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2 Table of Contents Page # 1. DRI Quality Levels 3 2. WB1 3-Day Average ..4 22 3. My Nutrition Profile .23 27 4. DRI Goals vs. 3-Day Diet Record 28 5. Perfect Plan Analysis (PPA) .29 6. Super Food Meal Plan Usage Chart . 30 7. Super Foods Nutrition Profile ...31 8. Super Foods ..32 34 9. Farm to Table 35 36 10. Super Food Recipe 37 11. My Plate 38 40 12. Water .41 13. Fiber ..42 14. Wellness Nutrient and Physical Strategies Chart ..............................................................43 15. My Wellness Life ..44 45 16. Bibliography .46

DRI QUANTIFIED DRI GOALS NUTRIENT Unit GOOD EXCELLENT SOURCE SOURCE 10-19% 20% RDA/AI (COLUMN=10%) (COLUMN=20%) B=A*.1 A C=A*.2 2.7 0.27 0.54 1740 174 348 MACRONUTRIENTS 54.43 5.443 10.886 191 19.1 38.2 25 2.5 5 37 SKIP 17 SKIP 12 1.2 2.4 1.1 0.11 0.22 VITAMINS 1.1 0.11 0.22 1.1 0.11 0.22 14 1.4 2.8 1.3 0.13 0.26 2.4 0.24 0.48 400 40 80 75 7.5 15 15 1.5 3 70 1.5 MINERALS 1000 100 18 1.8 310 31 4700 470 8 0.8 1500 700 15 140 3 200 3.6 62 940 1.6 SKIP

Water Kcals PROTEIN CHO Fiber LIPIDS Saturated EFA: n-6 EFA: n-3 Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin B6 B12 Folate Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin A (RAE) Vitamin E Calcium Iron Magnesium Potassium Zinc Sodium

L Kcal g g g g g g g mg mg mg mg mcg mcg mg mcg mcg mcg mg mg mg mg mg mg

4 WB1 3-Day Average

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23 My Nutrition Profile Deficiencies 1. Water Main function: Transports nutrients to cells and carries away wastes, acts as a universal solvent, cleanses the body, acts as a lubricant and cushion for joints, and maintains body temperature Result of chronic deficiencies: Bladder, colon, and other cancers; cardiac arrest, gallstones, kidney stones, and urinary tract infections Food sources: Tap water, distilled water, and spring water 2. Kilocalories Main function: units used to measure the energy in foods Result of chronic deficiencies: slower metabolism, ketosis, nutrient deprivation Result of chronic excesses: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, sleep apnea Food sources: avocados, apples, salmon 3. Carbohydrates Main function: Provides energy for the body, feeds brain and nervous system, keeps digestive system fit, helps keep a leaner body (if within calorie limits), and adds bulk to foods Result of chronic excess: Diabetes, impaired circulation, obesity Food sources: Whole wheat bread, potatoes, milk 4. Fiber Main function: Insoluble fibers aid the digestive system by easing elimination and soluble fibers adds consistency to food Result of chronic deficiencies: higher risk of heart disease, less moisture in stools, higher blood cholestrol Food sources: celery, brown rice, legumes 5. Lipids Main function: Chief storage form for the energy from food eaten in excess of need and provides energy needed to perform much of the bodys work, especially muscular work Result of chronic excess: High blood LDL cholesterol, hypertension, obesity Food sources: whole milk, potatoes, oils

24 6. Omega-6 fatty acids Main function: Provide raw material for eicosanoids, serve as structural and functional parts of cell membranes, promote normal growth and vision, assist in gene regulation, maintain outer structures of the skin, and supports immune cell functions Result of chronic excess: Eating fish that contains a high amount of mercury can be dangerous. Excess consumption of omega-6 fatty acids can also interfere with blood clotting, constrict blood vessels, promote heart disease, increase inflammation and pain, decrease immunity, and can promote preterm birth Food sources: vegetable oils, poultry fat, nuts 7. Omega-3 fatty acids Main function: Provide raw material for eicosanoids, serve as structural and functional parts of cell membranes, promote normal growth and vision, assist in gene regulation, maintain outer structures of the skin, and supports immune cell functions Result of chronic excess: For pregnant women, consuming too much mercury from fish can accumulate in the bloodstream and damage the babys developing brain and nervous system Food sources: mackerel, soybeans, canola oil 8. Thiamin Main function: plays a critical role in the energy metabolism of all cells. It also occupies a special site on nerve cell membranes Result of chronic deficiencies: beriberi (loss of sensation in the hands and feet, muscular weakness, paralysis, and abnormal heart action), Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (alcohol impairs absorption of thiamin from the digestive tract) Food sources: enriched cereal, sunflower seeds, black beans 9. Riboflavin Main function: Plays a role in the energy metabolism of all cells, just like thiamin Result of chronic deficiencies: When thiamin is deficient, riboflavin may be lacking too; the deficiency symptoms may be undetected because those of thiamin deficiency are more severe Food sources: cottage cheese, spinach, beef liver 10. Niacin Main function: Like thiamin and riboflavin, participates in the energy metabolism of all cells in the body

