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February 1991

Basic Music (Navy)


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APPENDIX D. E. F. Form in Music Page with List of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. AD-1

Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AE-1 Conducting for Instrumentalists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AF-1




IN GENERAL Beyond considerations is the concept of musical of melody, rhythm, and harmony in music Form is the way in

form or structure.

which a composer organizes make it if possible

what he has to say in a manner which will to understand the music, especially

for the listener is longer

the composition Musical

than a minute or so. and variety: meaningful unity to impress the than

form depends upon unity

listener nonsense; provide

that the music is organized, and variety, contrast. by repetition, to sustain

round rather


to relieve

boredom, and to

Unity is achieved musical idea. Variety musical itself



or modified,

of a

comes about by using new material,

or by using

the orginal

idea in such a transformed gives contrast. (1) the repetition

manner that the

transformation Repetition

is two-fold:

of a short motive of the

used in such a way as to build phrases themselves, or of larger

phrases, parts

and (2) repetition of the composition. composers,

The motive. short,

As used by most significant melodic

the motive is a in essence, the


fragment which contains,

musical idea of the whole composition.


Qualities motive, following:

of a motive.

The significant


or qualities

of the include the

and the way in which these qualities

may be varied

1. The notes themselves. order (a-b-c-d becomes b-a-c-d, a-a-b-c-d-d, etc.);

They may be varied b-a-d-c, etc.); etc.);

by changing the (a-b-c-d becomes

by extension (a-b-c-d

becomes a-b-b-c-d, a-b-c, b-c-d, a-b-d,

by contraction contraction

by extension and


becomes a-b-b-c,

etc.) These include the melodic intervals making up

2. The intervals. the motive,

and in addition

the interval

from the lowest note.

to the highest These may be c-g flat, c-a, a

note and the interval varied

from the first (c-g,

to the last a perfect (c-f, If

by changing the quality fifth);

fifth, becomes

a diminished sixth); used,

by changing the size (c-e becomes e-c).

a fourth, becomes successive the interval,

or by inversion systematically

changes are but always


or decreasing

in the same direction, 3. The melodic zig-zag.

one can speak of developing curve. In general,

the interval.

a motive may go up, down, or curve may be changed by contrary (reverse)

The direction

of the melodic

motion (c-e-g-a motion (c-e-g-a

becomes g-e-c-d) becomes a-g-e-c).

or by the use of retrograde


4. The rhythm. twice the original (all

This may be changed by augmentation value, or in some other multiple or some other fraction,

(all by

notes in

of it);

diminution by shifting of accents; the upbeat.


in half,

of the value); the positions

the rhythm pattern by introducing,

in such a way as to reverse or extending,

or omitting,

or shortening

5. Transposition. appear on any degree, purpose. Phrases may be built These may overlap, necessity,

The motive,

or any of its



or in any key, that is appropriate

to the musical

on a succession

of variants

of the motive.

and can, of course,

be adapted to any immediate of a cadence, the chord of the

such as the establishment

moment, or the requirements Phrase.

of imitation. of musical structure, roughly corresponding of poetry. Normally,

The phrase is a unit of the breath,

to the length

or to that of a line

the phrase extends three-measure

through four measures of moderate tempo, but phrases are not infrequent. or less finality, depending

phrases and five-measure

The phrase ends in a cadence of greater upon the function

of the phrase In the composition

as a whole.



The period

is made up of two phrases, phrase. Frequently

the antecedent the first


phrase and the consequent a half

phrase ends in feature the but

cadence and the second in a perfect purpose. construction.


but this

depends on the musical period larger, is in parallel

If the two phrases begin Structures and the period


of the same type,

such as the double period

of three phrases, are

met with occasionally. Chain of phrases. structure, Frequently a larger loosely part is built organized up, not in period chain of phrases, show elision

but in a more or less

which may be separated

by cadences,

but which frequently

of the cadence (the last chord of the next) progression interrupted; value).

chord of one phrase is used as the first of the cadence (the harmonic

or dissolution

is characteristic the cadential

of a cadence,

but the rhythm is not of small

measure is broken up into notes in the expositions

Phrase chains

are frequent

of sonatas by

Haydn and Mozart.


MUSICAL FORMS The combination and interesting into types, of the various constitutes elements of music into understandable musical form. Much music falls to


or musical

forms, which resemble

each other sufficiently

have acquired structural

names; and a knowledge of these names and of the they represent is essential to well-rounded


musicianship. However, it must be understood formulas. While from the standpoint if musical compositions that these are forms and not analysis it would

of theoretical were all

be convenient categories,

in clearly

defined A

with no overlapping,

composers have never cooperated. the extent consistent

genuine composer uses set forms only to own purposes, creating and has no hesitation

with his

in modifying


forms or

new ones.


A convenient two groups: forms. called

broad classification

of forms separates forms and dyphonic

them into (many-voiced)

homophonic (one-voiced)

In homophonic forms, parts, and the texture which is

the music is set forth usually consists

in divisions

of one prominent voice, which are subordinate and one or more voices,

the melody,

accompanied by other

voices bass,

to the melody. as filler. independence important clearly interplay

The usual plan is melody. Polyphonic forms,

on the other hand, have a degree of more are less

in the voices,

no one of which is consistently The linear divisions, or sections,

than any other.


and the musical meaning is made apparent by the voices. if The differences various will become more and if this he

of the various

apparent to the student becomes familiar Homophonic forms. and large rather forms,

he analyzes


with the list

of forms which concludes into


Homophonic forms are classified on the basis length. of relative complexity

small forms

of structure,

than on absolute


Small forms are built (period, ways: double-period, the two-part

up of parts,

which are simple in structure These are arranged intwo song form (A,B,A.) so that a and

or phrase-chain.)

song form (A,B) and the three-part to the parts for identification,

The letters two-part a second, balance. contrasting

are applied

form consists different

of one idea which ends away from the tonic to the tonic and so achieves by a

part which returns form, the first

In three-part

part (A) is followed idea.

part (B) with a return to the original form either ends in the tonic, the orignal

The (A) in its the

part of a three-part restatement, composition

or leads,

to a coda which establishes to a close. forms, the individual

key and brings

In the large forms. Accordingly,


are themselves two levels of


the large

form represents


For example,

a rondo may have the form A-B-A-C-A-D-A, and the other parts may be

in which A is three-part similarly complex.

