrs,

shou ld ask the coating contractor sup ervisor to

sharp ed ges, p its, laminations, or other

d

eter m ine w hy th e sp ecifications are n ot bein g

objectionable irregu larities)

follow ed . In som e cases, a d eviation m ay have been allow ed or the coating contractor

• Ensu re that ab rasives m eet

sup ervisor m ay need to correct his own

specification requirem ents and are

w

or ker’s p ra ctices.

w

ithin contam ination limits

14.

Primary Responsibilities.—Th e fo llow in g

• Ensur e the air comp ressor is free of

ar

e p r im ar y resp on sib ilit ie s of t h e in sp ect or :

m

oisture an d oil contam ination

• Verify in w ritin g th at coatin g w or k is

(c)

Postsurface Preparation.—

being p erform ed in accord an ce w ith the specifications

• Ensur e the surface pr ep aration

• M on itor w ork activity on a d aily basis, inclu d ing d eviations from the specifications

• Report an d record d eficiencies to the field engineer for resolu tion

• En su re w or k is cond u cted in a safe m anner

m ethod m eets specifications requ irem ents

• En su re the su rface (an chor ) p rofile

m eets sp ecifications req u irem en ts

• Ensur e the surface is free of

conta m inan ts an d m eets cleanliness

sp ecification s requ irem ents

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance

(d)

Precoating Application.—

 

resp on sible review ing office is listed in the

• Ensure all coating m aterials are

req u ired su bm ittal nu m ber (RSN ) table in Section 01330 (Su bm itta ls) of th e CSI

 

ap

p roved

sp

ecifications.

• Ch eck storage ar ea for pro p er

Th e coatin g insp ector is n ot u su ally

 

environ m ental and requ irem ents

safety

resp on sible for ap p rov ing or d isap p rov ing contra ctor su bm itted m aterial. H ow ever , the

• Ensur e environm ental cond itions (am bient an d su rface tem p eratu res, hu m idity, and d ew p oint) m eet

insp ector shou ld track contractor and Reclam ation correspon d ence to ensure that only approved m aterials are used on the jobsite.

 

sp

ecification s requ irem ents

 

If

the TSC in the Den ver Office is the

• Ensu re m ixing an d thinn ing m eet

resp on sible sp ecification rev iew ing office, it

 

m

an u factu rer’s requ irem ents

w

ill p rovid e a contractor su bm ittal w ith on e of the follow ing r esp on ses:

(e)

Coating Application.—

 

• Ensu re ap p lication m ethod s m eet

Approv ed.—Ind icates material can be p u rchased and ap p lied .

 

m

an u factu rer’s requ irem ents

 

Co ndit io nally approv ed.—Ind icates the

• Ensure interm ed iate coat and topcoat

m

aterial selection is accep table and th e

 

ap

p lication s are w ith in recoat tim e

material may be purchased; however, the

interv al for tem p eratu re an d hu m idity

su

d

bm ittal is in com p lete or is m issing

ranges and that they meet the

ocum entation.

Resubm ittal of incom p lete or

sp

e cifica t io n s o r th e m a n u fa ct u r e r ’s

m

issin g d ocu m en ta tion is r equ ired .

requ irem ents

 

Con d itional ap p rov al d oes n ot im p ly accep tance for m aterial ap p lication.

• Check ambient temperature and hu m id ity d u ring curing p eriod

Not approv ed.—Ind icates the selected material is not approved for application.

(f)

Postcoating Application.—

 

• Ensu re th e d ry film thickness m eets

sp ecification requ irem ents

• Inspect d ry film for h olid ay (pinh ole) d efects

• Ensure that d efective, d am aged , and d eficient areas are rep aired to m eet

sp ecification requ irem ents.

For a m ore com p rehen sive list of resp on sibilities, see ap p en d ix C.

16. Material Approval.—Con tractor

su bm itted coa tin g m aterials ar e n or m ally review ed by th e Reclam ation office that either p rep ared or issu ed the sp ecifications. The

The insp ector shou ld check batch nu m bers on

m aterial containers against the ap p rova l letter

batch n u m bers for m aterials tha t arrive on th e jobsite. Containers w ith batch n u m bers that

d o not correspond to the ap p roved m aterial batch num bers should be removed from the jobsite.

17. Documentation.—Th e in sp ect or sh ou ld

acqu ire the follow ing d ocu m ents:

• Sp ecifications th at includ e ad d end u m s and modifications

• The m anu facturer’s prod u ct data, ap p lication , an d M aterial Safety Data Sh eet (M SDS)

Inspector's Role

• Referen ce stand ard s referred to in the sp ecifications that relate to th e field insp ection

• Referen ce stand ard s are d iscu ssed in m or e d etail for th e p er tin en t in sp ection m eth od in oth er ch ap te rs. Ap pen d ix D lists reference standard s cited in this docu m ent

19. Substrate Inspection.—The insp ector

should inspected the substrate surface before

su rface prep aration . Ferrou s su bstrates w ith

localized ru st or m ill scale are m ore p ron e to p rem atu re co atin g failu re. Ru st an d m ill scale

areas shou ld be insp ected m ore thorou ghly for

clea n liness after su rface p rep aration . If m ill scale is noted and abrasive blasting is not

sp

ab

ecified , notify the field engineer becau se

ra siv e b lastin g is req u ired . For m ain ten an ce

18. Instruments, Gauges, and Tools.—Th e

coating w ork w here overcoating is sp ecified ,

insp ected for loose coatings by scrap ing w ith a

insp ector shou ld acqu ire the equ ipm ent, instru m en ts, an d instru ctional m anu als

the existing coating m aterial should be

n ecessary to p erform th e in sp ection w ork.

sh

arp en ed p u tty kn ife. O ver coatin g loo sely

Sp are b atter ies sh ou ld be availab le if electron ic

ad

her ing existing coa tin g w ill resu lt in

instru m ents are used . The types of instru m en ts w ill be d iscu ssed in th e follow ing chap ters an d are listed in ap p en d ix E.

p rem atu re failure.

For item s coated in a shop , th e coatin gs shou ld be insp ected an d id entified for d am age and

20.

Coating Inspection Checklist Sheet.—

(a)

Conflicts.—At tim es, there are

failed coa tin g ar eas that w ill requ ire rep air

disagreements betw een the contractor and the insp ector over instrum ent readings such as su rface an ch or p rofiles o r d ry film th ick n esses.

either before or after installation.

Th ere m ay be reasonab le exp lan ation s for su ch

Reclam ation sp ecification coating tabu lations

d iscrepancies. These discrepancies should be investigated to avoid futu re conflicts and to d evelop a w orking relationsh ip w ith the contractor. The follow ing ar e som e

(see cha p ter III, su bsection 11) id entify th e item s to be coated , coating m aterials, the DFTs, an d the su rface p rep aration m eth od s; how ever, the inspector may w ish to expan d on

p ossibilities for instru m ent d isagreem ents:

th

e coatin g tabu lation s by creatin g a co atin g

• The two p arties are not using the same typ e of instru m ent sets:

" On e instrum ent may be m alfu nctioning

" On e instru m ent m ay be ou t of calibration

• The two p arties are u sing the sam e typ e of instru m ents bu t:

" They ar e u sing d ifferent p roced u res

" They are taking read ings at different locations

" On e instru m ent m ay be ou t of calibration

insp ection check list u n iqu e to th e job. Sin ce

sp ecification coa tin g tabu lation s can id en tify

sever al item s to b e coated w ith in a single tabu lation, an inspection sheet can p rovid e for the ind ividu al coating op erations and for the com pleted inspection for a single item to be coated, such as a pipeline interior or a radial gate. The checklist can become a p erm eant record of the job. A checklist exam ple app ears in ap p en d ix F.

21. Precoating Conference.—Reclam ation

coating specifications d o not requ ire a

p recoatin g con feren ce w ith th e con tr actor.