25 Result of chronic deficiencies: Pellagra (the 4 Ds diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, and death) Food sources: tuna, enriched cereal, mushrooms

11. Vitamin B6 Main function: Part of a coenzyme needed in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism; helps convert tryptophan into niacin and serotonin; helps make hemoglobin for red blood cells Result of chronic deficiencies: Anemia, depression, confusion, abnormal brain wave pattern, convulsions, dermatitis Food sources: beef liver, banana, spinach 12. Vitamin B12 Main function: Part of coenzymes needed in new cell synthesis; helps to maintain nerve cells Result of chronic deficiencies: Pernicious anemia, fatigue, memory loss, disorientation, degeneration of nerves Food sources: chicken liver, sardines, swiss cheese 13. Folate Main function: Part of a coenzyme needed for new cell synthesis Result of chronic deficiencies: Anemia, heartburn, diarrhea, constipation, suppression, infections, smooth red tongue, increased risk of neural tube defects, depression, confusion, fatigue, irritability and headaches Food sources: asparagus, avocado, beets 14. Vitamin C Main function: Plays a major role in collagen synthesis; acts as an antioxidant, restores Vitamin E to active form, hormone synthesis, supports immune cell functions, helps in absorption of iron Result of chronic deficiencies: Scurvy Food sources: citrus fruits, strawberries, lettuce 15. Vitamin D Main function: Plays a chief function in mineralization of bones Result of chronic deficiencies: Rickets and osteomalacia Food sources: fortified milk, liver, sardines

26 16. Vitamin A (RAE) Main function: Plays a major role in gene expression, vision, maintenance of body linings and skin, immune defenses, growth of bones and of the body, reproduction and normal development of cells Result of chronic deficiencies: Hypovitaminosis, anemia, cessation of bone growth, painful joints, tooth decay, diarrhea, depression, infections, night blindness, keratinization, kidney stones Food sources: spinach, sweet potatoes, cheese 17. Vitamin E Main function: Acts as an antioxidant, stabilizes cell membranes, supports immune function, protects polyunsaturated fatty acids, and serves in normal nerve development Result of chronic deficiencies: red blood cell breakage, anemia, nerve degeneration, weakness, difficulty walking, leg cramps Food sources: polyunsaturated plant oils, wheat germ, whole-grain products 18. Calcium Main function: Is an integral part of bone structure, regulates transport of ions across cell membranes, helps maintain normal blood pressure, plays a role in the clotting of blood, and is essential in muscle contraction Result of chronic deficiencies: likely to develop cancer of the colon and rectum; osteoporosis Food sources: cheese, sardines, milk 19. Iron

Main function: Carries oxygen as part of hemoglobin in blood or myoglobin in muscles; required for cellular energy metabolism Result of chronic deficiencies: Anemia: weakness, fatigue, headaches; impaired mental and physical work performance; impaired immunity; pale skin, nailbeds, and mucous membranes; concave nails; chills; pica Food sources: clams, enriched cereal, swiss chard

20. Magnesium Main function: Plays a role in bone mineralization, protein synthesis, enzyme action, muscle contraction, nerve function, tooth maintenance, and immune function Result of chronic deficiencies: Weakness, confusion, convulsions, uncontrollable muscle contractions, hallucinations, and difficulty swallowing; in children, growth failure

27 Food sources: spinach, black beans, oysters

21. Potassium Main function: Maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance; facilitates chemical reactions; supports cell integrity; assists in nerve functioning and muscle contractions Result of chronic deficiencies: Muscle weakness, paralysis, confusion Food sources: orange juice, banana, avocado 22. Zinc

Main function: Activates many enzymes; associated with hormones; synthesis of genetic material and proteins, transport of vitamin A, taste perception, would healing, and reproduction Result of chronic deficiencies: Growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, impaired immune function, hair loss, eye and skin lesions, loss of appetite Food sources: oysters, shrimp, yogurt

