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Mahanavaratna, Navaratna and Mini-ratna Enterprises

Dr.K.Trivikram The Board of Directors (BOD) of a Central Public Sector Enterprise (CPSE) exercise the delegated powers subject to broad policy guidelines issued by the Government from time to time. Keeping in view the pledge made in the then National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP), namely, that full managerial and commercial autonomy will be devolved to successful profit making companies operating in a competitive environment, the Government reviewed the powers delegated to the Board of Directors of Navratna, Miniratna and other profit making CPSEs, and substantially enhanced the delegated powers in August 2005. The overnment, furthermore, introduced the Maharatna scheme in December, 2009 with the objective to delegate enhanced powers to the Boards of identified large sized Navratna CPSEs so as to facilitate expansion of their operations, both in domestic as well as in global markets.

Maharatna Scheme
Delegation of powers to Maharatna CPSEs The Maharatna CPSEs, in addition to having Navratna powers, have been delegated additional powers in areas of investment in joint ventures/ subsidiaries and of human resources development.Accordingly, the Board of Maharatna CPSEs can decide to invest 5000 crore in one project (compared to ` 1,000 crore for Navartna CPSEs) and create below Board level posts upto E-9 level (compared to E-6 for Navratna CPSEs) without any approval from the higher authority 7.1.2 Eligibility criteria for grant of Maharatna status: CPSEs fulfilling the following criteria are eligible for consideration of Maharatna status:. a) Having Navratna status,b) Listed on Indian stock exchange, with minimum

prescribed public shareholding under SEBI regulations, c) An average annual turnover during the last 3 years of more than `25,000 crore, d) An average annual net worth during the last 3 years of more than `15,000 crore, e) An average annual net profit after tax during the last 3 years of more than `5,000 crore, f) Significant global presence or international operations
Maharatna CPSEs Until May, 2010, the Government had conferredMahratna status to 4 CPSEs namely, (i) Indian Oil Corporation Limited, (ii) NTPC Limited, (iii) Oil & Natural Gas Corporation imited and (iv) Steel Authority of India Limited..

Navratna scheme
Under this scheme, the Government has delegated enhanced powers to CPSEs having comparative advantage and the potential to become global players. Presently, there are 15 Navratna CPSEs as mentioned below: Criteria for Navratna Navratna status is conferred by Department of Public Enterprises. To be qualified as a Navratna, the company must obtain a score of 60 (out of 100). The score is based on six parameters which include net profit to net worth, total manpower cost to total cost of production or cost of services, PBDIT (Profit before Depreciation, Interest and Taxes) to capital employed, PBDIT to turnover, EPS (Earning Per Share) and inter-sectoral performance. Additionally, a company must first be a Miniratna and have four independent directors on its board before it can be made a Navratna. (i) Bharat Electronics Limited (ii) Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (iii) Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (iv) Coal India Limited (v) GAIL (India) Limited (vi) Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (vii) Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (viii) Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (ix) National Aluminium Company Limited (x) NMDC Limited (xi) Oil India Limited (xii) Power Finance Corporation Limited (xiii) Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (xiv) Rural Electrification Corporation Limited (xv) Shipping Corporation of India Limited Delegation of Powers to Navratna CPSEs: The powers delegated to the Board of Director of Navratna CPSEs are mentioned below:

(i) Capital Expenditure The Board of Navratna CPSEs have the powers to incur capital expenditure on purchase of new items or for replacement, without any monetary ceiling. (ii) Technology Joint Ventures and Strategic Alliances The Navratna CPSEs have the powers to enter into technology joint ventures or strategic alliances and obtain, by purchase or other arrangements, technology and know-how. (iii) Organizational Restructuring The Navratna CPSEs have the powers to effect organizational restructuring including establishment of profit centers, opening of offices in India and abroad, creating new activity centres, etc. (iv) Human Resource Management The Navratna CPSEs have been empowered to create and wind up all posts up to E-6 level and to make all appointments up to this level. The Boards of these CPSEs have further been empowered to effect internal transfers and re-designation of posts. The Board of Directors of Navratna CPSEs have the power to further delegate the powers relating to Human Resource Management (appointments, transfer, posting, etc.) of below.Board level executives to sub-committees of the Board or to executives of the CPSE, as may be decided by the Board of the CPSE (v) Resource Mobilization These CPSEs have been empowered to raise debt from the domestic capital markets and to borrow from international market, subject to the condition that approval of I/Department of Economic Affairs, (as may be required), will be obtained through the administrative Ministry. (vi) Joint ventures and Subsidiaries The Navratna CPSEs have been delegated powers to establish financial joint ventures and wholly owned subsidiaries in India or abroad with the stipulation that the equity investment of the CPSE should be limited to the following: (i) Rest. 1000 crore in any one project (ii) 15% of the net worth of the CPSE in one project, (iii) 30% of the net worth of the CPSE in all joint ventures/ subsidiaries put together. (vii) Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) The Navratna CPSEs have been delegated powers for mergers and acquisitions (M&A) subject to the conditions that (i) it should be as per the growth plan and in the core area of functioning of the CPSE, (ii) conditions/limits would be as in the case of establishing joint ventures/subsidiaries, and (iii) the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs CCEA)would be kept informed in case of investments abroad. Furthermore, the powers relating to M&A are to be exercised in such a manner that it should not lead to any change in the public sector character of the concerned CPSE. (viii) Creation/Disinvestment in subsidiaries

The Navratna CPSEs have the powers to transfer assets, float fresh equity and divest shareholding in subsidiaries subject to the condition that the delegation will be in respect of subsidiaries set up by the holding company under the powers delegated to the Navratna CPSEs, and further to the proviso that the public sector character of the concerned CPSE (including the subsidiary) will not be changed without prior approval of the Government. Such Navratna CPSEs will, moreover, be required to seek Government approval before exiting from their subsidiaries. (ix) Tours abroad of functional Directors The Chief Executives of Navratna CPSEs have been delegated powers to approve business tours abroad of functional directors up to 5 days duration (other than study tours, seminars, etc.) in emergency under intimation to the Secretary of he administrative Ministry. The above mentioned delegation of powers is, however, subject to the following conditions and guidelines: a) The proposals must be presented to the Board of Directors in writing and reasonably well in advance, with an analysis of relevant factors and quantification of the anticipated results and benefits. Risk factors, if any, must be clearly b) The Government Directors, the Financial Directors and the concerned Functional Director(s) must be present when major decisions are taken. especially when they pertain to investments, expenditure or organizational/ capital restructuring. c) The decisions on such proposals should, preferably, be unanimous. d) In the event of any decision on important matters not being unanimous, a majority decision may be taken, but at least two thirds of the Directors should be present, including those mentioned in (b) above, when such a decision is taken. The objections, dissents, the reasons for overruling them and those for taking the decision should be be recorded in writing and minuted. e) No financial support or contingent liability on the part of the Government should be involved. f) These CPSEs will establish transparent and effective systems of internal monitoring, including the establishment of an Audit Committee of the Board with membership of non-official Directors. g) All the proposals, where they pertain to capital expenditure, investment or other matters involving substantial financial or managerial commitments or where they may have a long term impact on the structure and functioning of the CPSE, should be prepared by or with the assistance of professionals and experts and should be appraised, in suitable cases, by financial institutions or reputed professional organizations with expertise in the areas. The financial appraisal should also preferably be backed by the involvement of the appraising institutions through loans or equity participation. h) The exercise of authority to enter into technology joint ventures and strategic alliances shall be in accordance with the Government guidelines as may be issued from time to time. i) The Boards of these CPSEs should be restructured by inducting at least four nonofficial Directors as the first step before the exercise of the enhanced delegation of authority.

j) These public sector enterprises shall not depend upon budgetary support or on Government guarantees. The resources for implementing their programmes should come from their internal or through other sources, including the capital markets. However, wherever Government guarantee is required under the standard stipulations of external donor agencies, the same may be obtained from the Ministry of Finance hrough the administrative Ministry. Such Government guarantee shall not affect the Navratna status. Further, budgetary support to implement Government sponsored projects of national interest and Government sponsored Research & Development (R&D) projects will not disqualify CPSEs from retaining their Navratna status. However, for such projects, investment decisions will be taken by the Government and not by the CPSE concerned.