H ow ever , a m eeting w ith the con tractor to

d iscuss coating-related issues w ould be helpful. A p recoating conference w ill allow the con tractor to kn ow w ha t is exp ected an d to

ou tlin e th e w or k p rog ram . Th is m eetin g

sh ou ld establish a w or king relationsh ip

betw een th e con tra ctor a n d Reclam ation . The

follow ing are p ossible items for d iscu ssion at the meeting:

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance

• The contractor’s job-specific w orker health an d safety p lan (a su bm itted w ritten p lan is required for lead or other hazard ous m aterial rem oval and d isp osal)

• The insp ector’s access and safety

• The contractor’s proposed operation, inclu d ing equ ipm ent an d p ersonn el

• The contractor’s working hours

• Th e m aterial storage area, inclu d ing tem p eratu re, ventilation, and security

• The ap p roved surface pr ep aration m eth od s, abrasives, coating m aterials, ap p lication m ethod s, and curing tim es

• The m ethod of d u st collection and

d isp osal of u sed abrasives

• Unfavorab le w eath er related to

p rep ared surfaces, ap p lied coatings, or

cu ring

• The plan for coating inaccessible areas

• Insp ection m ethod s and the nu m ber of

m easu rem ents

• The typ es of insp ection instru m ents to be u sed

• The NA CE/ SSPC reference standard s that are specified, the visual stand ards to be m et, an d th e accep tance cr iteria

Chapter V

Material Storage, Containers, and Shelf Life

Coating m aterials arrive on the jobsite before

and hot in su m m er an d hav e limited

ap

p lica tion begin s, a n d th ey requ ire storage.

ventilation. Coating m aterials shou ld be

M

anu factu rers recom m end specific provisions

stored in clim ate con tr olled en viron m en ts.

for storage to p reven t coatin g d ete rioration . Coa tin g m aterials m u st be u sed w ith in a

The follow ing are gen erally accep ted regu lations for stor ing coating m aterials:

sp ecified time from m an u factu re or sh ipm ent.

22. Storage.—Coating m aterials shou ld be stored in a covered , w ell-ventilated area aw ay

from sp arks, fla m es, a n d d irect su n ligh t. Man y coatings require a lim ited temp erature range for p roper storage. Cold storage m ay requ ire a coating to be excessively thinn ed for

ap p lication, resulting in low solid s content and

a less-than -intend ed DFT. At or below

freezing tem p eratu res, coating s (su ch as w ater based m aterials) can d egrad e to the p oint that they are un usable. Materials in cold storage should be m oved to a heated area before

ap p lication. At high tem p eratures, a m aterial

such as solven t-based coating m ay gel or becom e flam m able or exp losive. The storage site should be m onitored u sing a h igh/ low

thermom eter.

Coating m aterials shou ld be stored together by the sam e batch or lot nu m bers. Tw o- com p onen t coating system s shou ld be stored

close together bu t be d istingu ishable from one anoth er. For storage of several m onth s or longer, containers shou ld be inv erted on a

m onthly basis to avoid excessive settling an d

for ea se of fu tu re m ixin g. Th e o ld est co atin g

m aterials sho u ld b e u sed first.

Solvents an d thinn ers shou ld be stored separately from coating m aterials. Sep aration of solvents and thinners is a safety concern because m any of these m aterials hav e low er flash p oint tem p eratu res th an m ost coating s, and they pose a potential fire hazard.

Contractors will often store coating m aterial at the jobsite in trailers. Trailers w ith no heating, coolin g, or ven tilation system s are u nsu itable for storage b ecause they becom e cold in w inter

Indoor storage.—N o m or e th an 25 gallon s outsid e of app roved cabinets in a single area.

Outdoor storage.— N o m or e th an 1,100 gallon s o f m ate rials g rou p ed to geth er. N o

m ore than 60 gallons in ind ivid u al contain ers.

For fu rther inform ation on the storage of

flam m able an d com bu stible liquids, refer to

the m anu factu rer's M SDS and Safety an d H ealth Sta n d ard s.”

“Reclam ation

in

volu m e an d com m on ly ran ge from 1 quart to

23. Containers.—Con ta in er s v ary lar gely

55 gallons.

Because of app lication eq u ipm ent

lim itations, the m ost com m on containers on a

job site w ill b e eith er 1-gallon or 5-gallon p ails. Single com p onen t m aterials are shipp ed in on e conta iner, and tw o or more component

m aterials are ship p ed in sep ara te containers,

each of wh ich h as the capacity to hold the total

com bined volu m e.

An y containers that are d am aged , leaking, or u nlabeled sh ou ld be r ejected and rem oved from the job site.

24. Shelf Life.—Sh elf life is th e le n gth of t im e

after m anu factu re that a coa tin g m aterial w ill

rem ain u sable w hen stored in an u nop ened

con ta in er, accord in g

M anu factu rer s n or m ally sp ecify th e shelf life

of a coating on the container or u se a special

code or bar cod e that specifies the date of

m anu factu re or the expiration d ate. For

special cod es or bar cod es, the insp ector may

n eed to call th e m an u factu rer to

In gen eral, m ost coatings h ave a shelf life of

betw een 6 and 12 m onths at an optimal tem p eratu re, bu t this w ill vary w ith

read th e cod e.

to th e m an u factu rer.

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance

m an u fact u rer an d m aterial typ e. Sh elf life is no ted on the m an u factu rer’s p rod u ct da ta sheet. The insp ector shou ld check the d ate of m an u factu re or th e exp iration d ate to d eterm ine that the exp iration d ate has n ot been reached . Coating m aterials that h ave exceeded

the sh elf life sho u ld b e rem oved from the

job site. C on sequ en ces

life includ e gelling, od or, cha ng es in viscosity, form ation of lu m p s, p igm ent settlem ent, and color or liqu id separation.

of exceed in g th e sh elf

Chapter VI

Surface Preparation

The serv ice life of a coating d ep end s on th e d egree of surface prep aration achieved as

m u ch as it dep end s on m aterial selection and ap p lication . All coa tin g sy stem s w ill

even tu ally fail; how ever, pr em atu re failures

ar e often th e resu lt of inad equ ate su rface

p reparation.

achieve an acceptable margin of cleanliness but leave contam inan ts on th e su rface will tend to lessen th e coating serv ice life. Thu s, cleanliness of the substrate is an essential and integral com p onen t of a coating system .

Even su rface prep arations that

25. Surface Contaminants .—Su rfa ce

contam ination is one of the m ost com m on causes of coating failures. To achieve th e

m axim u m service life of a coa tin g system , it is essen tial to rem ove su rface con ta m in an ts.

(a) Types of Surface Contaminants.—Th e follow ing ar e the m ost com m on typ es of surface contam inan ts and the consequen ces of not rem oving th em :

Rust.—Ru st is th e corr osion byp ro d u ct

(ferrou s oxid e) of steel and m ay be loose or

m ay ad h ere relatively tig h tly to th e su bstrate .

Rust is porou s and m ay inclu d e m oistu re, oxygen, and solu ble salts. Rust will expand u p to eight tim es the volum e of the base m etal consu m ed and fu rther corrod e the steel

su bstrate, thu s d islodg ing an y coating ap p lied over it.

Mill scale.— M ill scale is a h ea vy oxid e

layer form ed d u ring h ot fabrication or heat

tr ea tm en t of m etals an d is a blu ish colo r. M ill

scale will even tu ally break loose from the steel

su bstrate, takin g th e co atin g w ith it. Steel is

anod ic to m ill scale (steel h as a low er electrical- chem ical p oten tial d ifferen ce than m ill scale);

ther efore, steel w ill corro d e (sacrifice itself) to p rotect the m ill scale.

Grease and oil.—Grea se an d oil p rev en t a coating from ad hering to the su bstrate.

Dirt and dust.—D ir t and du st

on th e

su rface prev ent the ap p lication of a sm ooth uniform film and w eaken the adhesion of the

coating to the su bstrate.

Soluble salts.—Solu ble salts dep osited on a

su

rface can rem ain on th e sur face, even after

ab

rasiv e clean ing.

Solu ble salts w ill in crease

moisture permeation through the coating (osm otic blistering) an d can accelerate th e corrosion rate u nd er th e coatin g film

(u n d erfilm corr osion or u n d ercu tting ). The most comm on soluble salts encountered in the coating ind u stry are chlorid es, sulfates, and

m etallic salts. Th e ch lor id e io n is th e m ost aggr essive.

Water.—Wate r will prev en t adhesion an d

m ay either prod uce flash rusting before

coating ap p lication or it m ay accelerate

u n d erfilm corrosio n after coatin g ap p lica tion .