Excesses 23. Sodium Main function: Serves as the major part of the bodys fluid and electrolyte balance system because it is the chief ion used to maintain the volume of fluid outside cells. Also helps to maintain acid-base balance and is essential in muscle contraction and nerve transmission Result of chronic excess: Hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and cerebral hemorrhage Food sources: potato chips, dill pickles, creamed corn

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DRI GOALS vs. 3-DAY DIET RECORD DRI GOALS WB1 3-day Analysis Intake vs. Goal (%) Deficient <80% Excess >120% 46 54 98 42 56 37 53 39 37 31 62 46 38 41 39 67 14 63 19 47 37 40 24 36 184

NUTRIENT

UNIT

RDA/AI

UL

Intake

Water Kcals PROTEIN CHO Fiber LIPIDS Saturated EFA: n-6 EFA: n-3 Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin B6 B12 Folate Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin A (RAE) Vitamin E Calcium Iron Magnesium Potassium Zinc Sodium

L 2.7 0 Kcals 0 1740 MACRONUTRIENTS g 54.43 0 g 191 0 g 50 0 g 37 0 g 17 0 g 12 0 g 1.1 0 VITAMINS mg 1.1 0 mg 1.1 0 mg 14 35 mg 1.3 100 mcg 2.4 0 mcg 400 1000 mg 75 2000 mcg 15 50 mcg mcg mg mg mg mg mg mg 700 3000 15 1000 MINERALS 1000 2500 18 45 310 350 4700 0 8 40 1500 2300

1.25 937.21 53.45 98.74 13.92 38 9.02 4.73 0.41 0.35 0.68 6.45 0.49 0.97 157.78 50.43 2.08 439.18 2.86 472.32 6.62 122.56 1139.25 2.88 2759.16

29 Perfect Plan Analysis (PPA) In comparing my WB4 dietary intake to my WB1 dietary intake, there is an evident change in how I modified my diet plan to reach my goals of incorporating healthier, nutritious foods. I was able to do this by overcoming all the deficiencies of nutrients I had in my WB1 dietary intake with the new diet plan in my WB4. I was deficient in every nutrient except for sodium. Thus, I increased the amount/percentage of each nutrient in my perfect diet plan by incorporating foods that were more nutrient dense and wholesome (i.e. salmon and enriched cereal). As for the sodium content, there was an excess amount consumed that reached 184% (2,759.16 mg total), as seen in my WB1 Intakes vs. Goals percentage column. According to the D.A.S.H plan, 2,300 mg of sodium is recommended, which is a lower amount than that seen in my WB1. Thus, with the perfect diet plan in WB4, I decided to lower the sodium content by choosing foods that were not from fast food chains (i.e. Mcdonald's Premium Chicken Salads and Hot Dog On A Stick's corn dogs) and eliminating processed meats (i.e. hot dog weiners and prepackaged deli meats). I was able to successfully decrease the sodium intake down to 88% in my WB4 diet plan. Furthermore, in the D.A.S.H plan, the other three minerals listed are magnesium, potassium, and calcium. Their recommended values are 500 mg, 4,700 mg, and 1,250 mg respectively. According to my WB4 diet plan, my top three food sources for these minerals are fat-free fortified milk, dry roasted almonds, and baked potato. Fat-free fortified milk has a high content of calcium, dry roasted almonds have a high content of magnesium, and baked potatoes have a high content of potassium. The aim of the D.A.S.H eating plan is to lower one's blood pressure by consuming less salt or sodium.

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SUPER FOODS MEAL PLAN USAGE 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Whole 100% Hard Dry Wheat Baked Seedless Whole Sunflower Banana Boiled Apple Roasted Blueberries Pita Potato Grapes Wheat seeds Eggs Almonds Chips Bagel 1 3 1 1 0.25 1 medium 1 oz. large medium medium cups 0.25 cups 0.5 cups bagel 0.25 cups DAY 1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 DAY 2 Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snack 1 Snack 2 Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snack 1 Snack 2 Total Used 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 DAY 3 1.0 1.0 1

List Super Food Portion Size Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snack 1 Snack 2

1.0 1.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

Use numbers and decimals for each food used to reflect the quantity and the meatime. Each must be used at least once.