form, a-b-a,

The most important Two-part Three-part

small forms are these:

song form, A-B song form, A-B-A A-B (or A-B-A); C-D (or C-D-C); A-B (or

Minuet or scherzo, A-B-A)


The most important variation Rondos: form


forms are: where A iscomplex

(A, A1, A2, etc.,

small rondo A-B-A old (or second) new (or third) rondo A-B-A-C-A-D-A rondo A-B-A-C-A-B-A

Sonata-allegro: exposition-development-recapitulation. The sonata and the suite (typically four) are forms made up of two or more form. detail In the

movements, each of which maybe a large in greater

All forms mentioned above are discussed list of terms to follow, Polyphonic forms. combining melodies. (many-voiced) exclusively voice After music. from the before Counterpoint

is the art of composing music by is known as polyphonic was used almost

The music which results This technique

of composition

time of the earliest 1000 A.D.)

music for more than one

(shortly a period

to the middle of the 18th century. in the late 18th and

of emphasis on harmonic technique counterpoint

the entire

19th centuries;

is again in the 20th century


of the work of many important composers.





have emerged which are called the canon, the motet, and the chorale

polyphonic, the the

or contrapuntal, forms. madrigal, fugue, Bach's

These include forms,

and the mass, as vocal


and the suite time)

(in the sense of the classical

set of dances of for instruments.

for instruments.

Canons are also written


a fugue is used as a movement in a sonata or a symphony, of Mozart's C major (Jupiter) Symphony. in some detail Each in

for example the finale of the forms listed the list

in this

paragraph is discussed

which follows.

LIST OF TERMS This list contains a brief discussion or identification form. of many

of the terms used in connection information, standard reference A classic upbeat.

with musical

For more complete

works should be consulted.


dance in ~measure, See Suite choral (1).





an eighth-note Anthem: Protestant

The name means German dance. of

A piece

of sacred

music used in the service rather


sung by the choir,

than by the congregation. solos by one or trios, or

It is usually more voices, quartets).

accompanied by the organ and may contain and concerted passages for solo voices



Aria: develops

A solo


occurring lyrics

in an opera, or emotional


or cantata, the work.


a dramatic,

high point

Unlike the recitative, plot.

It does not usually

advance the action consisted solo

of the

In the 18th century, a long section key and style,

the aria normally

of an orchestral voice, a section section. Some

introduction, in contrasting For this composers, difference technique, Arioso:

for the accompanied and a reprise called

of the entire



it was frequently

the da capo aria.


Gluck, Wagner, and Debussy, and the recitative,

did not maintain the but used a mixed song. both of

between the aria partaking A style

of both declamation

and expressive

of solo

song in opera or oratorio, It maintains


the recitative the text melodious,

and the aria.

the careful but it

treatment to be


of the recitative,

is likely

and to preserve of the aria.

something of the symmetry and key unity Wagner's music dramas make wide use of

characteristic the arioso. Bagatelle: and others

Literally, to short

a trifle. piano pieces,

The name was applied usually in song form.

by Beethoven



ballade: song poem, set to music, orchestral such as Schuberts Erl-King.

(1) A simple

(2) A narrative

(3) A piano piece, patterned after

work, or choral Chopins

work, which is for the

the above definition.

four ballades

piano are examples. Basso ostinato: which a bass-line Literally, an obstinate bass. A variation form in with pieces

of 1, 2, or 4 bars is repeated above.

over and over,

changing harmonies and melodies of this sort, but frequently

There are a few entire occurs

the basso ostinato

as one section

of a larger

work, for example in measures 118 through 128 of the last symphony of Brahms. the movement of music, is put into effect usually at the end

movement of the first Cadence:

An interruption to The interruption

of a phrase. following

by one or more of the

devices: The final chord of the cadence, long. melody note of the cadence is an or at least the

(1) Duration: melody note, is


(2) Melodic movement: The final inactive tone.


(3) Metrical a strong metrical However, a reverse a feminine ending.

position: The position,

final frequently

note of the cadence is usually on the first


beat of the measure.

may be true,

in which case the cadence is called

(4) Chord Procession: such as to give the feeling Types of cadences: important progression: (1) Perfect position, authentic

The chord progression of repose.

of the cadence is

The harmonic element of the cadential are usually classified according


is so

that cadences

to harmonic


V-I or V7-I, voice.

both chords in root This is the usual

with the root of 1 in the highest and is often IV-I,

formula for ending a piece, (2) Perfect plagal

preceded by a I 6-4 chord.


sometimes used independently, the last full verse of a hymn.

but most frequent Perfect

as the Amen sung after are sometimes called


closes. authentic

(3) Imperfect cadence.


A weak form of the perfect is V-I or V7-I,

The chord progression

but one or the other chord is

of the chords is inverted, not the root.

or the soprano note of the last


(4) Half cadence: Half cadences may also (5) Deceptive half-cadence, authentic

A cadence ending on V, or on III end on other degrees, cadence:

of minor keys.

but not the tonic. A special kind of

(or interrupted)

in which the listeners but the final (Examples: for

ear is prepared for a perfect


chord turns out to be some chord V-VI; V-IV). in which each of the subject) adopted forms

other than the tonic. Canon: A composition

two or more voice-parts, the identical voice,

the parts

in turn presents

melody (called

in a way dictated for the canon. using imitation.

by the first The canon isthe

and by the conventions of the contrapuntal


Canons are described subjects.

by the number of voices

and the number of using one subject.

A canon 3 in 1 is a canon for

three voices

A canon 4 in 2 is for four voices, Canons may also be described by the distance beginning (fifth, etc.) A canon which returns infinite canon. to its

using two subjects. the interval of imitation and by

(in time) between the entrance

of the subject

and the

of the imitation. sixth, etc. ) after

A canon may be written two measures (one beat,

at the octave four measures,



is a perpetual is a finite

or canon.

A canon which has a definite



Imitation contrary

may be direct,

but may also

be in inversion,



in augmentation, independent,

in diminution,

or retrograde.

Canons are usually or more voices Cantata: a piece refers

but may be accompanied by one in the imitation. singing, as contrasted to

which do not participate a piece

Originally, to be played

of music for

on instruments


Now the term usually chorus, and orchestra, for action.

to a sacred

or secular

work for soloists,

something like

a short oratorio

or an opera not intended for performance

Bach wrote more than 200 cantatas service before the sermon.

in the Lutheran

A fanciful Caprice, capriccio: written in free style, resembling

and irregular the fantasia.


of composition

Cassation: suites, for

A name applied various

by Mozart and others probably

to some serenades, intended for outdoor





Chaconne or passacaglia: variations in triple derived meter.