M oistu re in th e liqu id or fro zen state w ill

p revent ad hesion of the coating to th e

sub strate and can d isrup t cu ring reactions of coatings. M oisture con tam ination can cau se several typ es of failu re.

Chalk.— Ch alk is the r esidu e left after the

d ete rioration of th e coatin g’s o rgan ic b in d er. Ch alk resu lts from exp osu re of the coating to

d irect su n ligh t or ar tificial U V ligh t. A ll coatings chalk to som e degree, but epoxies are

m ore p ron e to cha lk. Ov ercoating chalked

surfaces will result in p oor adh esion and m ay

result in d elam ination (separation of one coating layer from another coating layer) failure.

Deteriorated coatings.—Old , loose,

d eteriorated coatings that are overcoated m ay

peel, delaminate, or lift from the substrate and

take the n ew coating w ith th em .

(b) Compressed Air Contaminants.—A ir

com p ressors contam inated w ith m oisture and oil can resu lt in ad h esion -related failu res. Th e

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance

follow ing are tw o com m on op erations that tran sfer oil and w ater contam inan ts from the com p ressed air sup p ly to the sub strate:

• Ab rasive su rface pr ep aration operations

• Blow ing d ow n th e p rep ared su bstrate after surface preparation to rem ove du st before applying the coating

Air com p ressors shou ld be equ ip p ed w ith in- line m oistu re and oil sep arators (trap s) on all lines. The insp ector shou ld hav e the contractor check th e air su p p ly for con tam inants in accord an ce with A TM D 4285. (See ap p en d ix G for th is p roced u re.) It is recom m end ed that the com pressed air lines be checked on ce every 4 hou rs or after th e com p ressor has been tu rned off.

(c) Flash Rusting.— Flash ru sting (som etim es

called flash back ru sting o r ru st bloom ing) is a light oxidation (corrosion) of the ferrou s

su rface after su rface p rep aration h as been

com p leted . Flash ru stin g d ev elo p s on fre sh ly p rep ared su rfaces in th e p rese n ce of m oist u re.

After th e m oistu re d ries off, any resu ltin g corro sion is called flash ru stin g an d can occu r

w ith in minute s afte r surfa ce prepar ation. Th e follow ing tw o circu m stan ces are th e m ost com m on m oisture sou rces resu lting in flash

rusting:

• Con d en sation is occu rring

• W ater is u sed in th e su rface p rep aration m ethod

Con d ensation is the form ation of liquid w ater from w ater vapor in the su rroun d ing air at certain am bient tem p eratu res an d hu m idity ranges. Cond ensation can occu r u sing an y

Using an inhibitive agent.—In h ibitiv e agen t or w ash p rim er , nor m ally a p hosp hate, is injected into the w ater or blast stream or ap p lied after cleaning. Reclam ation d oes not p ro hibit th e u se of in hibitor s, bu t th e su rface should be thoroughly water w ashed before coating because heavy inhibitive resid u es can ad versely affect coating ad hesion.

Using hot forced (blown) air.— Dry off th e

w etted su rface im m ed iately after clean ing w ith hot air blow ers.

Using high-pressure, water-jet vacuum cleaning method.— H igh-water pressure tran sfers enorm ou s ener gy to the su rface, thu s elevating th e su rface temp eratu re to ev ap orate any m oistu re, and the v acuu m rem oves evaporated and liquid m oisture aw ay.

To prevent flash ru sting, it is a general

ind u str ial p ra ctice n ot to p ro ceed w ith su rface

p rep aration

tem p erature is 5 d egrees F, m inim u m , above

th e d ew p oin t. (See ch ap ter VII,

“En viron m en ta l Con d ition s” .)

u nless the steel sub strate

Su rface p rep aration stan d ard s N A CE 1/ SSPC- SP-5, N A CE 2/ SSPC-SP10, N A CE 3/ SSPC-SP-

6, N ACE 4/ SSPC -SP-7, N ACE 8/ SSPC -SP14,

SSPC-SP15, and SSPC-SP11 p rovid e for recleaning o r reblasting to rem ove flash rusting. The surface preparation stand ards SSPC -SP2, SSPC -SP3, and N ACE 5/ SSPC -SP12

d o not specifically add ress flash rusting bu t

req u ire that the su rface be recleaned accor d ing to cleanliness requirem ents of the standard

u sed if ru st form s on the su rface. Reclam ation specifications require that any surface w here flash ru st or corrosion byp rod u cts have form ed be reclean ed .

If flash ru sting is su sp ected an d is n ot visibly

su

rface p rep aration m ethod beca u se it is

no ticeable, a goo d d etection m etho d is to

w

eather d ep end ent. Su rface pr ep aration

insp ect the surface w ith a bright flashlight or

methods that employ water are water jetting an d w et ab rasiv e b last clean in g. Flash ru stin g

can be m inim ized w hen u sin g w ater jettin g an d w et abrasive blast clean ing by th e follow ing m eth od s:

sp otligh t. The ligh t shou ld b e held p arallel to

the sur face and shined across it.

w ill appear as darkening on the surface and ha ve a r ed d ish or ligh t brow n tint.

Rust bloom s

Surface Preparation

26. Presurface Treatment.—Prior to actual

su rface p rep ar ation s, all steel su rface

im p erfection s are to be corr ected . This is a

Reclam ation sp ecifica tion req u irem en t. W eld

sp atter, slag, bu rrs, p orosity, sharp ed ges, p its,

lam inations (sliv er s), crev ices, or ob jection able irr eg u lar ities n eed to be r ep air ed . Surfa ce d ep ressions, such as p its or crevices, can be a collection p oint for excessive coating m aterial that m ay not fu lly cure. Projections such as

w eld slag, slag bu rrs, or sharp ed ges that m ay

stick ou t throu gh th e coatin g can resu lt in pinp oint corrosion. All these irregularities are to be repaired by w eld ing, scrapp ing, grind ing, or other sp ecified m ean s.

27. Abrasive Blast Material.—The abrasiv e

blast m aterial is im p or tant beca u se it

d ete rm in es th e su rface p rofile p rod u ced .

Th er e ar e tw o g en er al categ or ie s of

m etallic and non m etallic. M etallic abrasives are used p rim arily to blast clean steel and

for ged or cast iron w her e a su rface p rofile is

a b r asiv es:

se

ld om critical on th e fin ish ed p rod u ct.

N

onm etallic abrasives, d epend ing on the type

u sed , can p rod u ce the d esired su rface p rofile and cleanliness on hard , d en se ferrou s m etals

or on soft m etals (alum inu m , brass, bron ze, or copp er) w ithou t d am aging or altering th e

m etal su rface.

Reclam ation sp ecifies SSPC-AB 1, “Abrasiv e Sp ecification N o. 1, M iner al an d Slag

A brasiv es,” Class A , eith er Ty p e I or II.

Reclam ation sp ecifications d o n ot p er m it

abrasive m aterials containing toxic heavy

m etals su ch as arsen ic or solub le salts in excess

of 0.04 p ercent.

contain m or e than 1 p er cen t silica, by volu m e becau se silica san d p articles cau se silicosis.

Ab rasive m aterial is not to

Reclam ation d oes n ot sp ecify abrasiv es. M etallic ab rasiv es

ap p licable because of high costs and inability to recycle. H ow ever, Reclam ation w ill allow a contract v arian ce, if req u ested , to u se m etallic abrasives for shop surface pr ep aration,

provided that the m etallic abrasive is a dry, clean , an gu lar steel grit.

m etallic ar e n ot field

(a) Nonmetallic Abrasives.—There are th ree b asic ty p es of n on m etallic ab r asiv es:

n atu r ally occu r r in g ; (2) b y p r od u ct s; an d

(3) m anu factu red . The follow ing sections provide a brief d escription of the typical usage and the degree of d usting p rodu ced by non m etallic ab rasiv es d u ring blastin g op erations.

(1)

Naturally occurring.—

Nonsilica or heavy mineral sands (magnetite, olivene rutile, straurolite).— Th ese san d s are typ ically to u gh , d en se , rou n d -sh ap ed m ate rials. Th ey ar e effective for blast cleaning new steel bu t are not recom m end ed for m aintenan ce coating w ork. Degree of d u sting d u ring blasting op erations is m ed iu m .