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32 Super Foods 1. Hard Boiled Eggs How many times was this food used? 3 times Good nutrients: Omega-6 fatty acids, Thiamin, Vitamin B6, Folate Excellent nutrients: Protein, Vitamin A (RAE), Vitamin D, Vitamin B12, Riboflavin Why did you use this food? I chose hard boiled eggs because I know that they have a high amount of protein and enough fat to keep me energized during the day. They also have a good source of omega-6 fatty acids, thiamin, vitamin B6, and folate. 2. Banana How many times was this food used? 1 time Good nutrients: Carbohydrates, Fiber, Vitamin C Excellent nutrients: Vitamin B6 Why did you use this food? Bananas have a good source of carbohydrates, protein, and vitamin C. It also has an excellent source of vitamin B6. They are convenient as a quick to-go snack during any time of the day and can be incorporated into different types of meals like toast and peanut butter, which also includes a good amount of protein. 3. Whole Wheat Pita Chips How many times was this food used? 1 time Good nutrients: Carbohydrates Excellent nutrients: None Why did you use this food? Whole wheat pita chips make a good snack that is filled with complex carbohydrates and since they're whole wheat, they're filled with more nutrients (like iron, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin) which white bread lacks in. 4. Baked Potato How many times was this food used? 1 time Good nutrients: Fiber, Omega-6 fatty acids, Thiamin, Niacin, Folate Excellent nutrients: Carbohydrates, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C Why did you use this food? Baked potatoes contain many good and excellent nutrients that are beneficial to the body. They have an excellent source of vitamin B6, which helps in many bodily functions like the immunity function, brain development, converting tryptophan to niacin, and regulating blood glucose (1).

33 5. Apple

How many times was this food used? 1 time Good nutrients: Carbohydrates, Fiber, Vitamin C, Vitamin A (RAE) Excellent nutrients: None Why did you use this food? Apples are a convenient snack that are naturally sweet and are low in calories. They're also nutrient dense and have a lot of insoluble fiber which aids the digestive system by easing elimination of waste.

6. Dry Roasted Almonds How many times was this food used? 1 time Good nutrients: Protein, Fiber Excellent nutrients: Omega-6 fatty acids, Riboflavin Why did you use this food? Almonds are a good source of protein and fiber and are an excellent source of omega-6 fatty acids. The fiber allows me to feel fuller and the fat provides energy. 7. Blueberries How many times was this food used? 1 time Good nutrients: None Excellent nutrients: None Why did you use this food? Although my nutrient quality chart does not indicate any good or excellent sources for blueberries, blueberries still contain most of the nutrients important for our bodies. I had only added a of a cup of blueberries so if I had added a bigger portion size, I would have been able to attain more nutrients and antioxidants (which can fight against free radicals and slow down LDL oxidation). 8. Seedless Grapes How many times was this food used? 1 time Good nutrients: None Excellent nutrients: None Why did you use this food? The nutrient quality chart indicates there are no good or excellent sources of nutrients in grapes either. However, grapes contain all most of the nutrients and are very low in fats and sodium. I like to eat them as snack as they are naturally sweet and delicious! 9. 100% Whole Wheat Bagel How many times was this food used? 1 time Good nutrients: Carbohydrates Excellent nutrients: Fiber

34 Why did you use this food? Whole wheat bagels have a good source of carbohydrates and an excellent source of fiber. They are better than white bread because they contain more nutrients and are not refined like white bread. I sometimes like to eat a whole wheat bagel for breakfast because its convenient, tastes great, and contains fiber (a cup of whole wheat flour contains 15 grams of fiber!) which helps maintain the health of the digestive system.

10. Sunflower Seeds How many times was this food used? 1 time Good nutrients: Protein, Fiber, Niacin Excellent nutrients: Omega-6 fatty acids, Folate, Zinc Why did you use this food? Sunflower seeds contain many good and excellent nutrients that are vital for having a healthy diet and lifestyle. It is definitely rich in omega-6 fatty acids, which help in many bodily functions like supporting the immune system, assisting in gene regulation and promoting normal growth and vision. Theyre also beneficial for chronic health conditions like hypertension, cancer, or arthritis. Sunflower seeds are great as a snack and usually keep me full from the protein and omega-6 fatty acids they contain.