A composition


of a set of usually

from a ground bass 4 or 8 measures long, Originally dances of Spanish origin,

the chaconne music

and passacaglia

have become the framework of some of the finest composers, for violin for example: alone,

of some of the greatest Bach's D minor partita the same composer, Berceuse,

the Chaconne from in C minor by

the Passacaglia Variations



in C minor, Chopin's Some theorists as forms,

and the Finale distinctions

of Brahms' Fourth Symphony.

make various but analysis Chorale: musical

between the chaconne and passacaglia to show any consistent by Martin Luther.

of the music fails

difference. It is of great

The German hymn developed importance because

it became the basis especially

of much German music up in the chorale prelude for

to the middle of the 18th century, organ, and in the cantata.

Bach harmonized about 400 of these


melodies, Chorale

and based much of his church music on them. Prelude: An elaboration of a chorale melody for the organ, of the chorale

used in the Lutheran service by the congregation. among others. or chorale

as a prelude

to the singing

Fine examples were composed by Bach and Brahms, sometimes called chorale elaboration

The form is also




A large work for


with orchestra, consists

in the form of a

sonata or symphony. first

It ordinarily

of three movements, the exposition (a

being in sonata-allegro for orchestra

form with adouble

ritornello solo

and a second statement

of the themes by the


a slow second movement, and a rapid and brilliant a rondo. Nearly always the first a six-four movement has at

third movement, usually at the end which point brilliant movement.

of the recapitulation the orchestra stops

chord with a fermata, plays an extended on the themes of the points

and the soloist

passage called

a cadenza elaborating be introduced

Cadenzas may also Originally,

at appropriate

in the

other movements.

cadenzas were improvised by of writing

the soloist, as he

but Beethoven began the practice wanted them played. almost died out.

them out exactly

Today, the practice

of improvising

cadenzas has

Concerto grosso: originating A form a small group of solo larger called

in the late

17th century, is set against grosso,

in which a

instruments (the concertino)

body of accompanying instruments the ripieno). Handel, Torelli, and Locatelli of interest

(the concerto


Bach (particularly

in the form.

Brandenburg Concertos), There has been a revival

were great masters of this in the concerto grosso

in the 20th

century in the work of Bloch and others.


Courante: measure,

A classic

dance in rapid

tempo, usually

with ~ or f

with an upbeat of one quarter-note See Suite

or three eighth notes. (1). to denote any kind of usually florid, superimposed

The name means running dance. Descant: polyphony. (1) A term used after (2) In modern usage,

the 12th century a countermelody,

above the principal Development:

melody of a chorale. the section between the exposition

In the sonata allegro, consisting

and the recapitulation, themes presented development introducing

of a working out of fragments of the frequently using modulation. to the principal The key,

in the exposition,


ends with a retransition

the main theme. the section after the exposition. means: treatment, It elaborates stretto, counterpoint the

In the fugue, subject

by one or more of the following diminution, fragmentary subjects.) typical

modulation, invertible


(with one or more counter Divertimento: written outdoor cassation, purpose; for

A type of suite various

of the late combinations difference All

18th century, and intended for

small instrumental There is no real in this


between serenade, were for much the same

and divertimento all have typically


more than four movements; and none has the characteristic of the quartet and trio of

high degree of organization the period.


Double fugue: various

A fugue with two subjects. A and subject

These may be presented B may be introduced


ways: (1) Subject (2) Subject


in two voices; associate exposition association

B may appear as the first


of subject of subject

A; and (3) A, followed

The fugue may have a complete by another exposition Triple Specific fugues are also displaying possible. the

of the two subjects. Duo, trio, quartet, sextet, etc:

names, depending upon the sonatas two string for instrumental

number of participating ensembles. instruments,


for classical for

Duos or duo sonatas or for one string

are usually and one wind. called

or wind

A duo sonata for piano by such names as a sonata or even a sonata for used by Mozart and and of substantially

and another instrument for violin and piano,

is ordinarily or for clarinet

and piano,

piano with violin Beethoven.)

accompaniment (this

was the title

In such works all

parts are coordinate

equal importance. Episode: In work, an interlude a fugal An episode a close, final subject provide between statements a section a codetta of the subject.

maybe for the purpose of bringing is sometimes called

of the work to (coda for the of the

in which case it


or it may serve to modulate to a new statement key; or it

in a different for

may have no other purpose than to

formal balance.


Etude: technical figure

Basically, difficulty.

a piece



the practice

of some particular to have a repeated throughout the

As such, the etude is likely the technical difficulty

which contains

occurring musical

composition. attained

Some etudes

are of sufficient pieces,

value to have

the stature

of concert

for example the Etudes of piano ofSchumann. of the work, in in turn, each or other to a

Chopin and Liszt Exposition: (1)

and the Symphonic Etudes for In fugal works, is stated the first the first


which the subject statement appropriate after

by each of the voices

combined with the counter-subject and ending in an episode


which leads

cadence introducing weakened by elision (2) The first

the development.

The cadence is frequently (See cadence). in which the with each in the

or may be dissolved. large section

of a sonata-allegro,

main theme and subordinate other. ending in a cadence

theme are presented in a related

in contrast

key, which ushers

development. Fantasia (fantasie, fancy): A name given to various in style, kinds of to

composition any definite

which agree in being free form.

not restricted


TheThe figure figure: a short it serves group of notes.

resembles It differs

the motive to the extent from the motive,

that it is

however, in that

only a subsidiary A term applied

purpose, to a piece

as an accompaniment. of music usually written in ~ or $

Fox trot:

meter played by a modern dance band for ballroom Fugato: A passage in fugal a single piece style appearing

dancing. composition.

in a non-fugal

For example, a concerted


in a set of variations

may be a fugato; may be a fugato.

or a chorus in an opera or oratorio

Fughetta: fugue. short A Fugue: Probably writing. either treated sections the most important of the techniques usually for a fixed idea, of contrapuntal number of voices, or subject, is

A fugue is a composition, vocal or instrumental, in all

in which a melodic the voices,

by imitation are separated

and in which the imitative

by episodes. the fugue is not a form, because no two fugues The formal aspect of any fugue depends on two itself, whether it or can is

Properly are alike factors: suitable imitate


in structure.