Flint, garnet, novaculite (siliceous rock), and zircon.—These are d ense, tou gh , an gu lar or cubic abrasives that, because of their high costs, are u sed primarily in special cleaning ap p lication s. Th e d eg ree of d u stin g d u ring blastin g op erations is m ed iu m for flint an d garn et and low for novaculite and zircon.

Byproduct.—

Slags (coal, copper, nickel).—Slag abrasives are generally a glassy, hom ogeneou s m ixture of variou s oxid es that are sharp ly ang u lar or cubic and are efficient for blast cleaning new , ru sted, or p ainted surfaces. These abrasives are not recy cled . Th e d eg ree of d u stin g d u ring blasting op erations is high for coal and nickel and low for copp er.

Agricultural products (corncobs, peach pits, walnut shells).— These are generally regarded as tough but lightw eight abrasives used in sp ecial cleaning ap plications for removing

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance

p aint, fine scale, and other contam inan ts w ithou t altering the

m etal su bstrate or d istor tin g th in

con ten t. A brasiv es w ith h igh solu ble salt conten t shou ld n ot be u sed becau se the salts

can con tam inate th e su bstrate d u ring blastin g

metals. The deg re e of du sting durin g blasting op erations is low .

op

erations and , thu s, cause coating failu re.

M

ineral and slag abrasives shou ld be tested for

Manufactured.—

Synthetic (aluminum oxide, glass beads, silicon carbide).—The se

abrasives can be p rod u ced w ith

sp ecific prop erties for va rying d egrees

of hard ness and tou gh ness and w ith

sp ecific shap es. H igh cost restricts the

u se of these abrasives to special

clean ing a p p lications, and they m u st

be recy cled to b e econ om ical.

m ain ad vantages of u sin g synth etic

abrasives are fast cu tting cap ability and nonrusting of the substr ate . Th e d eg ree of d u sting d u ring blastin g op erations is low .

The

(b) Sampling and Testing.—Ab rasive sam p les

shou ld b e retained for fu tu re referen ce in th e

event of coating p roblem s. Sam ples can be tested an d the resu lts retained to either

confirm or reject abrasives as a p ossible cause

of failu re.

sam e m etalw ork can p rod u ce different ap p earances. Testing sh ou ld be cond u cted on the abrasives before use to ensure that the m ate rial d oes n ot con ta in con ta m in an ts.

Different ab rasives u sed on the

(c) Sam pling.— The inspector shou ld record

the m anu factu rer’s brand nam e, batch or lot num bers, and abrasive type. Abrasive m aterial should be stored in a dry env ironm ent an d be clean, u niform in textu re, an d m oisture free. It is recom m en d ed tha t a sm all sam p le of each abr asive batch or lot nu m ber be kep t for futu re referen ce in case chan ges occu r in the su rface p rofile.

(d) Testing.— Soluble salt concentrations are

typ ically low for m ined m ineral abrasives (SSPC-A B1, ty p e I) an d sla g abrasiv es (SSP C- AB1, typ e II) th at are air coo led or qu en ched in

p u rified w ater. H ow ever, slag abrasives m ay be qu enched in seaw ater, brackish w ater, or other salt-contam inated w ater and, consequ en tly, have a higher solu ble salt

the p resen ce of soluble salts by a con d u ctivity

m eter .

flu id or solid that perm its the passage of an

electr ic cu rren t. Solu ble salts d issolv ed in

w ater can be m easu red by a cond u ctivity

meter . Condu ctiv ity mete rs measure th e cond u ctance of all salts (chlorid es, sulfates,

ferrou s, etc.) in d issolution bu t cann ot d etect a “sp ecific” sa lt ion (e.g., th e ch lorid e ion ). Reclam ation specifies that m ineral and slag abrasiv es a re to be in accord an ce w ith SSPC- AB1, an d the stan d ard ’s cond u ctivity req u irem en t is not to exceed 1,000

m icrosiem en s. Th e ch lor id e-sp ecific ion in

abrasiv es can be te sted u sin g a tit ration kit. (See ap p en d ix H for test p roced u res.) Testin g for to xic m eta ls r equ ires la borato ry m eth od s. Certification or analysis of abrasive m aterial content is available from the man ufacturer.

Co n d u ctiv ity is th e io n ic p rop er ty of a

Althou gh w ater is not consid ered an a brasive,

it is used as a surface pr ep aration m ed iu m for

p reviously coated m etalw ork. Water m ay contain an excessive am ou nt of solub le salts that, if left as resid u e on th e p rep ared sur face, can cause th e coating to blister. The w ater used in w ater jetting op erations shou ld be tested for high chlorid e ion levels. (See

ap p en d ix I for p roced u res.)

28. Nozzle Blast Pressure.—Reclam ation

d oes n ot req u ire ch eck ing th e b last n oz zle p ressu re. Ind u stry practice recom m end s that the blasting p ressur e be m aintained betw een 90 an d 100 p ou n d s p er sq u are in ch (p si). Redu ced p ressures can resu lt in a sha llow

su rface p rofile d ep th an d a d im inished blast rate efficiency. Excessive p ressu res can

in crease th e su rface p rofile d ep th .

Con sequ ently, the p rim e coat ma y n ot cover the peaks of the profile and p inhole failure

m ay result. The critical p oint of p ressu re is at

the blast nozzle, w here p ressur e w ill be low er

th an at th e air com p ressor beca u se of h ose lin e

p ressu re losses.

Surface Preparation

If th e n oz zle b last p ressu re is su sp ect, it is

(b) SSPC-SP2: Hand Tool Cleaning.—H and

recomm ended that the inspector request the

tools are u sed to rem ove loose m ill scale, loose

coating sup ervisor to check the p ressur e. (See

ru

st, loose coatings, w eld flu x, w eld slag, or

ap p en d ix J for th e p roced u re.)

w

eld spatter by brushing, sanding, chipp ing,

29. Surface Preparation Methods.—Th e

follow ing ar e the five basic typ es of su rface

preparation:

• Degreasing.

• H and and pow er tool cleaning.

• Abrasive (w et or dry) cleaning.

• Water jetting or pressure cleaning.

• Chem ical stripp ing.

There are sev eral stand ard s d escribing the above m ethod s; how ever, Reclam ation h as

ad op ted SSPC an d join t N ACE/ SSPC

p rep aration stan d ard s. Th e in sp ector

ensure that the app licable standard s are

av ailable on th e jobsite. After su rfa ce

p rep aration , clean liness shall be based on the

sp ecified stan d ard 's

Visu al stand ard s by SSPC an d join t

N ACE/ SSPC ar e a su p p lem en t to a id in

d eter m ining cleanliness bu t are n ot th e sole con firm ation re qu irem en t. Su rfa ce

p rep aration stand ard req u irem en ts sh all

govern w here surface prep aration and visu al stan d ard s con flict. Th e follow in g are th e SSPC and joint N AC E/ SSPC su rface pr ep aration stan d ard s, in in creasin g ord er of clean lin ess. An abbreviated su m m ation is provid ed for each su rface prep aration stand ard an d the correspon d ing visua l stand ard to be u sed .

su rface sh ou ld

clean in g requ irem en ts.

(a) SSPC-SP1: Solvent Cleaning.— So lv en t

clean ing is used to rem ove grease, oil, d irt,

d raw ing an d cutting com p ou nd s, and other contam inants by solven t w iping, w ater

w ashing, cleaning com p oun d s, and steam

cleaning.

all other su rface p rep aration m ethod s excep t

This procedu re is a prerequ isite for

or scrapp ing. Tightly ad her ing ru st, m ill scale, and p aint are allow ed to rem ain. The use of han d tools is generally confined to sm all areas,

sm all rep air areas, o r sm all in accessible areas. The visual stand ard is d eterm ined by com p ar ison to SSPC-VIS 3 reference

p hotog rap hs.

(c) SSPC-SP3:

tools are u sed to rem ove loose m ill scale, loose

ru st, loose coatings, w eld flu x, w eld slag, or

w eld sp atter. Tigh tly ad her ing ru st, m ill scale, and coating are allow ed to rem ain if they cann ot be rem oved by lifting w ith a d u ll p u tty knife. The requirem ents of this method are sim ilar to SSPC-SP2, excep t that, with p ow er tools, larger areas can be cleaned m ore efficiently. The visua l stand ard is d eterm ined by com p ar ison to SSPC-VIS 3 reference

p hotog rap hs.