35 Farm to Table: #1 Super Food The super food that I chose and found to be quite interesting and unique is seaweed. Seaweed is a wild ocean plant, also known as marine algae, which inhabits all the oceans in the world. There are many species of sea vegetables, but only a few are consumed as human food. Seaweed offers a lot of benefits when it comes to maintaining a healthy lifestyle and it can be consumed in a variety of ways! Seaweed is rich in minerals and trace elements (including calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, iodine, manganese, chromium, etc.) which are at much higher concentrations per gram than plants found on land (6). They also contain vitamins, fiber, enzymes, and protein. Like all vegetables, they also contain phytochemicals which fight against free radicals or radioactive elements in our bodies (6). For example, brown kelps supply calcium, phosphorous, and iodine; they also have alginates that destroy cancer cells and remove heavy metals and radiation from our tissues (5). One of the main seaweed growers associations in the state is the Rising Tide Sea Vegetables company, which is located in Mendocino County in Northern California. The owners use the techniques of wildcrafting (gathering by hand in the wild), drying, and storing to harvest the sea vegetables. They are one of the few seaweed industries along the Pacific coast and only one of two companies in the U.S. that has a full range of local and imported seaweed products (4). For harvesting, they do not use machines, motor boats, or other equipment that could endanger the ocean environment. They collect the seaweed all by hand on coastal rocks. A typical harvest day begins before dawn, during the lowest tides of spring and summer (4). The owner, Larry Knowles, and other workers dress into wetsuits and pile their gear into a truck, in which they park as close to the ocean as possible. Because there are different seaweed species, each one grows differently and requires different harvesting equipment. With the Kambo species, they will unload wheelbarrows, a kayak, a kayak bundle, backpacks, knives, buckets, and large recycled bags (4). Someone will kayak out into the ocean and anchor it. Once they reach the perfect spot, they will go waist-deep into the water and use special cutting knives to harvest the Kombu seaweed. The blades of the seaweed are the only part that is cut off, leaving the rest of the length intact. This allows the plant to reproduce and keep growing. After collecting and loading all the seaweed into the kayak, they return to shore and wheelbarrow the seaweed to the truck. In the same morning, they sundry the seaweed on a drying surface. The next morning, they bag up the seaweed and store it in a cool storage room. Finally, the seaweed is ready to be packaged and shipped to consumers (4). In California, seaweed is mostly grown in the northern region of the state around Mendocino County and Nevada City. Many local grocery stores sell dry seaweed sheets (especially at Asian supermarkets like H Mart in Diamond Bar) at prices ranging from about $2.00 to $9.00, depending on the amount of seaweed purchased. As of recently, seaweed has been showing in the news and in one article, it says it is now commercially marketed in the UK for the first time! Rory MacPhee, the founder of the Seaweed Health Foundation, is the only person in the UK with the license from the Queen to gather dulse seaweed which comes at a high

36 price per kilogram. It is much sought after as a delicacy but it cannot be collected and sold without permission from landowners and environment agencies (7). MacPhees goal is to promote research into seaweed as a part of a healthy diet (7) and hopes consumers in the UK will enjoy the healthy wonders of seaweed.

37 Seaweed Recipe

38 My Plate Goal Grains Vegetables Fruits Dairy Protein Foods Empty Calories 6.0 oz. eq. 2.5 cup eq. 1.5 cup eq. 3.0 cup eq. 5.0 oz. eq. 195 Actual 2.0 oz. eq. 1.1 cup eq. 1.3 cup eq. 1.5 cup eq. 11.0 oz. eq. 172.7 % Goal 32.50% 43.60% 89.80% 48.90% 220.40% 88.60%

1. Grains I believe the quality of the information given by My Plate is not as consistent with my DRI goals as I would have desired. According to my My Plate analysis, I missed my goal for grains by 4 oz. eq. It is suggested that I make at least half my grains whole grains and to aim for at least 3 oz. eq. of whole grains. The reason why I had missed my goal by a large amount was mostly due to not putting in enough grains into my diet plan. Over the course of the 3day diet plan, most of my grains just consisted of 11 oz. of whole wheat pita chips, 1 whole wheat bagel, a cup of enriched oatmeal, and a cup of brown rice. Although I had included whole wheat grains, there is still room to incorporate more whole grains as well as other types of grains into my diet. I could also include more fiber-dense foods since the average amount of fiber I input is only about 20 grams. I can do this by adding more beans, nuts, fruits, and vegetables into my diet. More fiber will help lower blood cholesterol, reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, and slow the digestion of other carbohydrates. 2. Vegetables Unfortunately, according to my My Plate analysis, I did not reach my goal of 2.5 cups eq. I only input 1.1 cups eq. which is 43.60% of my overall vegetable intake. My vegetables included a cup of cauliflower, 1 cup of boiled green peas, 2 celery stalks, 1 cup of Caesar salad, 1 leaves of lettuce, and cup of sweet corn. My Plate suggests I should vary my vegetables every week ranging from 2-5.5 cups. I can do this by adding dark green vegetables, starchy vegetables, dry beans and peas, etc. If I add more vegetables, I will obtain