(1) the characteristics for itself stretto, or for

of the subject statement

in contrary


in augmentation end (2)

or diminution,

and other



the skill

and imagination

of the composer.

However, some generalizations by the analysis

can be made, which should be verified

of a number of fugues.


The first


of a fugue,

or exposition, states the subject by between statements in the tonic answers.

each of the voices

in turn,


and in the dominant. This procedure tension

The statements conflict

in the dominant are called

sets up a basic to give drive voices

which does much to produce the As the second which

necessary following

and impetus to the work. the subject

and other


or answer, the voices If the counterpoint it is called a

have already


proceed in counterpoint. is used consistently, invariably it

(or contrapuntal counter-subject;

associate) if itisused

is a second subject,


the fugue is a double When all the subject, exposition, capabilities other material appropriate. exploiting leads

fugue (see are in,

double fugue). an episode, key. usually derived from the This cadence closes the and with the


to a cadende in a related

and introduces of the subject

the development, and its

which exploits with itself


of the exposition

in whatever ways the composer thinks section, each

There may be more than one development a particular section technique.

The final restate

of the fugue is the recapitulation, voice in the tonic, in turn,

which may but which if (that

the subject

in only one outside

may introduce feasible, is,

the subject

in each of the voices but usually voices

in stretto,

to heighten

the excitement,

in repercussion

the statement

of the subject

by all

in a different

order of


from that of the exposition.)



A lively

dance in ~ measure.

Example: Galop from Orpheus in the

Underworld, by Offenbach. Gavottes: A dance consisting of two lively strains intime, ususally with a of bagpipes. tempo. The See

with an upbeat of two quarter-notes. musette, which is a gavotte A classic

It sometimes alternates an imitation

over a drone bass,

Gigue (giga):

dance in ~ or ~

measure, in rapid

second part usually Suite (1). A piece


with the inversion

of the main theme.


in free


as though improvised.

Actually, of

an impromptu is likely its name.

to be a song form or a small rondo in spite


An Interlude;

a piece

of instrumental

music between the

acts of an opera. Invention: pieces as well imitative, fact their called A name used by Bach to describe written for the training a set of fifteen keyboard

in two parts,

of his sons in composition

as in performance. but differ

They resemble fugues in that they are freedom of their style, in the and in

in the comparative

that imitation smaller size.

is normally in the octave Many other contrapuntal

in the inventions,

works by Bach and others, to be together by Bach.



and other names, can be considered inventions were called frequently symphonies


The three-part Inventions


with the two-part



Latin American forms: dance

Latin American dance music is characterized instruments each of which the outstanding

by the use of a host of unusual percussion has its feature particular assigned part.

Rhythm is therefore

with harmony and melody in the background. The rhumba originated in Cuba. The fundamental


rhythmic pattern isplayed by the piano, bass, and bass drum.

Another variety the bar receives Bolero: original

of rhumba is the Guaracha in which the fourth two eighth note accents. bolero isentirely different from the The bolero

beat of

The Cuban or

Spanish or ~ bolero.

of today as danced in the

modern ballroom

is the Cuban variety.


Samba: and a strong

A characteristic feeling


dance form with rolling


of two to the bar.


A widely

popular dance from Argentina. beat or after-beat

Main characteristic of four.

is the heavy accent

on the fourth

Mambo: addition Arecent

to the Latin American dance group. accent on two and four in

An outstanding characteristic is the strong a two-bar pattern.

Additional Conga, Son,

Latin American dance forms in common use are the

Calypso, and numerous variants ofthe principal forms.



In the narrow sense,

a German art-song,

as written

by Schubert, by effective to the

Schumann, Brahms, others. Wolf, and

It is characterized

union of the music with the words, not only with respect natural accents and speech tune of the language, A distinction

but also with the lied,

mood of the poem.

is made between the strophic

which used the same music for each stanza of the poem, and the through-composed differently, develops Madrigal: (durchkomponiert) particularly lied, suited in which each verse is set

a device

to a poem in which the mood

or changes from stanza to stanza. Although the word appears as early to vocal compositions polyphonic as the late 13th it refers

century applied chiefly

in two or three parts, vocal composition

to a type of secular in Italy



and England

during the last

part of the 16th as a sort madrigals were

century and well of vocal


the 17th century.

Although designed

chamber music in the home, with one singer today. The fact

to a part,

are commonly sung by choruses used to supply missing the use of instrumental for instruments only. parts

that instruments

or to reinforce

weak singers development

stimulated of music

music and the eventual


March: spirit

A musical



to produce orderliness music for the


in the movement of troops,

or to provide

accompaniment of processions. Broadly, marches can be classed march as a special as processional variety) and fast or grand marches marches or

(with the funeral quicksteps.

Grand marches are in ~ or ~


and in moderate tempo.

Fast marches are two beats American marches, Panella,

in the measure, either

of the kind made famous by Sousa, Goldman, King, and others, by a trio consist of two repeated strains

Chambers, Farrar, followed

in the main key, The trio

in the key of the subdominant. strain, followed by a contrasting is repeated, English is played,

may consist. after

of a repeated

break strain, usually

which the main theme of the trio or brilliant instrumentation. after

with reinforced repeat

marches often

the first similar

two strains

the trio

making the form quite

to that of a minuet. for the sole contain purpose of being played which make them

Concert marches are written at concerts. unsuitable Such marches usually for marching.