Power Tool Cleaning.—Pow er

(d) SSPC-SP15: Commercial Grade Power

Tool Cleaning.— Pow er tools are u sed to

rem ove all grease, oil, dirt, d u st, mill scale, ru st coatings, oxid es, corrosion byp rod u cts, and other foreign m atter that are visible w ithou t

m agnification, except that rand om stains are

allow ed on 33 percent of each 9-inch square area . Stain s m ay con sist of ligh t sh ad ow s, ligh t streaks, and m ild d iscoloration cau sed by r u st,

m ill scale, an d p reviou s a p p lied coatin gs.

Sligh t residu es of rust an d p aint are allow ed to rem ain at the bottom of corr osion p its,

p rovid ed th at th e origin al su bstrate w as p itte d . Th is stan d ar d requ ires a m inim u m su rface

p rofile of not less than 1 m il be retained or

p rod u ced . Cu rrently, there is no visu al reference photograph s for this standard .

N

ACE 5/ SSPC-SP12 (w ater jetting) and

(e)

NACE 4/SSPC-SP7: Brushoff Blast

N

A CE 6/ SSPC -SP13 (con crete su rfaces). Th e

Cleaning.—Brush-off blast cleaning em ploys

reason for solvent cleaning is that contaminants left on the surface can be

im p acted into th e su bstrate su rface d u ring

p rep aration u sing other m ethod s (listed below ), resulting in p oor adh esion and

p rem atu re failure.

abrasive blasting to rem ove all grease, oil, d irt,

d u st, loose m ill scale, loose ru st, an d loose

coatin gs th at a re visible w ith ou t m agn ifica tion . Tightly ad her ing ru st, m ill scale, and coa tin gs are allow ed to rem ain if they can not b e

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance

rem oved by liftin g w ith a d u ll p u tty kn ife. Th e v isu al stand ar d is SSPC-VIS 1 reference

p hotog rap hs.

(f) NACE 8/SSPC-SP14: Industrial Blast

Cleaning.—Ind ustrial blast cleaning em ploys abrasive blasting to rem ove all visible grease, oil, d irt, and d u st that are visible w ithou t

m agn ification .

scale, ru st, an d coating residu e are allow ed to

remain on 10 percent of each 9 inch square

area, p rovid ed th at th e d ist ribu tion is e ven . Traces of ru st, m ill scale, and coatings are allow ed to rem ain if they can not b e rem oved

by liftin g w ith a d u ll p u tty k n ife.

streaks, and d iscolor ation cau sed by ru st, m ill scale, and previously app lied coatings are accep table. The visua l stand ard is d eterm ined by com p ar ison to SSPC-VIS1 referen ce

p hotog rap hs.

Traces of tigh tly ad h er in g m ill

Sh ad ow s,

(g) SSPC-SP8: Pickling.—Pickling rem ov es all

light shadow s, slight streaks, or m inor streaks cau sed by ru st, m ill scale, or p rev iou sly

ap p lied coa tin gs. A t least 95 p er cen t of ea ch 9- inch-squ are area sh all be free of all v isible resid u e, and th e rem aind er of the area sh all

h av e on ly th e ab ov e-m en tion ed stain ing . The visual stand ard is determ ined by com p arison to SSPC -VIS 1 referen ce photog rap hs.

(j) NACE 1/SSPC-SP5: White Metal Blast

Cleaning.—Wh ite m etal blast cleaning em ploys abrasive blasting to rem ove all grease, oil, d irt,

d u st, m ill scale, ru st, coatings, oxid e, corrosion byprod ucts, and other foreign m atter that are

visib le w ith ou t m agn ification . Th e r esu ltin g blasted su rface is generally a un iform gray-

w hite color. Variation in color cau sed by steel typ e, original su rface cond ition, steel thickness, w eld m etal, m ill or fabrication

m ark s, heat treatm ent, heat-affected zon es,

blasting abr asives, or d ifferences in blast

p atter n is accep ta ble. Th e v isu al stan d ard is

m

ill scale and ru st that are visible w ithou t

d

ete rm in ed by com p ariso n to SSPC-VIS 1

m

agn ification, by chem ical reaction (acid b ath )

referen ce photog rap hs.

or electrolysis (anod ic electrical curren t) or both . Acceptan ce criteria are to be established betw een contr acting p arties.

(h) NACE 3/SSPC-SP6: Commercial Blast

Cleaning.—Com m ercial blast cleaning em ploys abrasive blasting to rem ove all grease, oil, d irt,

d u st, m ill scale, ru st, coatings, oxid e, corrosion byprod ucts, and other foreign m atter that are visible w ithou t m agn ification, excep t for rand om staining. Staining m ay consist of light shadow s, slight streaks, or m inor streaks cau sed by ru st, m ill scale, or p rev iou sly

ap p lied coa tin gs. A t lea st tw o-th ird s of each

9-inch-squ are area sh all be free of all v isible

resid u e, and only the ab ove-m entioned staining m ay be p resent in th e rem aind er of

the area. The visual stand ard is d eterm ined by com p ar ison to SSPC-VIS 1 reference

p hotog rap hs.

(i) NACE 2/SSPC-SP10: Near-white metal blast

cleaning.— N ea r-w h ite m etal blast clean in g em p loys abrasive blasting to rem ove all grease,

oil, d irt, d u st, m ill scale, ru st, coating s, oxid e, corrosion b yp rod u cts, and other foreign m atter that are v isible w ithou t m agn ification, excep t

for rand om staining.

Staining m ay consist of

(k) NACE 5/SSPC-SP12: Surface Preparation

and Cleaning of Steel and Other Hard Metals

by High- and Ultra-Pressure Water Jetting Prior to Recoating.—H igh- or ultra-high w ater jet

blastin g em p loy s w ater blastin g to

grease, oil, dirt, d u st, mill scale, ru st coatings, oxid es, corrosion b yp rod u cts, and other

foreign m atter that are visible w ithou t

m agn ification . Rem ov e n on visib le solu ble

salts to allow able lim its that require p hysical

testing to ver ify.

fo llow in g fo u r d iffe r en t w ater p r essu r es:

(1) low -p ressu re w ater cleaning at less that 5,000 p si; (2) high-p ressu re w ater cleaning at 5,000 to 10,000 psi; (3) high -pressu re w ater

rem ov e all

The stand ard d efine s the

jettin g at 10,000 to 25,000 psi; an d (4) u ltrahigh-

p ressu re w ater jetting at greater than

25,000 psi. The d egree of cleanliness is d ivid ed into tw o categories: visible contam inan ts and

no nv isible con tam inan ts. Visible contam inan ts are su bd ivid ed into fou r classifications,

d esignated W J-1 thr ou gh W J-4 (WJ-1 is the

clean est) on the b asis of allow able visible ru st, coating s, m ill scale, and foreign m atter ver ified w ith ou t m agn ification . N on visib le contam inants are su bd ivid ed into three classifications, d esignated SC-1, SC-2, an d SC-3

Surface Preparation

(SC-1 is th e cleanest) on th e b asis of allow able solu ble chloride ions, iron-solu ble salts, or

su lfate io n s. Th e v isib le a n d n on visib le

allow able contaminant levels are specified by the d esignation W J-x/ SC-x; “x” ind icates the specified d efinition n u m ber. The visual stand ard w ill be d eterm ined by com p arison to SSPC -VIS 4/ N ACE 7 referen ce photog rap hs.

Reclam ation sp ecifies W J-2/ SC-2 for all

Th is is a n excellent m ethod for rem ov ing old

p aint and contam inants u sing only p ressur ized

w ater. Water jetting equipm ent can be

vacuu m shroud ed to prevent spray and have in-line filters to separate out old p aint and

contaminants. Som e man ufacturers are

exp erim enting w ith injecting abrasives into the

w ater-jet stream th at w ou ld be cap able of p rod u cing a su rface p rofile.

im

m ersion serv ice exp osu res.

(a) SSPC-VIS 1: Visual Standard for Abrasive

W

ater jettin g can not p rod u ce a su rface p rofile

Blast Cleaned Steel.— This guid e show s a series of ph otograp hs of un p ainted carbon steel

w

ithou t the ad d ition of abrasives into the jet

before and after abrasive blast cleaning.