39 a good source of vitamins and minerals (like vitamin C and iron) as well as phytochemicals which can help prevent against chronic diseases. 3. Fruits According to my My Plate analysis, I had almost reached my goals for the fruits by 1.2 cups eq. I had 89.80% o of the recommended amount of fruits provided. I tried to include as much fruit as I could by adding in a banana, cup of grapes, a cup of orange juice, cup of blueberries, and an apple. Fruits are a good source of natural occurring sugars and a variety of nutrients and minerals. In the future, I will try to consume more fruits in variety because fruits not only provide nutrients but also provide phytochemicals (non-nutrient compounds in plant-derived foods that have biological activity in the body) which promote health and may fight against diseases. 4. Dairy I did not reach my goal of 3.0 cups eq. of the dairy recommended. The foods I only included from this group were fortified skim milk, low-fat plain yogurt, salad dressing and Provolone cheese throughout the 3-day diet. I can add more dairy products like cottage cheese as a snack or part of my breakfast meals. Dairy has a good source of vitamins and minerals (like vitamin A and calcium) as well as protein, so I should consider adding more diary into my diet. 5. Protein Foods I exceeded the recommended amount of protein by 6 oz. eq. or 220.40%. Much of the protein contributed from the salmon, the lean pork loin, the fortified skim milk, the hard boiled eggs and the sunflower seeds. Protein has a good source of iron and vitamin B12 but having too much protein can displace other important foods that have other vitamins and minerals like vitamin C and folate. Many protein-rich foods may also be high in calories. Thus, I can probably lower my protein intake by devoting at least one day per week to eating no meat or eating foods that are protein-rich and vitamin-rich (like legumes). 6. Empty Calories I almost reached my goal of 195 calories by about 22 calories. I consumed 172.7 empty calories which is a decent amount. Foods with empty calories have low nutrient density and usually have added sugar and a high amount of fat. Thus, it is satisfactory that the amount of empty calories consumed is at a low content.

40 Do you believe My Plate is a user friendly application that many can access? Yes, I do believe My Plate is a user friendly application that many can access. It is easy to navigate and find what you are looking for by using the given tabs or the search bar. It answers common questions people might have about food, physical activity, dieting, calories, etc. It also has healthy diet plans that are customized to fit each persons needs and goals to reach or maintain a healthy diet. There are also printed materials that help as a guide to knowing how to use MyPlate and how to portion size meals, according to each food group, on a plate.

41 Water While it is important to be careful and mindful about the food you consume daily, it is also important to focus on what you are drinking as well. Many overlook the consequences of calorie-dense beverages and only concentrate on foods when it comes to dieting or trying to lose weight. They don't realize how many calories are in those beverages and how that can affect their overall caloric intake. Calories from sweetened beverages can really add up, but by substituting those beverages with low-calorie or zero-calorie drinks can cut down your caloric intake by a large amount. This can mainly be done by drinking water, which has a lot of benefits when it comes to having a healthy diet and maintaining wellness. The need for better beverages is on the rise as the population of America is consuming more and more soft drinks, juices, and other beverages that are detrimental to ones health. According to Harvard School of Public Health, each 12-ounce can of sugary drink or juice typically has 10 to 12 teaspoons of sugar, and 150 or more calories (3) which, if consumed daily, can contribute to diabetes type 2 and obesity later or early on in life. Heart disease is also at risk if sweetened or calorie-dense beverages are being consumed daily. Although they taste delicious, they have immense negative consequences on the body. Choosing water is the best option because it has zero calories and lowers the total energy intake. According to the results of a study that was comparing drinking water to weight loss in overweight women, drinking water instead of caloric beverages was associated with a significant decrease in beverage calories and total energy intake that was maintained over time Considering that sweetened caloric beverages account for ~10% of total energy intake for US adults, recommendations to alter beverage intake might have significant public health impact(2). So by drinking water, the amount of caloric intake is decreased and body weight is easier to manage. This also decreases risk of chronic diseases like hypertension, asthma, arthritis, and high cholesterol. Furthermore, by drinking water in between meals, the body feels fuller and may be less inclined to eat more later during mealtimes. Healthy drinking should be made top priority in someones diet by opting for water or low-calorie beverages instead of sweetened beverages. Coffee and tea are also good alternatives that are still low in or have no calories and have added flavor. If juice is included into a meal plan instead of water, the calories and sugar per fluid ounce add up to the total calories consumed and thus, leads to an unnecessary high-calorie intake. In analyzing my WB1, I did not reach my DRI goal for water consumption (Intake: 1.25 L ; DRI goal: 2.7 L). I did not realize how much I was lacking in water intake and thus, I was able to increase my water intake by 1 L in my WB4. Overall, water is the best beverage choice to make in obtaining the least calories.