Mass: it

The observance

of the Eucharist intoned

in certain

churches. and varying

Musically, in


of the proper,

by the priest,


from day to day throughout portion,whieh

the church calendar,

and the ordinary, a "mass" of

or invariable

may be sung by the choir. When the ordinary is meant.

by a composer is spoken of, six parts: (1) Kyrie eleison (2) Gloria (Glory

This consists


have mercy upon us) the Highest)

to God in

(3) Credo (I believe) (4) Sanctus (Holy, (5) Benedictus holy art Thou, Lord God) is He that cometh) away the sins of the world)


(6) Agnus Dei (Lamb of God, who takest Mazurka: A lively Polish

dance in ~ or ~ meter, with emphasis on the

second or third Minuet:

beat of the measure. in Europe from about 1650 to the beginning valued as it was considered It was in ~ meter, to be the

A dance popular

of the 19th century, best training


in genteel


in moderate

tempo. (see


composers used it as an optional

dance in the suite


1) and later

in the symphony, in which use it was displaced It is normally written Frequently it as a three-part has a trio, with

eventually song fore,

by the scherzo.

but may be in two parts. minuet.

da capo to the first



A polyphonic




Latin religious


other than those

of the mass. notably

The great development in the work of Palestrina,

of the motet was Lassus, and

in the 16th century, Victoria, form. Opera:

who produced some of the finest

music of all

time in this

One of the most important of musical of the poet (librettist),



at the the The musical and chorus.

same time the efforts stage-crafter, requirements Historically, a great variety operetta

the actor,

and the costumer with that for performance are for

of the composer. orchestra,


and simultaneously of styles

in almost every era, from light

opera has meant

and purposes,

and even farcical

and musical

comedy on the one hand to the most profound and National schools and individual composers

moving drama on the other. have varied

from one extreme to the other Verdi,

in balancing

the relative

weight of drama and music. most significant Oratorio: libretto the fact generally oratorio

Wagner, and Mozart are among the

composers of opera. chorus, and orchestra, the

A dramatic work for soloists, of which concerns a sacred


It differs on the stage. chorus.

from opera in There is

that it is not written

to be acted

more emphasis on the part of the is the "Messiah"

The best known

of Handel, only one of many fine works by Haydn, Beethoven, and

that composer.

Others are by Mendelssohn,

among moderns, Walton and Honegger.


Overture: cantata.

(1) The orchestral


to an opera,



(2) A piece overture

of keyboard or orchestral sense, but intended as a device

music patterned for independent



in the first

performance. of the each

The overture


to get the attention

crowd assembled to hear the opera. in three movements, arose: (slow, fast, slow). time overture of dotted often

In the 17th century, (fast, slow, fast)

two forms,

the Italian

and the French

In Bach's movement fill

meant a suite

which began with a slow but

rhythms, like

that of the French overture,

which had additional

movements in the form of dances. is likely to be that of the which are only medleys or with light referring operas. to a rather

The form of the modern overture sonata-allegro, potpourris Partita: elaborate a prelude, introducing or polonaises, movements. Passacaglia:

but there are many overtures

of tunes.

Some of these are associated suite (1), but usually

Another name for suite, introduced

by a movement not in dance rhythm, such as toccata, fantasie, or preambulum, bourrees, airs,



extra movements, such as gavottes, and frequently The best-known See chaconne. having doubles


for one or more of the


are a set of six by J. S. Bach.


Passage: dissolves

When a motive is used sequentially into a scale or apreggio figure

in a florid for

manner, or it

the sake of brilliance,

is known as a passage. Passepied: of one beat. suite. Passion: last A piece of sacred music, of Christ, resembling and derived an oratorio, based on the A rapid dance, three beats to the measure, with an upbeat movement in a

It was occasionally

used as an optional


in the life

from the custom in some of the story in a musical. who


of devoting life

four days of Holy Week to the reading gospels. Traditionally,

of Christ's passion,

from the various is carried

the story

forward by a tenor, mostly in recitative.

"the Evangelist"

acts as narrator

and who sings

The part of Christ sometimes appear The chorus is passages. The

is given to a bass, for Peter, Pilate,

accompanied by strings. Judas, and various other

Other parts characters.

used for heightened greatest Polka: passions A lively

moments of feeling,

and for reflective

were written

by Bach and Schltz.

Bohemian or Polish

three eighth-notes similar

dance in 2 meter, with the first 4 accented , and the fourth unaccented. Another form

to the Polka is the Schottische.



A stately into


normally divided first beat divided stress

dance in s meter, with each of the beats 4 two eighth-notes, but with the last half of the two sixteenth notes. There is an important


secondary Prelude: prelude

on the second beat. played as an introduction to another, as a

(1) A piece and fugue.

(2) Any short prelude by its Rachmaninoff. Recapitulation: close


in rather for



is likely to

be called a


example the preludes

of Chopin and

(1) In fugues,

the section

which prepares

for the

of the work. a statement

The recapitulation of the fugue subject to a single

may be elaborate

enough to

contain voices;

in the main key by each of the statement, followed in the bass or soprano. by an extension, which

or it may be limited the recapitulation leading

In any case, is called

is usually

a coda,

to the final

cadence. which follows the development

(2) In the sonata form, the section and brings presents the movement to a close. It

stands in the main key, and theme. It differs

both the main theme and the subordinate

from the exposition, same key.

in that the two themes are almost always in the this procedure building serves the purpose of


reconciling the two themes, after conflict between them. followed

most of the movement on the is preceded by a retransition,

The recapitulation

and usually

by a coda.


Recitative: a style

In the opera,


and other extended dramatic works the effects of spoken language, It is used expression.

of writing

which imitates

without much regard to melody or to rhythmic regularity. for narrative, (See aria.) part, dialogue, In light or for situations unsuited

to lyric



is supplanted,

for the most

by spoken dialogue. A transition, bridge passage, section. or extension which occurs

Retransition: as the final

event in a development

Its purpose is to prepare key. In classic

for the reentry works, this

of the main theme in the principal accomplished by dwelling

is frequently

on the dominant of

the key. Rigaudon: An old dance in duple meter originating used in the suite, in southern France number.

and occasionally Rondo: A large

or as an independent

form made by the contrast subordinate or at least themes.

of a main theme with one or to be a

more contrasting small song-form,

The theme (A) is likely

a chain of phrases

or double period.

Three types are distinguished:


The small rondo (first The digression passage-like followed may be a lyric development


in which there is only one digression. to be a shifting, This is

theme, but is more likely

of some fragment of the main theme. theme, this by a coda. time,

by a return

to the original and followed

however, in

more elaborate


The tempo of the The slow form. in which there to be

small rondo is nearly

always slow:

andante or adagio.

movement of many sonatas The old (or second) are two or more different in a somewhat remote key. The new (or third) the second

and symphonies are inthis this rondo,

which is a rapid piece, last


of which is likely




in tempo.

