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Angeles University Foundation College of Allied Medical Professions

Genus Mycobacterium
General Characteristics, Clinical Significance Pathogenicity and Identification

2012
David, Bryan S.
Nacpil, Joshua Rei V. Villanueva, Missy Tyler, Gristine Francina

Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology Third Year-Section B, 1st Semester A.Y. 2012-2013

Genus Mycobacterium
General Characteristics, Clinical Significance
David, Bryan S. Villanueva, Missy

Pathogenicity and Identification

Nacpil, Joshua Rei V. Tyler, Gristine Francina

I.

Introduction

The genus Mycobacterium, the only genus of the family Mycobacteriaceae, are very thin, rod-shaped and non-motile organisms. Unlike other microorganisms, they are not stain with Gram Staining, it is by the Acid-Fast staining. Their growth is also shown as very slow, with colonies becoming visible in 2-60 days at optimum temperature. Approximately, there are more than 100 recognized or proposed species in the genus Mycobacterium. The two most common and known species of Mycobacterium are M. tuberculosis and M. leprae, causative agent for tuberculosis and Hansen disease or leprosy. The genus Mycobacterium is divided to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex and NonTuberculous Mycobacterium.

II.

General Characteristics

Mycobacteria are slender, slightly curved or straight, rod-shaped organisms. They are also non-motile and non-spore formers. Due to the high lipid content of its cell wall, it doesnt stain with common basic aniline dyes. Instead, they are subjected to longer exposure or applied heating to promote the taking up of dyes, however, the resist decolorization with acid-ethanol, thus the Acid-Fastness is termed. This is the basic characteristics of Mycobacterium to differentiate them between other genera. Mycobacteria are strictly aerobic, but increased carbon dioxide will enhance the growth of some species. These microorganisms are growing slowly, the rapidly growing species grow in 2-3 days, and others grow 2-6 weeks of incubation. One of the mycobacteria pathogenic for humans, M.leprae, fails to grow in vitro.

Genus Mycobacterium
General Characteristics, Clinical Significance
David, Bryan S. Villanueva, Missy

Pathogenicity and Identification

Nacpil, Joshua Rei V. Tyler, Gristine Francina

III. Clinical Significance

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the most common cause of human tuberculosis. Inhalation of a single viable organism has been shown to lead to infection. Disease usually occurs some years after initial infection.

Mycobacterium bovis, produces TB primarily in cattle. These species of Mycobacterium is closely related to M. tuberculosis, putting it under the MTB complex.

Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria

Mycobacterium kansasii causes a chronic pulmonary disease, similar to tuberculosis that rarely disseminates.

Mycibacterium marinum is associated with skin infections occurring as red to blue lesions. Swimming pool granuloma, a more serious form of the infection, involves the formation of nodules on the elbows, knees, toes, or fingers. These nodules may ulcerate. Those at increased risk of infection include fisherman and lifeguards. . Infection most often

results from contact with poorly chlorinated or unchlorinated fresh or salt water. Water sources that may harbor M. marinum include swimming pools, fish aquariums, and water-cooling towers.

Mycobacterium simiae is a rare cause of pulmonary infections, which may disseminate into the blood. A rare cause of pulmonary infections, which may disseminate into the blood.

Genus Mycobacterium
General Characteristics, Clinical Significance
David, Bryan S. Villanueva, Missy

Pathogenicity and Identification

Nacpil, Joshua Rei V. Tyler, Gristine Francina

Mycobacterium scrofulaceum causes cervical adenitis in children, bacteremia, pulmonary disease, skin infections. The sources are from contaminated raw milk, soil, water,

and dairy products.

Mycobacterium szulgai are isolated as an agent in pulmonary (predominantly in middleaged men), cervical adenitis, bursitis and cutaneous disease.

Mycobacterium xenopi are primarily pulmonary infections in adults. Less common; extrapulmonary infections (bone, lymph nodes, sinus tract) and disseminated disease.

Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAI). The infection has been found most frequently in AIDS patients, and the disease usually involves the GIT. Lesions have also been found to involve in the lungs, liver and spleen of AIDS patients.

Mycobacterium malmoense are rare agent of pulmonary disease.

Mycobacterium haemophilum are agent of subcutaneous lesions, ulcers, and abscesses in immunosupressed patients.

Mycobacterium leprae is the causative agent of Hansen disease or Leprosy, an infection of the skin, mucous membranes and peripheral nerves.

Genus Mycobacterium
General Characteristics, Clinical Significance
David, Bryan S. Villanueva, Missy

Pathogenicity and Identification

Nacpil, Joshua Rei V. Tyler, Gristine Francina

IV.

Identification

Genus Mycobacterium
General Characteristics, Clinical Significance
David, Bryan S. Villanueva, Missy

Pathogenicity and Identification

Nacpil, Joshua Rei V. Tyler, Gristine Francina

Genus Mycobacterium
General Characteristics, Clinical Significance
David, Bryan S. Villanueva, Missy

Pathogenicity and Identification

Nacpil, Joshua Rei V. Tyler, Gristine Francina

References:

Mahon, Lehman, Manuselis, Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology, 4th ed. 2011 Forbes, Sham, Weissfeld, Bailey and Scotts Diagnostic Microbiology 12th ed. 2007