42 Fiber Carbohydrate-rich foods can be beneficial if theyre also rich in fiber. Fiber can benefit the body by promoting normal blood cholesterol levels, regulating blood glucose concentrations, sustaining a healthy bowel function, and maintaining a healthy body weight. These health benefits can be obtained by two different types of fiber soluble and insoluble fiber. Whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and legumes have a good source of these types of fiber and by including these foods to ones diet can sustain a healthier body. Fiber plays a major role in disease prevention, satiation, and weight management. Typically, foods rich in viscous, soluble fiber (like oats, apples, legumes, and celery) help slow the process of digestion and thus, promote a feeling of fullness, slow blood glucose absorption and lower LDL cholesterol levels. They also decrease the risk of heart disease and diabetes. On the other hand, foods rich in nonviscous, insoluble fiber (like whole grains, seeds, and carrots) add bulk to the stool, aid in digestion and elimination, as well as increase GI transit time. This can lead to a decreased risk of diverticulosis, hemorrhoids, and appendicitis. It also helps alleviate constipation. Both soluble and insoluble fibers promote weight loss by creating feelings of fullness and delaying hunger by absorbing water from the digestive juices. Theyre filled with nutrients that displace calorie-dense fats and sweets and therefore, can reduce the overall caloric consumption. If juice was included into a meal plan in reference to fiber, the full benefits of fiber would not be obtained because of the juicing process, which involves removing the fruits skin (8). The skin and the pulpy part of fruit have a lot of fiber and other nutrients that juice lacks (8). For example, with apple juice, it is clear because the pulp has been removed (8). The pulp makes up about 12 to 15 grams of dietary fiber if using 3 to 4 apples in the juicing process. Fruice juice that has been robbed of its fiber is basically just a concentrated source of sugar that lacks the supportive nutrients to help it digest and metabolize (8). Thus, fiber is an important nutrient that provides many advantages to the body so that it can sustain a longer, healthier life. Analysis of my WB1 and WB4 shows that I increased my fiber intake from 56% to 81% relatively. It is evident that my food choices from WB1 were greatly lacking in fiber and that most of my fiber intake was from the small amount of fruits and vegetables I had consumed over the course of the three days. Most of my WB1 diet consisted of protein and sodium. However, I was able to input more nutritious foods in my WB4 that were packed with fiber like the banana and hummus from Day 1 and the sunflower seeds and baked potato from Day 2. These foods helped boost my fiber levels and also increased my vitamin and mineral intake.

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WELLNESS NUTRIENT & ACTIVITY STRATEGIES

CARBOHYDRATE

PROTEIN

LIPIDS

FLUIDS

ACTIVITY

Limit white breads and starches

Choose leaner meats

Limit saturated and trans fats

Drink at least eight 8-oz. glasses of water per day

Try to do at least 2 hours and 30 minutes per week of moderately intense physical activity (i.e. swimming, jogging, tennis) Use any possible means to walk more (i.e. stop using the elevators and escalators, park farther from a store entrance, etc.)

Choose whole wheat food items

Limit consumption of red meats and processed meats

Consume more "good" fats like mono- and polyunsaturated fats

Try to drink a cup of water with every meal consumed

Eat carbohydrates that have a higher content of fiber

Eliminate protein foods that have a high content of saturated fat (i.e. bacon)

When cooking, use monounsaturated fat oils like canola oil and olive oil (it can lower LDL cholesterol)

Eliminate all sweetened beverages

Input strength training into my workouts to build muscle

Eliminate sugary desserts like pastries and candy

Implement more beans, nuts and soy products into meals or snacks

Maintain a balance of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids

Limit coffee consumption

Play games, like soccer or basketball, with friends and family outside on the weekends