It differs

from (A-B-A-C-A-B-A)

rondo in hating a return makes for greater

to the first


This practice

unity. found as independent pieces, synmhonies,

Second and third and are also and similar Sarabande: quite works. A classic

rondos are often as the final


movements of sonatas,

dance of Spanish origin or lengthened.

in slow ~ or ~ measure, See Suite (1).

with the second beat accented



The word is the Italian

word for scherzo. quartets, it


and this

is typical is

of many specimens of the musical a movement in sonatas, replaces is faster. the minuet. symphonies,


a scherzo which

and the like,

Like the minuet,

is in triple

meter, but it

Haydn appears to be the first to use it

to have made the substitution, consistently. The name is to

but Beethoven was the first also applied to separate


works similar

in form (which is identical or dramatic implications,

that of the minuet) but having tragic the scherzi Serenade:

such as

of Chopin and Brahms for piano. See cassation, A large divertimento. form used as the first movement of sonatas, as the overture.

Sonata-allegro: symphonies,


and the like,

and separately

The form depends for its are first stated in contrast,


on the use of two themes which then finally reconciled. in style. keys

then developed, theme are likely

The main theme and subordinate one heroic, or regions Structurally, is usually the other (tonic lyric

to be different

or elegaic;

they are in contrasting - relative major).

- dominant,

or minor tonic

they may be extended periods, a bridge passage leading

or phrase-chains.


from the main theme to the subordinate theme to the cadence which ends

theme, and another from the subordinate the exposition.


The development section work out the two themes to each other.

uses all


of techniques

to explore


or fragments of them, separately

and in relation

(See development.) finally restates the themes but now in the same examples, is likely to have

The recapitulation key.

The movement, at least at the end called

in the larger a coda.

an extension Sonata:

A large

form in several

movements, each of which is duos, trios,



to be a large


The same form is used for for symphonies

quartets, sonatas

and other chamber music works; for orchestra; and for concerti,

which are essentially for solo

which are sonatas


with orchestra. The typical sonata-allegro, related large sonata is in four movements, the first a

the second a small rondo or other a minuet or scherzo in still

slow movement in a another related key,

key, the third

and the final

movement a rondo or another sonata-allegro omit the minuet.

in the main key.

Works in three movements usually variations Sonatina: material may be substituted A small sonata, than in the sonata. for

A theme with

any of the four movements. elaborate treatment of thematic

with less



In its






words with melody.

A distinction composers,

is made between folk-song, handed down and modified

which is the work of unschooled and art-song, singers. which

by tradition,

is music composed essentially (See Lied. ) Stretto: follower Stretto Suite: Courante, A type of imitation, begins serves the imitation

for performance

by skilled

frequent while

in fugues,

in which the is in progress.

the first tension

statement or excitment.

to produce increased basically

(1) A set of dances, Sarabande,


of Allemande,

and Gigue, but frequently other called dances, "Air".

having an introductory Minuet, or

movement, and interpolating Passepied, and even pieces

such as Gavotte,

This was the suite and contemporaries.

as written

by Bach, Handel, and their (2) A set of pieces Divertimento, Causation).

predecessors for open-air


(See Serenade,

(3) A set of pieces "Arlesienne Suites",

made up of theatrical


such as Bizet is

or of music around a central or of assorted pieces,

theme, such as Grieg's related

"From Holberg's by occasion,


more or less


or theme.


Symphonic (Tone Poem, Tondichtung): Poem symphony, breaking down the separation music (imitating

A romantic variant

of the

into movements, and incorporating actual extra-musical sounds)

elements of descriptive

or program music (music which seeks to tell besides Smetana. Symphony: used today, AS full orchestra. the name refers those of Liszt,

a story).

Good examples,

are symphonic poems by Richard Strauss and

to an extended sonata for

It originated

in the middle of the 18th century with and more or less and Beethoven and has

Sammartini, crystallized

Stamitz, into

and Monn; was developed


form by Haydn, Mozart,

been the subject significant

of experimentation

and development by almost every A great part of the programs symphonic poems, related, and all of

romantic and modern composer.

of symphony orchestras concerts, and overtures,

is made up of symphonies, all of which are closely in the present

which are discussed Tarantella, either


list. so called

tarantella: it

A rapid Italian

dance in $meter, of Taranto,



in the region

or because the of the

dance was long regarded tarantula.

as a specific

remedy for the bite




a piece


to display


of execution


a keyboard instrument. the fantasia. pieces sections

It is written toccatas

in rhapsodic


and resembles are extended

The harpsichord sections

of Bach, however, passage-work


of brilliant fugues.

with slow lyrical

and with elaborate

Tone Poem: See Symphonic Poem. Trio: violin, (1) A sonata for viola, and cello; three instruments, a piano trio, clarinet, for such as a string piano, violin, trio for

and cello;

or a woodwind trio, of combination

for oboe,

and bassoon.

The possibilities

are almost limitless. division of a minuet, scherzo, or march, because,

(2) The second large after which the first as introduced instruments, orchestra Variation variations, by Lully

part is repeated.

It is called this

a trio

in the 17th century

part was set for three to the full

two oboes and a bassoon, part. forms (sets

by way of contrast

used in the first forms : etc.) Variation are pieces

of variations,

theme and the the

of music constructed successive treatments,

by presenting preserving

same musical idea in several outlines of the original idea.

Two main types may be observed:



The ground-bass bass line.


in which the unifying

element is

a repeated

This type is exemplified

by the basso ostinato,

the chaconne, (2)

and the passacaglia. in which amelody is cast in other presented forma, in such

The theme with variations,

many transformations. as a minuet, "division

Some of these maybe or a march.

a cannon, a waltz,

A common device

is the into


in which the theme is broken up first triplets, then into sixteenths,


then into

and so on. and so on,

There may be variations limited

in the minor,

slow variations,

only by the inventiveness

of the composer. of some of the noblest of Bach, of music.

