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Sultanate of Oman Sultan Qaboos University College of Education

Report about:

Done by: Lamia AL-kathiri 3thari AL-Saadi Marya AL-Saadi

Define the Mobile Learning It is the acquisition of any knowledge and skill through using mobile technology, anywhere, anytime, that results in an alteration in behavior. Or Any sort of learning that happens when the learner is not at a fixed, predetermined location, or learning that happens when the learner takes advantage of the learning opportunities offered by mobile technologies Objectives of using the Mobile Learning in DE: Content is adaptable to meet individual needs Improved communication and organization Easier access, Increases motivation Available wherever and whenever Be two way and multi-media Enhances knowledge No time constraints More independent

Features of the Mobile Learning

M-learning is collaborative. M-learning is engaging and fun. Enables knowledge building by learners in different contexts. Enables learners to construct understandings. M-learning is convenient, in the sense that it is accessible virtually from anywhere (class, taxi,) Mobile technology often changes the pattern of learning/work activity.

Advantages of the Mobile Learning It is important to bring new technology into the classroom. It will be more light weight device compare to books, PCs. could be utilized as part of a learning approach which uses different types of activities (or a blended learning approach). can be a useful add-on tool for students with special needs. However, for SMS and MMS this might be dependent on the students specific disabilities or difficulties involved. Good IT support is needed. can be used as a hook to re-engage disaffected youth. Challenges of the Mobile Learning Technical challenges

Small Screen size Small keys size Limited Performance, in terms of processor capability, available memory, storage space and battery life. Slow Connectivity of the internet Left- to-right scrolling, web sites too big to see effectively on small screen Risk of theft, rain, breakability. Social and educational challenges

How to assess learning on mobile phone Developing an appropriate theory of learning for the mobile age Tracking of results and proper use of this information Mobile communication is still expensive. How the Mobile Learning are used to deliver and support learning. WAP: An international protocol that allows users to access the internet via their WAP enabled mobile phones.

GPRS: An always on internet connection for mobile devices that provides greater speed of connection (171kb/s). 3G and 4G phones: By the end of the decade 4G (4th Generation mobile phones) will provide up to 100 megabits per second transmissions adequate for multimedia. Bluetooth: A short range wireless connection. This enables PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) to pass messages to and from other mobile devices. PDAs: Personal Digital Assistants have evolved to mini PCs able to carry out many of the basic functions of a larger PC using the Palm OS or MS Pocket PC operating system. MP3s: Audio file format that efficiently compresses files and enables them to be shared. CAMs: Video cameras now embedded into mobile phone and PDAs.

Concerns raised by researchers and distance students/tutors about the Mobile Learning:

Design. Designing for mobile learning becomes a critical Challenge. How to enhance the experience without Interfering with it. And so designing for mobile learning becomes a critical challenge. How to enhance the experience without interfering with it was the title of Russell Beale's (University of Birmingham, UK) workshop session. "For lots of people, children particularly, education is not optional," he said. "It's something that they have to do, and they don't necessarily want to do it. Whereas one of

the good things about technology is that it offers an opportunity for choice." Thus, said Peter Lonsdale (University of Birmingham, UK) we shouldnt cram existing activities onto mobile devices, but instead make use of different ways of organizing learning communities. "Children want to learn," claimed Ann Jones (Open University, UK), "but what they want is choice over what to learn. You can stop a child from learning by just presenting a load of information."

Evaluation How can we effectively measure learning in mobile Environments? How can we effectively measure learning in mobile environments? Josie Taylor (Open University, UK) ran a session exploring this, and the group discovered that evaluation overlaps with design. Mobile learning is often blended with other types of learning. A mobile device could act as a tool for thinking: for example, when learners know that everything is being recorded or is easy to record, this changes their behavior. Thus, argued Barbara Wasson (University of Bergen, Norway), we should focus on activities, and the dialectic relation between the learner and the technology, not on people or technology in isolation.

Case studies/examples Carnegie Mellon University Project Carnegie Mellon University today announced the expansion of its Mobile & Immersive Learning for Literacy in Emerging Economies (MILLEE) project, which will gauge the effectiveness of mobile phone-based games for teaching English lessons to students in rural India.

Mobile Technology Applications in the Korean Higher Education Mobile campus has made students and faculty staff access authentic, updated information sources and communicate with each other anytime, and anywhere within the campus. In South Korea, All of Life Is Mobile more colleges and universities have moved to mobile learning environments A student used her cell phone to enter the main library at Sookmyung Women's University On campus, students touch their mobiles to the electronic box to mark their attendance. University of North Carolina at Wilmington takes benefits of the mobile learning.