Miniratna scheme
In order to make the promising profit making CPSEs more efficient and competitive, the Government decided in October 1997 to grant enhanced autonomy and delegation of financial powers to CPSEs subject to certain eligibility conditions. These CPSEs, known as Miniratnas, belong to two categories, that is, Category- I and Category-II. The ligibility conditions and criteria for category-I and category-II CPSEs are as under: i) Category-I CPSEs should have made profit in the last three years continuously, the pre-tax profit should have been `30 crores or more in at least one of the three years and should have a positive net worth. (ii) Category-II CPSEs should have made profit for the last three years continuously and should have a positive net worth. (iii) These CPSEs shall be eligible for enhanced delegated powers provided they have not defaulted in the repayment of loans/interest on any loans due to the Government. (iv) These public sector enterprises shall not depend upon budgetary support or Government guarantees. (v) The Boards of these CPSEs should be restructured by inducting at least three nonofficial Directors as the first step before the exercise of enhanced delegation of authority. (vi) The administrative Ministry concerned shall decide whether a CPSE fulfilled the requirements of a Category-I/Category- II Miniratna status before the exercise of enhanced powers.

Delegation of Powers to Miniratna CPSEs:


The decision-making powers delegated to the Board of Directors of these Miniratna CPSEs are as follows:

(i) Capital Expenditure: (a) For CPSEs in category I: The power to incur capital expenditure on new projects, modernization, purchase of equipment, etc.,without Government approval is upto ` 500 crore or equal to net worth, whichever is less.(b) For CPSEs in category II: The power to incur capital expenditure on new projects, modernization, purchase of equipment, etc., without Government approval is upto `250 crore or equal to 50% of the net worth, whichever is less. (ii) Joint ventures and subsidiaries : (a) Category I CPSEs: To establish joint ventures and subsidiaries in India with the stipulation that the equity investment of the CPSE in any one project should be limited to 15% of the networth of the CPSE or ` 500 crore, whichever is less. The overall ceiling on such investment in all projects put together is 30% of the networth of the CPSE. (b) Category II CPSEs: To establish joint ventures and subsidiaries in India with the stipulation that the equity investment of the CPSE in any one project should be 15% of the networth of the CPSE or ` 250 crore, whichever is less. The overall ceiling on such investment in all projects put together is 30% of the networth of the CPSE. (iii) Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A): The Board of Directors of these CPSEs have the powers for mergers and acquisitions, subject to the conditions that (a) it should be as per the growth plan and in the core area of functioning of the CPSE, (b) conditions/limits would be as in the case of establishing joint ventures/subsidiaries, and (c) the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) will be kept informed in case of investments abroad. Further, the powers relating to M&A are to be exercised in such a manner that it should not lead to any change in the public sector character of the concerned CPSE. (iv) Scheme for HRD The Board of Directors of these CPSEs have the power to further delegate the powers relating to Human Resource Management (appointments, transfer, posting, etc.) of below Board level executives to sub-committees of the Board or to executives of the CPSE, as may be decided by the Board of the Miniratna CPSE. (v) Tour abroad of functional Directors: The Chief Executive of Miniratna CPSEs have the power to approve business tours abroad of functional directors up to 5 days duration (other than study tours, seminars, etc.) in emergency, under intimation to the Secretary of the administrative Ministry. (vi) Technology Joint Ventures and Strategic Alliances:

The Board of Miniratna CPSEs have the power to enter into technology joint ventures, strategic alliances and to obtain technology and knowhow by purchase or other rrangements, subject to Government guidelines as may be issued from time to time. (vii) Creation/Disinvestment in subsidiaries: The Board of these CPSEs have the power to transfer assets, float fresh equity and divest shareholding in subsidiaries subject to the condition that the delegation will be in respect of subsidiaries set up by the holding company under the powers delegated to the Miniratna CPSEs, and further to the proviso that the public sector character of the concerned CPSE (including subsidiary) would not be changed without prior approval of the Government, and that such Miniratna CPSEs will be required to seek Government approval before exiting from the subsidiaries. The above delegation of powers is subject to similar conditions as are applicable to Navratna CPSEs. List of Maharatna, Navratna and Miniratna CPSEs (as on 20th July, 2011) Maharatna CPSEs 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Coal India Limited Indian Oil Corporation Limited NTPC Limited Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Limited Steel Authority of India Limited

Miniratna Category - I CPSEs 1. Airports Authority of India 2. Antrix Corporation Limited 3. Balmer Lawrie & Co. Limited 4. Bharat Dynamics Limited 5. BEML Limited 6. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited 7. Bridge & Roof Company (India) Limited 8. Central Warehousing Corporation 9. Central Coalfields Limited 10. Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited 11. Cochin Shipyard Limited 12. Container Corporation of India Limited 13. Dredging Corporation of India Limited 14. Engineers India Limited 15. Ennore Port Limited 16. Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Limited 17. Goa Shipyard Limited 18. Hindustan Copper Limited 19. HLL Lifecare Limited 20. Hindustan Newsprint Limited 21. Hindustan Paper Corporation Limited 22. Housing & Urban Development Corporation Limited

23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.

India Tourism Development Corporation Limited Indian Railway Catering & Tourism Corporation Limited IRCON International Limited KIOCL Limited Mazagaon Dock Limited Mahanadi Coalfields Limited Manganese Ore (India) Limited Mangalore Refinery & Petrochemical Limited Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited MMTC Limited MSTC Limited National Fertilizers Limited National Seeds Corporation Limited NHPC Limited Northern Coalfields Limited Numaligarh Refinery Limited ONGC Videsh Limited Pawan Hans Helicopters Limited Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited RITES Limited SJVN Limited Security Printing and Minting Corporation of India Limited South Eastern Coalfields Limited State Trading Corporation of India Limited Telecommunications Consultants India Limited THDC India Limited Western Coalfields Limited WAPCOS Limited

Miniratna Category-II CPSEs 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. Bharat Pumps & Compressors Limited Broadcast Engineering Consultants (I) Limited Central Mine Planning & Design Institute Limited Ed.CIL (India) Limited Engineering Projects (India) Limited FCI Aravali Gypsum & Minerals India Limited Ferro Scrap Nigam Limited HMT (International) Limited HSCC (India) Limited India Trade Promotion Organisation Indian Medicines & Pharmaceuticals Corporation Limited M E C O N Limited National Film Development Corporation Limited National Small Industries Corporation Limited P E C Limited Rajasthan Electronics & Instruments Limited

Other profit making CPSEs


Those CPSEs which have shown a profit in each of the 3 preceding accounting years and have a positive net worth are categorized as other profit making CPSEs. These CPSEs have been delegated enhanced powers as mentioned below (i) Capital Expenditure These CPSEs have the power to incur capital expenditure up to ` 150 crore or equal to 50% of the net worth, whichever is less. The above delegation is subject to the following conditions: (a) inclusion of the project in the approved Five Year Plan and Annual Plans and the outlays provided for; (b) the required funds can be found from the internal resources (IR) of the company and extra budgetary resources (EBR) and the expenditure is incurred on schemes included in the capital budget approved by the Government. (ii) Tours abroad of functional Directors The Chief Executive of these CPSEs have the power to approve business tours abroad of functional directors up to 5 days duration (other than study tours, seminars, etc.) in emergency, under intimation to the Secretary of the administrative Ministry. In all other cases including those of Chief Executive, tours abroad will continue to require the prior approval of the Minister of the Administrative Ministry/ Department.