Variation musical

forms have been the vehicle as witnessed variations

communication, and Diabelli

by the Goldberg Variations of Beethoven,

the Eroica

and the variations

Schumann and Brahms. Also, variations have produced some inferior


Waltz: dance,

A dance In triple the Lndler. half

meter which developed in the last years

from a German peasant of the 18th century, type, and

It arose

in the first waltz,

of the 19th century a specialized Lamer and the Strauss

the "Viennese" a pulse)

in the hands of Josef

family, reached

tremendous vogue. in the bar,

It is characterized

by one chord (and one real

which appears as a bass note with chord groups on the quarter notes. The second quarter in performance. although the steps have note of the

second and third

accompaniment is anticipated The waltz changed, tempo. is still

a trifle


as a dance,

and for modern dancing the waltz

is played in more moderate

The form of the Viennese waltz consists of perhaps anticipating or five separate the dance tunes to follow,

a slow introduction, then a series of four a da capo, the set


each of two strains , with trio, and coda which recapitulates finish of some sort.

and finally of waltzes


in an extended

and ends with a whirlwind



One consideration of great importance in the study of music is the the means available sound. and

knowledge of the media of performance; customary for the translation It is conjectured resources other

that is,

of the intent

of composers into

that the earliest

music was performed with no The voice could give

than those

of the human body.

forth melody, reinforced

and the rhythm of either

melody or the dance could be or making outcries. which in a

by clapping

the hands, stamping the feet, variety of musical

Today, we have a great sense extend the possibilities sound. different

instruments, voice

of the singing

in making musical and of

Some can produce sounds which are louder, tone color.

wider in range,

Others can make rhythmic sounds that are more or stamping of the feet. with other These can be combined or with the human producing music.

foreceful than handclaps in a variety voice,

of ways, either


which remains one of the most important Three factors are essential to a musical

media for experience:

a composition This appendix the

to be performed, lists

a medium of performance,

and a listener.

a number of the most common examples of the second factor,

medium of performance.


VOCAL MEDIA The solo voice. The single Purposes. unaccompanied individual Rarely, a professional voice singer is used for may include

a number of musical a song without

accompaniment on a recital; of liturgical songs.

but much more frequent chants by the priest, or

examples are the intonation the informal singing

of familiar

The accompanied solo voice. Most frequently, accompanied by a single the harpsichord. and the lute, keyboard instrument,

the solo the piano,


is or

the organ,

Plectrum instruments, often

such as the guitar,

the banjo, by individuals.

are also

used for accompanying singing

Many songs are also

sung to the accompaniment of orchestra, who sings the latest song hit with a or the

ranging from the popular singer

combo or dance band, to performance with symphony orchestra singing of arias in opera or oratorio.


Much vocal

music in parts is performed by small groups, Examples of this group, practice include numbers

one or two singers the barber-shop

to each part.


the madrigal

and concerted

in operas and similar


such as the sextet

from Lucia di Lamrermoor.

Vocal ensembles are sometimes accompanied,

sometimes not.


Choruses and choirs. organized distinction music, into sections

Much music is performed by large according to the range of the

groups of singers, voices. A

is made between the choir, which sings rather secular

which normally performs religious music, although this is a

and chorus,

difference without sings

In repertoire

than in medium. an "a cappella"

A choir which sings choir (a choir which

accompaniment is called

in the style A further

of the chapel.) is made among mixed groups, using both women altos, part possible; usually


and men, or boys and men, which are organized tenors, and basses, with further subdivision

into sopranos, of each voice

men's choruses subdivided; altos,

or choirs,

which contain or choirs, and choirs

only tenors

and basses,

women's choruses subdivided; voices.

which contain and choruses

only sopranos and


of unchanged voices,

or children's The choir by organ,

or chorus may sing unaccompanied, or orchestra.

or may be accompanied




(1) ~

Obviously, the instruments most suited

for solo performance are those which have the possibility of simultaneously producing melody and harmony, of which the keyboard instruments literature are the most versatile. However, there exists a considerable

of works for violin alone, for cello alone, and even for

flute alone, which are to be met with in public performance now and then. (2) Solo instrument with keyboard accompaniment. field of music in this category. Properly speaking, There is a large sonatas for violin

and piano, cello and piano should be excluded from this category, as the parts are equal in importance and such works should be considered as chamber music or ensemble literature. However, there is a vast accompanied

literature of shorter pieces for almost every instrument, with piano or organ. as piano reductions

Even concerti can be performed in this fashion, of the orchestral scores are readily available.


(3) Solo Instrument with orchestra accompaniment. The most important The solo flute, examples in this instruments organ, category are concerti for various instruments. employed are piano, bassoon, violin, cello. and

most frequently clarinet,


horn, oboe,


trumpet in about that order of frequency. for doublebass, pieces tuba,

There are even


and tympani. Besides concerti, many shorter to display the technical agility and

have been written of solo

musicianship (4) literature much of it

performers. There is a large

Solo instruments with band accompaniment. ofmusic for wind instruments

with band accompaniment, pieces. However, band

in the nature of empty display

arrangements of some concerto effective.

accompaniments have been made, and are quite come to recognize the

It is to be hoped that composers will music for this medium.

Importance of writing Ensembles.

An instrumental to a part.

ensemble is a small group of instruments There is a wide variety of which are discussed of such ensembles, here.

with one player

some of the more important


By far the most important ensemble for (1) The string quartet. the performance consisting are: of classical chamber music is the string a viola, and a violoncello. and agility, for public in mall quartet, The advantages of

of two violins,

wide range,

great flexibility not intended effectively

and hmogeneity performance, halls.

sound. is often quartets finest

This music is presented

although it


The String are among the

of Haydn, Beethoven, musical compositions


Brahms, and others

for any medium. The most important are simply

(2) Other classical listed.


a. The duo: two like cello; flute and cello;



and cello;



oboe and bassoon. two violins and

Other combinations violin, viola,

also occur. and cello; and cello;

b. The trio: piano, piano, violin, violin, c. and cello


(the piano trio); etc. piano,



and horn;

The piano quartet:



and cello;


and any three instruments. d. Quintets: (string etc. quintets); quintet, string quartet with one additional clarinet, viola or cello oboe,



with piano, etc.);

horn, flute,




other combinations

of five



e. Larger ensembles: employing a variety




and the

like, which

of instrumentations;

the chamber orchestra, of limited instrumentation.

amounts to a small symphony orchestra Orchestra. The standard orchestra

of today is the symphony orchestra, divided into choirs or sections

an aggregation

of from 60 to 100 players as strings,

by types of instrument, The number actually number of performers

woodwinds, brasses,

and percussion. played. The


depends upon the work being reduced for

is substantially

symphonies by Mozart players

and Haydn, for example, and the number of wind and percussion used depends on the requirements practice not to maintain regular of the composer. chairs

It is standard for instruments

in the orchestra

seldom used. players existing

When works requiring for the occasion purposes

such instruments only.

are programmed,

are hired for

Other types of orchestras



(1) The theater of certain instruments


A smaller


in which the absence so the missing

is compensated for by cross-cueing Special

parts can be played by other instruments. orchestra include the opera orchestra,

types of theater orchestra (for radio

the studio

or television pictures), for


or to supply background music for motion which specializes in light music

and the salon orchestra, large

formal dinners,

scale entertainments,

and so on.