Below

flow and , therefore, is not specified for

su rfaces w ithou t a sur face p rofile, e.g., new

con stru ctio n steel. Recla m ation sp ecifies th is stand ard only for pr eviou sly coated sur faces that h ave an existing sur face p rofile.

Th is is a n excellent m ethod for rem ov ing old

p aint and contam inants u sing only p ressur ized

w ater. Water jetting equipm ent can be

vacuu m shroud ed to prevent spray and have in-line filters to separate out old p aint and contaminants. Som e man ufacturers are

exp erim enting w ith injecting abrasives into the

w ater-jet stream th at w ou ld be cap able of

p rod u cing a su rface p rofile.

30. Photographic Inspection Standards.—

The inspector shou ld inspect the surface before

an d after sur face p rep aration to evaluate

clean line ss. SSPC an d N A CE/ SSPC stand ard

visual reference ph otograp hs are a sup plemental aid to evaluating cleanliness but

ar e n ot intend ed as a su bstitu te

clean line ss requ irem en ts d efine d in the surface pr ep aration stand ard u sed. The reason for insp ecting th e su rface before su rface

p rep aration is that d ifferent d egrad ations on

for su rface

th

e sam e steel su rface (e.g., heavy m ill scale

w

ith ligh t and heav ily ru sted areas) w ill have a

d

ifferent app earance after using the sam e

su rface p rep aration m ethod . Thu s, steel

surfaces that are acceptably clean w ill app ear

d ifferent, d ep end ing on the initial steel

cond ition an d the sur face p rep aration m ethod

em p loy ed . Below ar e th e v isu al r efere n ce stand ard s for abrasive blast cleaning, han d and

p ow er tool cleaning, w ater jet cleaning, and

w et ab rasiv e b last cleaning.

is an abb reviated exp lanation of

p roced u res to follow before and after cleaning the steel. The procedu res are follow ed by an exam p le.

the

1. Before abra sive blast clea ning, m atch the existing su rface con d ition w ith the “initial con d ition” show n in on e of the p hotograp hic stand ard s. Initial cond itions (or rust grad es) are ph otograph s A, B, C, and D and are d efin ed in section 4.1 of th e stan d ard . Various areas of the surface to be cleaned m ay m atch on e or m ore initial cond ition p hotog rap hs.

2. From th e sp ecifications, d eter m ine the specified surface pr ep aration stand ard . The surface pr ep aration

stan d ar d

N ACE 1/ SSPC-SP5, N ACE 2/ SSPC- SP10, N AC E 3/ SSPC-SP6, or N AC E 4/ SSPC -SP7.

w ill b e on e of t h e fo llow in g :

3. From table 1 in the visual stand ard, select the specified surface pr ep aration stand ard an d the initial cond ition to ob tain th e correct p hotog rap hic designation.

4. Evalu ate the fin ish ed blast su rface against the selected p hotog rap h in step 3 ab ov e to d eterm ine if th e su rface m eets the sp ecified su rface p rep aration requ irem ents for clean liness.

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance

Example: A steel trashr ack has been delivered to the jobsite uncoated and

stor ed ou tsid e w itho u t

trashrack is show ing evid ence of un iform

corrosio n

The specified surface pr ep aration m ethod is N ACE 2/ SSPC -SP10.

p ro tection .

The

an d n o p ittin g before coatin g.

Step 1: Th e existing su rfa ce ap p earan ce m ost closely rep resen ts

ru st grad e “B.”

Step 2:

p reparation N ACE 2/ SSPC-SP10 and

ru st grad e “B,” th e finished blast

su rface sho u ld corresp on d to p h ot og rap h B SP10.

Table 1 sh ow s th at for su rfa ce

Step 3: Evalu ate th e fin ished blast

su rface ag ainst p hotog rap h B SP 10

to d eterm ine if the su rface m eets

N ACE 2/ SSPC -SP10 cleanliness

requ irem ents.

(b) SSPC-VIS 3: Visual Standard for Power- and Hand-Tool Cleaned Steel.— Th is g u id e show s a series of p hotog rap hs of un p ainted and p ainted carbon steel before an d after han d - and p ow er-tool cleaning. Below is an abb reviated exp lanation of the p roced u res to follow befor e an d after clean ing th e steel. The p roced u res are follow ed by an exam p le.

1. Before hand - or pow er-tool cleaning,

m atch th e existing su rface cond ition

tha t m ost closely rep resen ts the ap p earance w ith the “initial cond ition”

sh ow n in on e of th e p hotog rap hic stan d ard s. Initial cond ition s (or ru st grad es) A, B, C, and D are for u ncoated surfaces; cond itions E, F, and

G are for p rev iously p ainted su rfaces.

Initial cond itions are d efined in section

4.1 of the stand ard . Variou s areas of

th e su rface to b e clea ned m ay m atch

one or m ore initial cond ition

p hotog rap hs.

2. From the sp ecification s, d eterm ine th e

specified

stand ard . The surface pr ep aration

surface pr ep aration

stan d ar d

SSPC -SP2, SSPC -SP3, or SSPC -SP11.

w ill b e on e of t h e fo llow in g :

3. Reclam ation allow s the con tractor to chose the typ e of han d or p ow er tool to accom p lish th e w or k. Deter m in e the type of tool to be used from the contractor. The follow ing d esigna tion cod es are u sed in the stan d ard to identify v ariou s ha nd an d p ow er too ls:

SP 2: Hand w ir e brush.

SP 3/ PWD: Pow e r wire brush . (Reclam ation d oes not perm it rotary

p ow er w ire bru shing because the tool

has th e ten d ency to bu rn ish or p olish the m etal surface, thu s removing any existin g su rface p rofile.)

SP3/

SD: Po w er san d ing d isc.

SP3/ N G: Pow er needle gun.

SP11: Pow er rotary flap p een or

need le gu n (to p ro d u ce a su rface

p rofile).

SP11/ R: Pow er tool using n onw oven

d

isks (to resto re existin g su rface

p

rofile).

4. From table 1 in the visual stand ard, select the specified surface pr ep aration stand ard an d the initial cond ition to ob tain th e correct p hotog rap hic designation.

5. Evaluate th e finished han d or p ow er tool su rface against the selected

p ho tograp h in step 4 above to

determine if the surface meets the

specified surface pr ep aration

requ irem ents for clean liness.

Example: An existing coated rad ial gate requires spot repairs. The coating h as d eter ior ated or p eeled off in sm all localized areas, and rust is evid ent but there is no visible pitting . The sp ecified su rface p rep aration m ethod is SSPC -SP11, and the contractor used a needle gun.

Surface Preparation

Step 1: Th e existing su rfa ce

ap p earan ce m ost closely rep resen ts

ru st grad e “C.”

Step 2: Select pow er tool d esigna tion

SP11 because a need le gu n p ow er tool

w as u sed to p rep are the su rface.

Step 3: From table 1, the finished surface photograph that corresponds to ru st g ra d e “C” and su rface p rep aration SSPC-SP11, and the tool u sed is C SP11.

Step 4: Ev alu ate th e fin ish ed su rfa ce against p ho tograp h C SP11 to d etermine if the surface meets SSPC- SP11 clean liness req u irem ents.

(c) NACE 7/SSPC-VIS 4: Guide and visual reference photographs for steel cleaned by

water jetting.—This gu id e show s a series of p hotograp hs of un p ainted an d p ainted carbon

steel before Below is an p roced u res

the steel. The procedu res are follow ed by an exam p le.

an d after w ate r jet clean in g. abb reviated exp lanation of the to follow before and after cleaning

1. Before w ater jet clean ing, m atch th e existing su rface cond ition that m ost

closely rep resen ts the ap p earan ce w ith the “initial cond ition” sh ow n in one of the ph otograph ic stand ard s. Initial cond itions (or rust grad es) B and C (initial cond ition p hotograp hs A an d B are not inclu d ed in th e gu id e) are for un coated surfaces. Conditions E, F, G, and H are for pr eviou sly p ainted

su rfaces. Initial cond itions are d efined

in section 4.1 of the stand ard . Variou s

areas of the surface to be cleaned m ay

m atch on e or m ore initial cond ition p hotog rap hs.