Portion size the amount of carbohydrates that will be consumed (i.e. instead of eating 2 slices of pizza, only have one)

Do not make protein the center of a meal. A healthy meal has more vegetables/fruits and smaller portions of protein

Choose alternate options to foods high in fat (i.e. choose low-fat parmesan cheese instead of nacho cheese)

Bring a water bottle everywhere you go

Instead of driving to a local store or market; try walking, running, or biking there

44 My Wellness Life Maintaining a quality, healthy lifestyle is much more important to me now that I have learned what it means to be healthy in terms of food consumption and the biology of the human body. I have learned that many potential risks can be at stake if I continue to follow my poor, nutritious diet and a sedentary life. Although I may not be much at risk currently for diseases like heart disease, I should still take care of my health now for a better lifestyle in the long run. I am a 22-year-old female who is currently 57 tall and weighs about 150 pounds. I have noticed a gradual increase in weight since I was in middle school, due to poor choices in healthier foods and lack of physical activity. This is a trend I have seen in my family and relatives who live in Thailand. Although they eat food in smaller portions, they tend to choose less nutrient-dense foods and are indifferent towards leading healthier lives. A few of them currently have diabetes, cancer or are at risk for heart disease; some have even died from these diseases. Because of these unfortunate circumstances occurring within my family, it is clearer to me that my health could be endangered if I do not alter my inadequate eating habits. Fortunately, according to the 10-year risk for heart disease calculator, my risk score is less than 1% for obtaining a heart attack in the next 10 years. This is because I do not smoke nor take medication for high blood pressure. My total cholesterol is 235 mg/dL, my HDL cholesterol is 40 mg/dL, and my systolic blood pressure is about 125 mm/Hg. My values for blood pressure and cholesterol fall within the desired range of having less risk of heart disease. However, it is possible that these values could drastically increase or decrease in the future if I decide to continually consume more simple carbohydrates and sodium over fresh, whole nutritious foods. My wellness strategies for the next few years, and ultimately the rest of my life, include limiting my intake of refined carbohydrates, choosing leaner proteins, consuming good fats like mono- and polyunsaturated fats, drinking more water, and incorporating at least 2 hours and 30 minutes of exercise per week (cardio and strength training). I have already started to eat more complex carbohydrates (like brown rice) and less red meat. I have also started to cook with oils like canola and olive oil, which help to lower LDL cholesterol. I still need to increase my intake of water and I plan on doing that by bringing a water bottle with me wherever I go and asking for water at restaurants rather than ordering sweetened beverages. Sadly, I have not reached my requirements for physical activity. I plan to start off by exercising for about 20-30 minutes each day by either running or walking around the neighborhood, following an exercise video, or using the step machine that my parents bought recently. I also want to incorporate strength-training exercises into my fitness plan. I will try to be more active each week by taking the stairs instead of the elevators, walking to the store instead of driving there, or scheduling outdoor games with my friends. This will help improve not only my fitness level, but my overall well-being as well as decrease my risk of attaining diseases as I get older. Wellness is a top priority for me now because many negative health consequences can result if I do not sustain a balance of healthy eating and physical activity. Something that I have learned from class that I believe to be of value 20 years from now is that I can still eat the same

45 foods I eat now but in moderation. By limiting the less nutrient-dense foods and incorporating more vegetables and fruit into my diet, I will be able to live a healthier lifestyle in the many years to come. It is the choices I make that will either be detrimental or beneficial to my overall health. If it was not for this nutrition class, I would not have been more health conscious as I am now and by learning about food and its components, I am assured my choices in life will be geared to healthier ones.

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Bibliography 1. Sizer, Frances, and Ellie Whitney. Nutrition Concepts and Controversies. 10th ed. Thomson Wadsworth, 2006. 2. Stookey, Jodi D., Florence Constant, Barry M. Popkin, and Christopher D. Gardner. "Drinking Water Is Associated with Weight Loss in Overweight Dieting Women Independent of Diet and Activity." Obesity (Silver Spring) (2008): National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18787524>. 3. http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/healthy-drinks/focus/index.html 4. http://www.loveseaweed.com/default.html 5. http://pacificwildcraft.com/health.html 6. http://www.seaveg.com/shop/index.php?main_page=page&id=1&chapter=1#what are sv 7. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2232662/Seaweed-commercially-harvestedEngland-time-demand-soars-green-gold-restaurants.html 8. http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=george&dbid=24