The string orchestra. only,

An orchestra

which specializes

In music

for strings Band.

or for one solo

instrument with strings. performing together,

(1) Originally, even vocalists.

a group of musicians


(2) A dame orchestra. (3) In general instrumentalists instruments. for Several present usage, a band isan ofmusic, organization excluding of

the performance sorts band.


are distinguished: A band of comparatively small. size used

a. Military for military to officiate military purposes,

for example, to accompany the marching of troops, and to provide entertainment at

at honors and ceremonies,

functions. b. Brass band. A type of band very popular England and percussion. Band. A large band, emphasizing for standards of made

up only of brass instruments

c. Symphonic or Concert woodwind instruments musicianship the repertoire and string

in performance

comparable to those of symphony orchestras. is not yet comparable, consisting

Unfortunately, chiefly

for the present

of arrangements and of original with the capabilities

works composers who are as yet unfamiliar

of the band as a musical medium.


Dance orchestras andThe dance orchestra combos. (for just dancing), three or of the concert to a large type.

may be either

functional, ranging from part being a is small

It may be of any size


orchestra, usually

the only permanent contains

a rhythm section. guitar, a string

A rhythm section bass, and drums. sections it

a piano and/or

Usually when the dance orchestra is referred to as a combo. various

and does not possess may contain just

A combo

rhythm instruments

or in addition,


of wind instruments. The instrumentation of (1) The full tenors, commonly used dance orchestras five saxophones, follows: two

dance orchestra: each doubling brass

two altos,

one baritone,

on clarinet

or other woodwind evenly between


six or eight



trumpets and trombones; (2) The stock

the four man rhythm section. three or four saxophones; three

dance orchestra:

or four brass instruments; (3) piano,

the four man rhythm section. three tenor saxophones; one trumpet;

The small tenor band: bass, and drums.

string (4)

The "Dixieland

Band": one trumpet; rhythm.

one clarinet;

one trombone;

one tenor saxophone




To conclude, included Consort. instruments (viols consort".

a few specialized

types of performance

groups are

for the sake of completeness. An old English playing name (16th and 17th centuries) If all instruments for a group of


were of one kind

or recorders, If string

for example)

the group

known as a"whole were both represented, the

and wind instruments The consort

group was broken consort.


an early

stage in

the development of the orchestra Fanfare. kettledrums instruments. an important (1) A short, lively,

and of chamber music. loud piece for trumpets, piece involving sometimes with other brass of

or parade drums; or a similar Fanfares personage, are used to direct or to a display,


to the entrance

show, or the like. to a brass band. A band

(2) In French usage , the word refers using woodwinds and brasses Fife, field Drum, and Bugle Corps. music, that is, marches, is called

a "harmonie." for the performance of

An organization fanfares,

and the kind of military signaling purposes and for

music which was once developed the evolutions of troops.

and used for

It survives


in display





There are many ties The degree performance. The dynamic level performed placement will and the style or character of the music to be but the beat to which these between the conductor ties are felt and the instrumentalist. the quality of



the motions of the conductor, will remain basically time beating


the same. is an imaginary square with

The area normally used for the top about eye level equidistant square will to the left

and the bottom about even with the waist and and right. If a baton is used the size of the

be somewhat larger. movement directly in front of the body

The down beat is a vertical

going from the upper to the lower part of the square then reversing direction execution. The down beat is basically movement from top to bottom will the square. (Fig. 1) or last portion beat of the measure, is made by moving from slant to a spot the same for any type of measure. be referred to as the centerline This of to form the ictus. The ictus is the exact place of

The up beat, the upper right about one third

of the square down a slight

of the way down the centerline,

then changing direction

upward to where the movement for

the downbeat begins.


The change of direction Now adjust


again provide taken after

the ictus

for the beat. for the



the direction

making the ictus

downbeat to travel measure. (Fig. 3)

to where the upbeat began.

This forms the two-beat

The first

beat lasts

from the ictus

of one to the ictus

of two.


second beat lasts distance

from the ictus

of two to the ictus

of one.

The the

the hand travels

between beats

should be approximately

same to facilitate

keeping a steady tempo. is used for the second beat inand the start a little to the of the to where

The beat to the right third left beat in. of center

To make the beat to the right

and move downward almost to the lower right direction there to make the ictus (Fig. 4) after the ictus,




and proceeding

we began to form the up beat. Adjust the direction

of the down beat,

to join


the beginning

of the beat to the right. (Fig. 5)

Add the up beat and the three

beat measure is formed.


The only other type of beat is the beat the Two in a four beat measure. the center line

to the left. This is begin on

To make the beat to the left,

about one third from corner,

the bottom of the square and move direction, to form the the right. beat to the (Fig. 7) (Fig. 6)

almost to the lower left ictus, and proceed

then reverse

to where we began to form the beat to the down beat, beat to the left,

Now put together right,

and the up beat to form the four beat measure.

There are two types

of six beat measures. (See Fig. 3)

The fast


is exactly to


same as the two beat measure. the four beat measure except to the right are used,

The slow six is similar to the left and two beats

that two beats

in addition

to the down bat implies, directly consists

and the up hat.



The one beat measure, as it After the ictus A distinction is made, proceed

of only the down bat. (Fig. 9)

to the top of the next beat. in that when the three the return beat

should be made, however, waltz,

measure is beat in one, as in a fast

from making the ictus

to the top of the square takes twice as long as going from top to bottom. (Fig. 10)


The five

beat measure consists

of the four beat measure with an added according to the pulse of

beat to the right the music. (Fig.

or an added beat to the left, 11) (Fig. For a fast 12)

tempo combine the two types of one

beat measures.

When it becomes necessary in the same direction

to subdivide

a beat simply add another beat (Figs. 13, 14, and 15)

as the beat to be subdivided.

The preparatory

beat is used primarily It

to give the performer

an idea

of the tempo to follow. and begins approximately (Figs.

is made at the same speed as the next. beat of a preceding beat would be.

where the ictus

17, 18, 19, and 20)


The hold or pause is made with an inward curving The release or cutoff



21) (Fig. 22)

is made with an outward curving


The left a. b. c. d. e. f.

hand is used as follows: To reenforce the right hand when making preparatory beats.

Changes in tempo. Holds or cuts. Changes in dynamics. Style or character.

Cueing performers.