2. From the sp ecification s, d eterm ine the sp ecified d eg ree of cleaning

d e sig n a te d

1, W J-2, W J-3, or W J-4. A p ossib le

surface preparation m ethod could be

N A C E 5/ SSP C -SP 12 W J-2/ SC -3; th e

b y o n e th e fo ll o w in g :

W J-

sp ecified d eg ree of cleaning is W J-2.

Note: The d esignation SC-3 in the

abov e exam p le d en otes accep table

d eg ree of cleaning for allow able

no nv isible solu ble salt contam inan ts

after

d oes n ot attem p t to show non visible

contam inants by p hotog rap hic illu stration . Ph ysical testin g is requ ired to determ ine com p liance for non visu al con tam inants an d is discussed in subsection 28, “Testing for Ch lorid es o n Prep ared Su rfaces.”

w ater jet clea n in g. Th e g u id e

3. The guide shows photographs of the follow ing fou r d egrees for flash ru sting : (1) no ru sting , (2) light, (3) m ed ium , and (4) heav y. These degrees of flash rusting are the

d eg rees of ru sting allow ed to rem ain

on th e su rface after w ate r jet clean in g. The degrees of flash rusting are

d en oted in th e g u id e b y th e

(1) no letter designation for no rusting, (2) L for light, (3) M for m ed iu m , and (4) H for heavy. For exam ple, if light flash ru sting is allow ed by th e sp ecification s, a p ossible su rface preparation w ould be NA CE 5/ SSPC- SP12 W J-2/ SC-3 L, w here L is the allow able am oun t of flash ru sting, and it is den oted in the guide p hotograp hs as W J-2 L.

fo llow in g :

4. From table 1 in the visual stand ard, select the d egree of cleaning, den oted by W J-1, -2, -3, or -4, corresp on d ing to the initial con d ition to obtain the correct ph otograp hic d esigna tion.

5. If th e sp ecifications allow flash ru sting to rem ain on th e su rface, u se table 2 in

the visual standard to obtain the corr ect p h oto gr ap h ic d esign ation . The gu id e show s ph otograp hs for the four

d egrees of rusting p aired on ly w ith the initial cond itions C and D.

6. Evaluate th e finished w ater jetted su rface against the selected

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance

p ho tograp h in step 4 and 5 above to determine if the surface meets the sp ecified su rface prep aration requ irem ents for clean liness.

m aterial requires a d eeper p rofile, traditional

abrasiv e blast clean in g m u st be em p loyed . Th e follow ing sections p rov id e alternativ e cleaning m ethod s w ith an abbr eviated description.

Example: The coating on the interior surface of an existing steel p ip e has

(a)

Sponge Abrasive Blasting.— This m ethod

d eteriorated, and extensive ru sting an d p ittin g is ev id en t. Th e sp ecified su rfa ce

follow s the trad ition al abrasive blast m eth od s, except that the abrasive particles are

preparation m ethod is NA CE 5/ SSPC-

en

cap su lated in a sp on ge m ater ial. The

SP12, WJ-2/ SC-2 L.

sp

ong e m aterial p reven ts abrasive pa rticles

from breaking u p an d d iffusing on imp act,

Step 1: Th e existing su rfa ce

thus redu cing the am oun t of d ust. Spon ge

ap

p earan ce m ost closely rep resen ts

blasting creates abou t 10 to 20 p ercent of

ru

st grad e “D.”

the du st that wou ld be created by

Step 2: From table 1, the finished

surface photograph that corresponds

to rust grad e “D” an d d egree of

cleaning W J-2 is D W J-2.

Step 3: From ta ble 2, th e a llow able ligh t flash ru sting to rem ain on the

finish ed su rface is p hotog rap h

D W J-2

n on en cap su lated ab ra sive m ater ials. The

m etho d d oes create a su rface pro file, an d the

su rface clean lin ess can be com p ared to SSPC- VIS 1.

(b) Soda Bicarbonate Blasting.— This m ethod

p rop els large crystals of sod a bicarbon ate

(bakin g sod a) by p ressu rize d air or w ater. It is

used m ostly as a stripper for cleaning

L,

corresponding to rust grade “D”

con ta m in an ts an d for th in coa tin gs. Th er e is

an

d ligh t flash ru stin g “L.”

no su rface cleanliness stand ard for th is

m ethod ; how ever, cleanliness can be sp ecified

Step 4: Evaluate th e finished w ater

to m eet th e req u irem ents of a consen su s

jetted surface against ph otograph D

su

rface p rep aration (e.g., N ACE 3/ SSPC -SP6).

W

J-2 to d eterm ine if the su rface meets

N

ACE 2/ SSPC -SP10 cleanliness

(c)

Ice Blasting.— Th is m eth od p ro p els ice

requirem ents and against ph otograph

p

ar ticles by p re ssu riz ed air . On im p act, th e ice

D

W J-2 L for allow able rem aining

exerts a sheer force across the su bstrate

su

rface flash ru st.

su

rface, rem ov ing con tam inants an d th in

coating s. If d ry ice is u sed , it sho u ld n ot be

Note: In the above examp le, if light

u

sed in confined spaces becau se of carbon

flash ru sting is not allow ed by th e

d

ioxid e b u ild u p . Ther e is n o su rfa ce

sp ecification s (i.e., the su rface

preparation m ethod is NA CE 5/ SSPC- SP12 W J-2/ SC-2), selection an d

ev alu ation of p hotog rap h D W J-2 L in steps 3 and 4 are exclu d ed .

31. Alternative Surface Preparation

Methods.—Ther e are altern atives to trad itional abrasive blast cleaning m ethod s that m ay red u ce surface p rep ara tion costs, du st, or fouling of m achinery by sm all abrasive p articles. These altern ative m eth od s, u n less otherw ise n oted , assu m e an existin g su rface (anchor) pr ofile on th e sub strate surface does exist. If a su rface p rofile d oes not exist, or n ew

cleanliness stand ard for this m ethod ; how ever, clean liness can be sp ecified to m eet the requ irem en ts of a consensu s su rface

p rep aration (e.g., N ACE 3/ SSPC -SP6).

(d) Chemical Strippers.—Chem ical stripp ers

can be classified into tw o generic comp osition typ es: (1) bond breakers and (2) caustic. Bond breaker strip p er s w or k by breaking th e p aint's molecular bonds betw een paint layers and

betw een the paint and the substrate so that

p ain t w ill cr in kle u p an d be ea sily rem oved . Bond breaker strip p ers can contain tolu ene, methylene chloride, or methyl ethyl ketone

th at rem ov es p aints in a r elativ ely sh or t tim e

Surface Preparation

bu t m ay be con sid ered h azard ou s to w orkers. Less hazard ou s bon d breaker s contain N - m ethyl-pryr rolid one (N M P) or d ibasic ester (DBE) com p ou nd s, bu t these rem ove p aint less quickly. Bond breaker stripp ers will rem ove all coatin gs excep t o il-b ase d , in organ ic, an d m etallic coatings. Caustic stripp ers w ork by softening the entire p aint system rather than breaking m olecular bonds. Caustic stripp ers can con tain sod iu m , calciu m , an d m agnesiu m hy d roxid e. Cau stic strip p ers are r estricted to oil-based p aints bu t w ill not w ork on oil-based p aints th at are p igm en ted w ith alu m inu m flak es. Th is is b eca u se h yd rog en gas is gen er ated w hen cau stic com p ou nd s com e in contact w ith alum inu m , thu s p reventing th e cau stic strip p er fro m p en etratin g th e p aint system .

Ch em ical strip p ers are com m only u sed for sm all areas w here p ow er is not av ailable, abrasive and w ater jet blasting is not econom ically feasible, hose d istance is too great to achieve necessary air p ressure for blastin g op er ations, or w her e accessibility is lim ited. Ch em ical strip p ers are a lso used to m inim ize air bor ne p aint p articles for or ganic p ain ts or h eavy-m eta l base d p ain ts (e.g., lea d ). In general, chem ical stripp ers m ay be messy, m ay require repetitive app lications to rem ove all foreign m atter from the substrate, and m ay leave a resid u e on th e sub strate that requ ires solven t clea n ing. Ther e is n o su rfa ce cleanliness stand ard for this m ethod ; how ever, clean liness can be sp ecified to the requ irem en ts of a consensu s su rface p rep aration (e.g., N ACE 3/ SSPC -SP6).

Chapter VII

Environmental Conditions

Cold w eath er, high h u m idity, w ater, fog, frost, mist, rain, ice, and snow are some of the environ m ental factors d etrim ental to the perform ance of coatings. Coatings should be

(b) Surface Substrate Tem perature.—

Reclam ation specifications require that coatings be app lied w hen temp eratures are

50 d egrees F or h igher an d w ithin the

ap

p lied u nd er optim u m environm ental

m

an u factu rer’s u p p er lim it or accord ing to

cond itions, bu t the w eath er can ab ru p tly

the man ufacturer’s instructions. The more

ch

an ge. Th e p rev ailing en viron m en ta l ru le-of-

restrictiv e requ irem en t w ill b e follow ed .

th

u m b is th at e vap oration sh ou ld be occu rrin g.

In gener al, ind u stry p ractice requires

Com m on sense, the man ufacturer’s

instru ction s, an d ind u stry p ractices ap p ear to

be the m ost com m only follow ed gu idelines

reg ard ing en viron m en tal con d itions d u ring

coatin g

Failu re to conform w ith environm ental restrictions results in a v ariety of ap p lication failu res.

ap p lica tion an d th e cu rin g p eriod .

32. Environmental Factors Affecting

Coatings.—Th e fo llow in g ar e fiv e

en viron m en tal factor s that req u ire m on itoring d uring coating ap plication and the cure

p eriod . (See app end ix K for test p rocedu res on

th e factors b elow .)

(a)

Ambient Temperature.—During th e

ap

p lication of coatings, Reclam ation

sp

ecification s requ ire th at th e air and su rface

temp erature be 50 d egrees F or higher and

w ithin the m anu facturer’s up per temp erature

lim it o r a cco r d in g to th e m a n u fa ct u r e ’s instru ctions, w hichev er is th e m or e restrictiv e requirem ent. Exceptions are m ad e for coatings form u late d for cold w eath er ap p lica tion s. Am bient (air) tem p erature is im p ortant for

successfu l film form ation an d

ep oxy coa tin gs ap p lied below 50 d eg rees F w ill

not cu re, and cu ring w ill not p roceed ev en if tem p eratu res exceed 50 d egrees F at a later tim e.

curing. Som e

A gen er al ru le-of-th u m b in th e coatin g

ind u stry is to ap p ly coatings at am bient

tem p eratu res betw een 40 and 95 degrees F,

d ep en d ing on th e coatin g m aterial.

su rface tem p er atu re b etw een ab ou t 40 an d 125 d egrees F.

(c)

Relative Humidity.—Reclam ation d oes not

sp

ecify lim its for relativ e h u m id ity; rath er , it

sp

ecifies that th e coating be ap p lied w ithin the

m

an u factu rer’s r ecom m en d ed h u m id ity ran ge.

Gen er al ind u stry p ractice req u ires a m axim u m relative hu m idity of abou t 80 to 85 p ercent, except for those coatings that are less moisture sensitive or are moistu re cu red . H ow ever, as

a gen eral ru le-of-thu m b, the closer to th e

op timu m relative h u m idity, the m ore likely to

ach ieve th e d esig n ed service life.

(d) Dew Point.—Th e d ew p oin t d eter m in es

m oisture w ill form on the ferrous substrates by

con d en sa tion

M oisture w ill form on ferrou s substrate

su rfaces w hen th e d ew p oint is higher than th e surface tem perature. Conversely, m oisture

w ill not for m w hen th e su rface tem p er atu re is

h ighe r th an th e d ew p oint.

fun ction of am bient tem p eratu re, substrate tem p eratu re, an d relative h u m idity. All three of these environm ental cond itions m ust be kn ow n to d eterm ine the d ew p oint.

if

or if m oist u re w ill evap orate .

Dew p oint is a

Reclam ation sp ecification s requ ire that th e

ferrou s su bstrate tem p eratu re b e a

of 5 d egrees F higher th an the d ew p oint w hen

coatings are app lied.

im p ose s th e

Reclam ation specifications requ ire su rfaces that are not thoroughly dry to be heated or the environm ent controlled by d ehu m id ifying an d heating equ ipm ent to d rive off m oistu re.

m inim u m

The coating indu stry

sa m e d ew p oin t r estriction .

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance

M

oisture cond ensation w ill begin w hen th e

overcom es the sp raying op eration an d carries

su

bstrate tem p eratu re is less than the d ew

coating p articles aw ay from the intend ed

p oint. To allow for p ossible instru m entation error or variation, a m inim u m safety m argin of 5 degrees F substrate temperature above the d ew point is regarded as a general ind ustry requ irem ent.

surface. This problem is know n as airborne ov er sp ray. Airbor n e o ver sp ray m ay resu lt in prem ature drying of the coating before reaching the intend ed surface, a low er DFT at th e sp ray a p p lication p oin t, a h igh er DFT dow nw ind, or spray being carried to adjacent

(e)

Wind.— Reclam ation d oes not specify a

veh icles, hom es, or other su rfaces not intend ed

m

axim u m w ind velocity restriction in coa tin g

to be coated. Com m on sen se shou ld be u sed

ap

p lication s. W ind becom es a factor w he n it

to av oid airborn e ov ersp ray p rob lem s.

Chapter VIII

Application and Curing

Coating ap p lication is next in imp ortan ce after su rface p rep ara tion, an d accounts for m ost

failu re s. A coa tin g is n ot a fin ish ed p ro d u ct

u ntil it has been su ccessfu lly ap p lied to the

steel su bstrate an d cu red .

p erform ance is affected d u ring ap p lication and

cu ring by tem p erature, relative hu m id ity, and

d ew p oint. (See chap ter VII, “Environm ental Cond itions.”) Mixing, num ber of coats and

thickn ess, and ap p lication tech niqu e w ill also affect coating p erform an ce. N ot obser ving the env ironm ental restrictions or im p rop er ap p lication tech niqu es can resu lt in d efects,

p rem atu re failure, or red u ced serv ice life.

Co atin g

33. Application Temperature and Humidity

Restrictions.—Environm ental cond itions are not alw ays controllable. Weather m ay abru p tly cha ng e, an d cond ition s m ay v iolate

the m an u factu rer’s tem p eratu re an d hu m idity restrictions. Unless cond itions can be controlled by d ehu m id ifying, heating, or a com bination of b oth, field ap p lication sh ou ld

p roceed on ly d u rin g favorable w eath er.

Coating in h igh h u m idity areas, su ch as th e

interiors of vaults or pipes, should be

p er for m ed on ly w hen th e environ m en t is

con tr olled by d eh u m id ifyin g, h eatin g, or both . Reclam ation sp ecification s p rov ide th e

follow ing tem p eratu re an d hu m idity

r e st r ict io n s, u n le ss th e

instru ction s are m ore string ent:

m a n u fa ct u r e r ’s

• Relative hu m idity sh all be w ithin the m an u facturer’s lim its.

34. Coating Layers.—Reclam atio n ty p ically

sp ecifies the n u m ber of coats to be ap p lied in

the coating tabulations. The follow ing terms p rov ide a d escription of the coating lay ers:

(a) Stripe Coat.—Stripe coats are ap p lied

to p rep ared bar e m etal ed ges, bolthead s,

w elds, corners, and similar edges before the

prim e coat is app lied. Stripe coats are necessary beca u se, as th e coatin g d ries, tensile forces are created at the ed ges, forcing th e coating to p u ll aw ay from the ed ge in both d irections, resulting in a th inner coating at th e ed ge. Strip coats p rovide an ad d itional thickness build u p to prevent thin, DFT at ed ges.

(b) Prime Coat.— Prim e coats are ap p lied

ov er th e entire su rface to be coated , inclu d ing strip e coated ar eas. The p rim e coat mu st cover

th e p eak s of th e su rface p ro file. The

consequ en ce of not cov er ing th e p eaks is

pinp oint rusting.

(c) Intermediate Coat.— Interm ed iate

coats ar e ap p lied ov er th e p rim er to

ad d ition al p rote ction or to seal th e p rim er.

M u ltip le inter m ed iate coats can b e ap p lied to

bu ild u p the film thickn ess.

p rov id e

• Air an d su bstrate tem p er atu res sh all be abov e 50 d eg rees F d u ring application and curing and w ithin the m anu facturer’s up per temp erature lim it.

(d) Topcoat.—